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Contemporary Security Management, 3rd Edition teaches security professionals how to operate an efficient security department and how to integrate smoothly with other groups inside and outside their own organizations. Fay demonstrates the specifics of security management: * how to organize, plan, develop and manage a security operation. * how to identify vulnerabilities. * how to determine the protective resources required to offset threats. * how to implement all necessary physical and IT security measures. ...
Contemporary Security Management, 3rd Edition teaches security professionals how to operate an efficient security department and how to integrate smoothly with other groups inside and outside their own organizations. Fay demonstrates the specifics of security management: * how to organize, plan, develop and manage a security operation. * how to identify vulnerabilities. * how to determine the protective resources required to offset threats. * how to implement all necessary physical and IT security measures. Security professionals share the responsibility for mitigating damage, serving as a resource to an Emergency Tactical Center, assisting the return of business continuity, and liaising with local response agencies such as police and fire departments, emergency medical responders, and emergency warning centers. At the organizational level, the book addresses budgeting, employee performance, counseling, hiring and termination, employee theft and other misconduct, and offers sound advice on building constructive relationships with organizational peers and company management.
Contemporary Security Management serves as an indispensable working tool for students and security professionals at all levels of experience. It is designed to provide the hard facts on modern practices to efficiently and effectively run a security department and covers such vital topics as: leadership in management, employee relations, risk management and mitigation, terrorism, information security, access control, investigations, substance abuse, workplace violence and emergency management. New topics covered include terrorism and the new government mandate to perform standard vulnerability assessments for various industries. Offers an experience-proven, practical approach to the business of security
* Includes case studies throughout the text provide real-world examples and solutions to management issues.
* Contains samples of security plans and procedures, checklists, diagrams and illustrations aid in explaining a wide range of critical concept
What You Will Learn
The effect of the Industrial Revolution on modern-day security management.
The impact on security management of technological advances.
An understanding of how the theory of scientific management improved labor productivity.
How the discipline of operations research relates to teamwork.
The impact of project management on security organizations.
The nature of the security industry today.
Aristotle is reported saying, If you would understand anything, observe its beginning and its development. This chapter will briefly look back to the beginning of the security industry, take note of its development through present time, and modestly predict the part it will play in the future.
Efforts to organize human work have existed at least since people started living in tribes, but few descriptions of managed work were recorded before 200 years ago. Before then, work activities were fairly simple and involved relatively small groups. Typically, the workplace was a single room containing raw materials, simple tools, a craftsman, and an apprentice. The craftsman was the equivalent of today's line supervisor, a skilled and knowledgeable practitioner of a trade. The apprentice was not difficult to manage because the tasks he performed relied on low levels of technology. The apprentice learned mainly by observing the craftsman and by accepting direct supervision.
The Industrial Revolution
The early beginning of American security came out of England. In 1655, Oliver Cromwell set up in England and Wales a police force that operated along military lines. Its principal duty was to capture and punish criminals. Henry Fielding, a magistrate in London, introduced the concept of crime prevention in 1748 (as cited in Volume 1: Understanding Crime Prevention). Instead of waiting for crime to occur, Fielding wanted to prevent crime ahead of time. He organized citizen patrols that came to be known as "runners" because they often chased criminals through back alleys.
Two hundred years later, the full British approach to police work came to American shores with vast numbers of immigrants from England, Ireland, and Scotland. Faced with rampant crime in U.S. cities, law enforcement had little time and few resources to give to the protection of private property. The owners of such property turned to private individuals, some of whom came to the job armed and prepared to deal with criminals and some whose duty was to watch for trouble and to give a "hue and cry" when it appeared. The watchman form of security was an earlier version of security practices that endure to this day.
The Industrial Revolution brought new challenges to security. They began in Europe in the late eighteenth century and spread quickly to the United States. Smith (1904) in The Wealth of Nations, stole a glance into the future when he recognized the great increase in work output offered by the use of machines.
The United States provided fertile ground for cultivating a system of mechanized factories. Funds needed to form large manufacturing companies were willingly provided by affluent investors. The lack of tariff barriers between the states, coupled with an expanding network of roadways and waterways, facilitated large-scale movements of mass-produced goods. Nature's generous endowment assured a large and dependable supply of raw materials. The advent of the steel plow opened the West to agricultural production, and the factories that produced farm equipment and other work-enhancing machines provided jobs that attracted large numbers of people to urban-industrial centers.
Growth of Factories
The growth of the factory system led to mass employment, which in turn provided incomes that made mass consumption possible. Consumer demand enabled mass production to prosper. At the same time, improvements made in agricultural techniques freed a large part of the workforce from food production. With abundant farmland and industrial raw materials, the young American republic developed a balance of agriculture and industry.
As the production of goods migrated from small workshops to large factories, many more people were engaged, each working on only one part of the manufactured product and having little contact with employees making the other parts. This marked the beginning of specialization of labor, which introduced new requirements for managing production. Coordination of separate work efforts was essential and at the same time difficult to achieve.
The absence of recorded references to management practices cloud the Industrial Revolution and the ensuing changes it fostered. Although managers likely discussed among themselves common problems, including security problems, little or no exchanges of ideas in writing were circulated or passed on to their industry counterparts and succeeding managers. Later, however, descriptions of management practices began to appear mainly in the professional journals of management societies. The faint outlines of a management movement began to unfold.
The Industrial Revolution largely began in Great Britain and Europe during the late eighteenth century and was of great importance to the follow-on economic development of the United States. In essence, the movement was a change from hand and home production to machine and factory, which gave impetus to the inventions of spinning and weaving machines operated by water power. Before long, water power was replaced by steam power and eventually electric power.
Along with America's growth came a change in its society, economy, and the ways in which the great industrialists regarded protection of the assets they had created and accumulated. It became clear that for everything of value there is the risk of it being stolen, damaged, or destroyed. In 1855, Allan Pinkerton formed what is now known as Pinkerton Consulting and Investigations, a division of the Swedish security firm Securitas AB. Pinkerton recognized that industrial assets needed protection as America transformed to a nation of modern urban-industrial cities. He formed an agency specializing in the investigation of theft, counterfeiting, and employee malfeasance. His employers were large companies and the federal government, and during the Civil War, Pinkerton's agency engaged in spying for the Union Army.
Industrialization in America moved at a fast pace, involving four important developments. First, transportation was expanded. Second, electricity was effectively harnessed. Third, improvements were made to industrial processes. Lastly, the government helped protect American manufacturers by passing a protective tariff.
As industrialization, along with the recognition of security as an industrial tool, became rooted in the American economy, a new development arose from the need to improve production at a lesser cost. Heyel (1982) proposed a practical theory to analyze and synthesize workflows, with the objective of improving labor productivity. The theory came to be known as scientific management. Heyel (1982) credited Taylor (1911) for his pioneering work using a scientific method of logical inquiry to experiment with work methods in search of better ways to perform jobs more efficiently at a lower cost. Taylor (1911) observed that workers were pretty much free to carry out their job assignments at their own paces by their own methods.
Although not all the principles that came to be known as scientific management originated with Taylor (1911), he brought the standard principles of his time into a comprehensible whole, put them into operation, and verified that they worked. Taylor (1911) stressed that his concepts provided a method for labor and management to work together. Taylor's pioneering efforts, however, were widely misunderstood at the time.
He is often referred to as the Father of Scientific Management, but he was not the only expert in this area. Among others, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth developed the principles of motion study, through which jobs were broken into component movements and studied so that wasted motions and fatigue could be reduced.
Similar management research was taking place in Europe as well. Henri Fayol, chief executive of a large French mining and metallurgical firm, studied management from the top down, with emphasis on overall administration. He published widely on management practices applicable to industrial and governmental organizations.
In 1937, efforts to apply hard science to management led to the development of a separate discipline called operations research in the United Kingdom. By 1942, spurred by the pressing demands of World War II, all three of Britain's military services were engaged in operations research. Given the war effort, and learning from the British experience, the United States committed heavily to the use of the approach in the industrial environment, using security methods to enhance secrecy. With the advent of the computer in the early 1950s, operations research, and its concomitant dedication to security protection, took on an entirely new dimension.
Operations research has three pillars: a systems approach to problem solving, the use of teams from many disciplines, and the application of scientific methods. The systems approach recognizes that an effect on one part of a system will have an effect on the behavior of the system as a whole. It is the interaction between parts, and not the actions of one or a few parts, that determines how well or how poorly the system performs. The use of interdisciplinary teams brings expertise to the work, much of which involves the application of highly technical analyses and mathematical modeling.
Operations research brought about significant change in problem-solving techniques. Computers and other scientific tools capable of dealing with large and complex problems are routinely used for business purposes, requiring the modern manager to have strong quantitative skills and an appreciation of protecting the employer's information assets.
According to Mango (2008), project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. It is the methodology by which a security organization can manage change and rationalize its operations by:
Ensuring that limited resources are used correctly.
Focusing employees in achieving change.
Organizing change sensibly.
Calculatingrisks,defininggoals,settingachievableobjectives,andidentifyingthe early indicators of success and failure.
Change in the sense used here can apply to many kinds of projects such as reorganizing staff, altering work practices and procedures, implementing a new technology, and acquiring and installing sophisticated equipment. For example, project management can significantly aid acquisition of electronic access control systems and intrusion detection systems, all of which have their origins in state-of-the-art security technology.
Mango (2008) addressed the leadership aspect of project management when he said that leading is a key element, because project management requires leaders who can influence others to act in ways that will improve chances of project success. This might sound a simple undertaking, but it is not. Influencing others is difficult because people are different. Each individual and even business entities have their own unique interests, values, concerns, and backgrounds that require special attention and focus on the part of the leader, i.e., security or project manager, to successfully influence acceptance and installation of automated security systems. Another consideration related to leading is that leaders also should not try to influence others at all costs. For long-term success, leading should be on the basis of solid values and ethics. Leadership to succeed long term should be on the basis of a win-win mindset and fair treatment. Coercive and authoritarian approaches seldom serve project purposes, given the uniqueness of the stakeholders in the projects and the different ways they are affected. For example, relying on authoritarian style will get the project leader nowhere as she or he has no direct authority over the end user and project stakeholders. So, the project manager should be able to apply various forms of power to influence others, including expertise, reward, delegation of authority, and limited permission to commit funds.
At this point, the organization's chief security officer (CSO), an expert in security, began to be invited to join the project team in projects with security implications, and after the project had been completed, ensure that the final result met security specifications.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique
A tool used in project management is the program evaluation and review technique (PERT) because it can aid in planning, evaluating, and controlling the interrelated tasks of the project (as cited by Archibald and Villoria, 1967). The central idea of PERT is to manage a project step by step from beginning to end in the shortest time possible. An example of a PERT chart is shown in Figure 1–1.
Project tasks rarely move in a straight line (called the critical path) because some tasks are difficult and take longer to complete than others. To maintain steady progress along the critical path, the difficult task is moved off the critical path and when completed, linked to a related task. At one point or another, all tasks join the critical path on or before the project ending date. Because time is a crucial factor, the project manager may dedicate greater resources to the difficult tasks to keep them on schedule.
It is interesting to note that modern CEOs use a PERT-like approach in implementing security projects that involve significant cost, dedication of several security group members, and a time table for completion.
Age of Technology
In the early craft shop environment, tasks were performed with humans controlling the process and providing the energy to perform the work. In the transition to mass production, people controlled the operation of machines directly but the energy was provided by another source such as electrical energy. The next improvement was automatic control in which the machine could sense its manipulations, compare them to preset requirements, and adjust accordingly. Today's automated systems provide instructions to machines that comply and provide feedback. An example of satellite technology, which is common to the security field, is shown in Figure 1–2.
Without question, one of the greatest triumphs of technology was the electronic computer, and business was profoundly changed as a result. Many of the early applications were to mechanize routine clerical operations, such as payroll and accounting. As software advanced, so did the use of computers in performing more difficult work tasks such as controlling entry to restricted areas through the use of biological identification and operation of security control centers that monitor movement and signal unusual occurrences.
Computer-controlled equipment can make decisions on the basis of signals generated at the points of production. For example, automatic material-handling equipment can move objects to varying locations; robots can perform operations on the items being produced; and machines equipped with racks of tools and automatic tool changers can carry out commands, all without human intervention.
While technology can be used to improve efficiency and productivity, much can be gained from new management practices. The concept of just-in-time (JIT) production, which originated in Japan, is an example. JIT is founded on the simple notion that costs can be avoided by employing a minimum inventory. Companies operating in this way coordinate their operations so that one work center produces only what is required by subsequent work centers; production is timed to occur at the moment when the necessary components arrive. Successful implementation of JIT requires reliable sources of supplies and effective preventive maintenance to avoid line breakdowns.
Excerpted from Contemporary Security Management by John J. Fay Copyright © 2011 by Elsevier, Inc.. Excerpted by permission of Butterworth-Heinemann. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Chapter 1: Historical Roots Chapter 2: Organizing Chapter 3: Managing People Chapter 4: Leadership and Management Skills Chapter 5: Strategy Chapter 6: Budget Management Chapter 7: Managing Change Chapter 8: Making Decisions Chapter 9: Managing Risk Chapter 10: Managing Guard Operations Chapter 11: Managing Physical Security Chapter 12: Managing Access Control Chapter 13: Managing Investigations Chapter 14: Pre-employment Screening Chapter 15: Emergency Management Chapter 16: Business Continuity Planning Chapter 17: Information Security Chapter 18: Substance Abuse Prevention Chapter 19: Executive Protection Chapter 20: Workplace Violence Chapter 21: Employee Awareness Chapter 22: Security Vulnerability Assessment Chapter 23: Security System Design Chapter 24: Homeland Security Chapter 25: The Critical National Infrastructure