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  • Presents a combined view of content and wireless technologies useful to both the industry and academia
  • Offers a good mix of theory and practice to understand the internal working of the wireless/mobile content delivery networks
  • Bridges the gap between the wireless and content research communities
  • Focuses not only on the latest technology enablers for speedier content delivery in the mobile Internet, but also on how to integrate them to provide workable end-to-end solutions
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"…an integrated view of both content and wireless technologies, filling the gap between the material taught at the university and expertise needed to succeed in industry." (International Journal of General Systems, June 2005)

"…this essential handbook is strongly recommended for academic and corporate engineering libraries." (E-STREAMS, March 2005)

"…the book is professionally written. It will be of real help to people with an interest in content delivery applications." (Computing, March 8, 2005)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471466185
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 9/10/2004
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 547
  • Product dimensions: 6.46 (w) x 9.41 (h) x 1.25 (d)

Meet the Author

Sudhir S. Dixit received his Ph.D. degree in EE from the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland. He also received an M.B.A. degree from Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida. Dr. Dixit is currently a Senior R&D; Manager and a Site Manager at Nokia Research Center in Burlington, Massachusetts. His main areas of interest are mobile/wireless Internet, optical networks, and content delivery networks. He has held various engineering and management positions at major companies, e.g., Verizon, GTE, Motorola, Wang, Harris, and STL (now Nortel Europe Labs). He has published or presented over 150 papers and has 27 patents either granted or pending. He has been a Technical co-Chair and a General Chair of the IEEE International Conference on Computer, Communications and Networks, a Technical co-Chair of the SPIE Conference Terabit Optical Networking, a General Chair of the Broadband Networking in the Next Millennium Conference in 2001, and a General co-Chair of the OptiComm 2002 conference. He has also been an ATM Forum Ambassador since 1996. He has served as a guest editor in IEEE Network, IEEE Communications Magazine, and Optical Networks Magazine published by SPIE/Kluwer. He has been a Lightwave Series editor of the IEEE Communications Magazine, and is currently on the editorial board of the newly announced IEEE Optical Communications Magazine. He is also on the Editorial Board of the Wireless Personal Communications Journal, the International Journal on Wireless and Optical Communications, and the Journal of Communications and Networks.

Tao Wu is a Senior Research Engineer at Nokia Research Center in Burlington, Massachusetts, leading Nokia's research effort in content delivery since 1999. Tao has published more than ten papers in the areas of mobile content networking, quality of service and human machine interaction, and holds several pending patents. He is a technical program committee member of the IEEE International Conference on Communications 2003. Tao received his master and bachelor degrees from Rice University and Tsinghua University respectively.

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Read an Excerpt

Content Networking in the Mobile Internet

John Wiley & Sons

Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0-471-46618-2

Chapter One


SUDHIR DIXIT and TAO WU Nokia Research Center Burlington, Massachusetts


The mobile wireless and Internet are clearly driving the need for more content that is varied, customizable, and available anywhere, anytime, and at low cost. With the penetration of mobile devices reaching 60% or more in many countries, it is only natural that an increasing number of people will access the Internet and invoke services and applications from such tetherless devices. From a business perspective, an interconnected population of over 6 billion worldwide presents vast opportunities at a time where distance is rapidly losing its significance. The universal availability of content and related services, including delivery, distribution, adaptation, management, and charging, will be critical for the success of the mobile Internet.

Human factors studies suggest that a delay of more than 8 seconds in the delivery of the content can easily result in either lost sale or permanent abandonment of the site and/or content by the user. In fixed-access networks, various content delivery techniques are already in use to enhance user experience; however, when the access is through the air interface with mobility, new issues and challenges ofperformance need to be dealt with. In addition, the mobility provides the dimensions of location and context that can be leveraged to enable enhanced performance and more meaningful services to the user. Although the mobile Internet is in its nascent stage, the explosive growth is yet to come when real-time multimedia applications become pervasive and as the need to access information anywhere anytime grows. Nonetheless, the air interface will continue to be a limited and unreliable resource, and, when combined with the slowdown in the telecom (telecommunications) market and deferred infrastructure upgrades, it is even more important to develop tools and techniques that will enhance the user experience with no or minimum requirements on upgrading network protocols and infrastructure. These solutions will target the manner in which the content is managed (in terms of storage, value-added services, search, distribution, consistency, adaptation, digital rights management, and charging) and delivered to enhance performance (latency, reliability, efficiency) and usability. In a nutshell, the development of future mobile networks will be driven, in large part, by content and Web-based services, and user experience. These are essentially the topics that are covered in this book.


Before answering the question of what is content networking in the mobile Internet, we must first define the keywords: content, content networking, and the mobile Internet. Content typically refers to any sharable object in any of its manifestations that a user is interested in. Networking as a general term is well understood, and refers to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) or the transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) layered models. Layers 1-3 (physical [right arrow] data data link [right arrow] network) provide the communication infrastructure of conduits and routing methodologies to deliver packets from one end to the other end regardless of the contents of those packets. Content networking generally refers to the tools and techniques that operate at the layer above the networking layer where the networking decisions are based on the content contained in the communication pipes and packets to satisfy the expectations of the users, operators, and the content providers. Such complex tools and techniques reside at the middleware that provides the important glue between the network infrastructure and the services and applications. The content networking middleware provides the necessary hooks in a commonly understood and documented manner to enable application and service developers and content providers to focus on their respective domains and optimize their goals and objectives to satisfy their users. To end users, content networking offers an environment where they have optimized and seamless experience in creating, sharing, managing, and consuming multimedia content. The main focus of this book is on content networking, as illustrated through a simple diagram in Figure 1.1. Nevertheless, there is sufficient background information provided at the lower layers (TCP/UDP/IP, link layer, and physical layer) to the extent that it is relevant to understanding the content networking in the mobile Internet.

In the mobile Internet, mobility can be regarded as another window to the Internet where the access is provided over the air via an access point, and mobility is afforded by locating a user's position and handovers from one access point to the other depending on the coverage. For any technology to be successful, the user experience has to be positive, and this is indeed the case with the mobile Internet today. The inherent unreliability and low bandwidth in the wireless access call for even more innovations at all layers of the protocol stack. In the wireless world of the future, since the mobile devices must be small and lightweight, there are additional challenges of local content storage, delivery, discovery, adaptation, and content presentation. Looking beyond these challenges, however, mobile terminals are personal devices that users carry almost all the time, and hold the promise of becoming the interface of choice for users to interact with the rich content environment, as shown in Figure 1.2, which depicts devices surrounding a user's immediate proximity (shown by the inner circle), which when interconnected, constitute a personal area network (PAN) or body area network (BAN). These devices could share content and/or services. The outer circle shows the wide area network (WAN) that interconnects the world of personal communications with the rest of the world (cyberworld) in a seamless manner. The content network is an overlay network over the existing IP infrastructure that provides the logical connectivity between the users' devices and the network elements. Any collaboration level infrastructure is the subset of the content network and largely leverages the capabilities and features of the middleware and application layer (e.g., multiplayer games, collaborative business applications).

Content delivery networks (CDNs) are often misunderstood for content networking. They are in fact a subset of content networking, and their main purpose is to distribute the content across the global Internet so as to reduce network latency and maximize availability, scalability, and flexibility. CDNs offer the desired feature of providing quality of service (QoS) guarantees at the application layer. The CDNs provide different cost-performance tradeoffs and are targeted for different market segments. The content delivery network service providers made their foray around 1999 by offering-which was then a revolutionary step-to move content across the Internet and serve it from the network edge. This technology is expected to become more intelligent and complex as the Internet becomes more mobile- and Web-enabled.

Because many of the enabling technologies to enhance the user experience in mobile content networking are strongly intertwined, including the Web as one of the dominant communication platforms and user interfaces, it is difficult to focus in depth on each and every aspect. Rather, we focus on the key technologies that provide the foundations to build a content networking infrastructure to suit the individual requirements and expectations. Next, we provide a brief overview of the various topics covered in this book.


1.3.1 Chapter 2: Mobile Internet Architecture Overview

This chapter provides a comprehensive introduction to third-generation mobile communications from the perspectives of radio-related issues and standardization. While the first and second generations of mobile communications systems are designed and optimized for voice communications, IP-based data networking is an essential feature of 3G mobile networks. This chapter not only discusses wideband codedivision multiple access (WCDMA) technology and the global system for mobile communications (GSM) evolution in detail but also overviews IS-95 (Interim Standard, 1995) and its evolution toward 3G. In particular, the authors cover important recent developments in 3G technologies, such as high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA), which increases the downlink bandwidth well beyond 2 Mbps (megabits per second).

1.3.2 Chapter 3: Protocols for the Web and the Mobile Internet

The Web, the Internet, and mobility all combined have dramatically impacted the entire world in a short period of about 10 years. This would not have been possible without the appropriate protocols. The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) was well established when the Web came into existence. Therefore, protocols for the Web were built on top of the IP protocols that formed the lowest common denominator across a multitude of transport and access networks. This chapter presents a history of the World Wide Web (WWW) and describes the major Web protocols and their adjoining layers, including the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Wireless Access Protocol (WAP), Handheld Device Markup Language (HDML), and Wireless Markup Language (WML). The chapter describes how these Web protocols function from one end to the other end.

1.3.3 Chapter 4: Content Caching and Multicast

This chapter describes the nature of Web-based applications, in which the Web is the dominant carrier of information. The Web is used to either disseminate or exchange information. The chapter discusses the various types of Web content (e.g., static, dynamic, streaming media) and outlines what requirements they pose for the underlying network. The rest of the chapter is devoted to scalable content delivery via proactive multicast and on-demand caching with particular focus on the transport layer to support one-to-many data transport. IP multicast and reliable multicast are described in detail to support the multicast service model. Finally, the chapter presents a novel idea of application layer multicast. Since it is not practical to change all the routers in the Internet that "look" inside the packets, it is indeed possible to add intelligent nodes at strategic locations of the network to build a connection-oriented reliable overlay network, where both receiving and transmitting are done reliably using TCP by the overlay nodes.

1.3.4 Chapter 5: Characterizing Web Workload of Mobile Clients

This chapter investigates the important problem of characterizing mobile Web workload. Understanding the characteristics of mobile Web access is critical in numerous tasks, including network provisioning, developing services that can be scaled to millions of users, and offering content that is optimized to mobile usage patterns. Using mobile Web access logs, the chapter evaluates key attributes of mobile Web workload and provides valuable insights in designing efficient and effective mobile content services.

1.3.5 Chapter 6: ACME: A New Mobile Content Delivery Architecture

A fundamental mechanism of CDNs is exploiting user interest in the same content and distributing content with popular demand to multiple content caches. This chapter extends this principle to accelerate content delivery over the radio link, which is usually the bottleneck of mobile user experience. The chapter develops the key concept of user interest correlation that identifies the similarity of interest in content between any two users. By exploiting user interest correlation, the chapter develops an architecture for content delivery in the mobile environment (ACME), which pushes content to targeted mobile users with high accuracy to improve user experience. This system is highly suitable for mobile content delivery, because it uses user interest correlation to achieve high bandwidth- and terminal power efficiency.

1.3.6 Chapter 7: Content Adaptation for the Mobile Internet

Mobile content networking assumes the formidable task of delivering content of multiple formats and modalities (text, video, audio, etc.) to heterogeneous devices with different capabilities. In addition, mobile users may require that content be delivered in different ways and in different contexts. This chapter first discusses the mobile content and articulates the need for content adaptation for mobile terminals. This is followed by a presentation of several adaptation methods such as transcoding and content selection, and how terminals can signal their capabilities to the server. Two adaptation scenarios essential to mobile content services, mobile browsing and multimedia messaging, are discussed in detail.

1.3.7 Chapter 8: Content Synchronization

Data synchronization is an essential functionality for mobile phones, as users may store and update critical information such as address book, calendar items and emails in various devices, personal computers, or backend servers. This chapter gives a high level overview of content synchronization and specifications developed at the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA).

1.3.8 Chapter 9: Multimedia Streaming in Mobile Wireless Networks

Streaming multimedia is an appealing application for many mobile users. However, it also encounters significant technical challenges because of its complexity and stringent QoS requirements. This chapter presents the QoS requirements and solutions for streaming media services. Furthermore, it presents basic mobile streaming media system architecture and related protocols. Media encoding and decoding methods that are widely used in mobile networks are also discussed.

1.3.9 Chapter 10: Multicast Content Delivery for Mobiles

Envisioned mobile multimedia services consume large amount of radio bandwidth, and multicast is a key enabling technology to support simultaneous multimedia transmissions to multiple mobile receivers. This chapter presents an overview of the motivations, requirements, and mechanisms of providing multicast services in future mobile networks. In particular, this chapter reviews two promising multicast technologies: IP datacast (IPDC), which originated from digital television broadcasting, and multimedia broadcast/multicast services (MBMS), which is rooted in cellular telecommunications. Combined, they promise to deliver mobile multimedia content to the mass market in a bandwidth-efficient and cost-effective manner.



Excerpted from Content Networking in the Mobile Internet Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents




1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Content Networking in the Mobile Internet.

1.3 Book Overview.

1.4 Concluding Remarks.


2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Standardization Framework.

2.3 System Architecture and Core Network.

2.4 WCDMA Radio Access Network.

2.4.5 Evolution of WCDMA.

2.6 IS-95 Radio Access.

2.7 GSM/EDGE and WCDMA Operator Performance.

2.8 GSM/EDGE and WCDMA End-User Performance.



3.1 Introduction.

3.2 History of the World Wide Web.

3.3 The Web Today.

3.4 The Future Web.

3.5 HyperText Transfer Protocol.

3.6 Wireless Access Protocol (WAP).



4.1 Web-Based Applications.

4.2 Scalable Content Delivery via Multicast and Caching.

4.3 IP Multicast and Reliable Multicast.

4.4 Application Layer Multicast.

4.5 Web Proxy Caching.

4.6 Summary.



5.1 Overview of Web Workload Characterization.

5.2 Overview of Previous Work.

5.3 Server Architecture and Data Gathering.

5.4 Characterizing Web Browsing Workload.

5.5 Characterizing Notification Workload.

5.6 Correlation between Web Browsing and Notification.

5.7 Comparison between Workload of Wireline Web and Mobile Web.

5.8 Summary.



6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Mobile Content Delivery Techniques and Related Work.

6.3 ACME Performance Analysis.

6.4 Exploiting User Interest Correlation with ACME.

6.5 ACME in Radio Resource Management.

6.6 Conclusions.


7 CONTENT ADAPTATION FOR THE MOBILE INTERNET (Stephane Coulombe, Oskari Koskimies, and Guido Grassel).

7.1 Motivation for Adaptation.

7.2 Multimedia Content Types.

7.3 Types of Adaptation.

7.4 Methods of Adaptation.

7.5 Capabilities and Metadata.

7.6 Adaptation Architectures.

7.7 Application Scenarios.

7.8 Standardization and Future Work.



8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Why Mobile Devices Need Synchronization.

8.3 Fundamental Principles of Synchronization.

8.4 Adoption of Synchronization for Mobile Devices.

8.5 Synchronization Standard.

8.6 Summary.


9 MULTIMEDIA STREAMING IN MOBILE WIRELESS NETWORKS (Sanjeev Verma, Muhammad Mukarram bin Tariq, Takeshi Yoshimura, and Tao Wu).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 QoS Issues for Streaming Applications.

9.3 Streaming Media Codecs.

9.4 End-to-End Architecture to Provide Streaming Services in Wireless Environments.

9.5 Protocols for Streaming Media Delivery.

9.6 3GPP Packet-Switched Streaming Service.

9.7 Multimedia Services in Mobile and Wireless Environments.

9.8 Conclusions.


10 MULTICAST CONTENT DELIVERY FOR MOBILES (Rod Walsh, Antti-Pentti Vainio, and Janne Aaltonen).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Multicast Overview.

10.3 The Generic IP Multicast System.

10.4 IP Datacast (IPDC).

10.5 Multicast in Third-Generation Cellular (MBMS).

10.6 Multicast Content Delivery for Mobiles in Summary and in the Future.



11.1 Introduction to Information Security and DRM Technologies.

11.2 MPEG Intellectual Property Management and Protection.

11.3 Emerging Technologies and Applications.



12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Fixed-Line Telephony Charging.

12.3 Mobile Telephony Charging.

12.4 Aspects Pertinent to Mobile Content Charging.

12.4.5 Roaming.

12.4.6 Multiple Access.

12.4.7 Source of Charging Records.

12.4.8 Multiple Servers Involved in Delivery.

12.5 Charging Concepts and Mechanisms.

12.6 Charging Interfaces.

12.7 Charging Information.

12.8 Charging Architecture and Scenarios.

12.9 Summary.



13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Taxonomy of Location.

13.3 Location Estimation Media.

13.4 Location Estimation Algorithms.

13.5 Location Estimation Systems.

13.6 Location Services Based on Cellular Systems.



14.1 Web Services Introduction.

14.2 Web Services Foundation Technologies.

14.3 Conclusion.



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