Contraceptive Technology / Edition 19

Contraceptive Technology / Edition 19

by Robert A. Hatcher

The leading reference in reproductive health for over 30 years. Edited for ob/gyns, reproductive medicine MDs, and primary care physicians, this guide covers the details of every method of contracetion, looking at the benefits, risks, and reliability of each.

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The leading reference in reproductive health for over 30 years. Edited for ob/gyns, reproductive medicine MDs, and primary care physicians, this guide covers the details of every method of contracetion, looking at the benefits, risks, and reliability of each.

Product Details

PDR Network
Publication date:
Edition description:
19th Edition
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.90(d)

Meet the Author

Table of Contents

Values in Family Planning   Felicia H. Stewart, MD     1
The Menstrual Cycle   Robert A. Hatcher, MD, MPH   Anne Brawner Namnoum, MD     7
Menstrual Cycle Regulation     8
The Integrated Cycle     10
Fertilization and Implantation     14
Choosing a Contraceptive: Efficacy, Safety, and Personal Considerations   James Trussell, PhD     19
Efficacy: "Will it Work?"     22
Safety: "Will It Hurt Me?"     34
Noncontraceptive Benefits     38
Personal Considerations     41
Medical Eligibility Criteria   Kathryn M. Curtis, PhD   Herbert B. Peterson, MD     49
Methodology     50
How to Use the Recommendations     52
Keeping Criteria Up to Date     55
Abstinence and the Range of Sexual Expression   Deborah Kowal, MA, PA     81
The Range of Sexual Expression     83
Indications for Abstinence or Other Forms of Sexual Expression     84
Instructions for Using Abstinence for Contraception or STI Protection     85
Emergency Contraception   Felicia Stewart, MD   James Trussell, PhD   Paul F.A. Van Look, MD, PhD, FRCOG     87
History     88
Future Potential for Emergency Contraceptive Use     90
Mechanism of Action     94
Effectiveness     96
Advantages and Indications     97
Side Effects     99
Cautions     100
Providing Emergency Contraception     102
Instructions For Using Emergency Contraception     109
Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)   David A. Grimes, MD     117
Options in the United States     118
Effectiveness     119
Mechanism of Action     120
Advantages of Intrauterine Contraception     121
Disadvantages of Intrauterine Contraception     122
Providing the IUD     128
Managing Problems and Follow-Up     139
Contraceptive Implants   Elizabeth G. Raymond, MD, MPH     145
Effectiveness     146
Mechanism of Action     147
Advantages     148
Disadvantages and Cautions     149
Providing the Method     152
Managing Problems and Follow-Up     154
User Instructions     154
Injectable Contraceptives   Alisa B. Goldberg, MD, MPH   David A. Grimes, MD      157
Effectiveness     158
Mechanism of Action     158
Advantages     159
Disadvantages and Cautions     161
Providing DMPA     168
Managing DMPA Problems and Follow-Up     169
Instructions for Using DMPA     170
Progestin-Only Pills   Elizabeth G. Raymond, MD, MPH     181
Effectiveness     181
Mechanism of Action     182
Advantages     183
Disadvantages and Cautions     184
Providing the Method     186
Managing Problems and Follow-Up     188
User Instructions     188
Combined Oral Contraceptives   Anita L. Nelson, MD     193
Hormones in Combined Oral Contraceptives     194
Mechanisms of Action     197
Effectiveness     198
Cost     199
Oral Contraceptive Formulations     200
Advantages and Indications     201
Non-Contraceptive Applications for COCS     209
Disadvantages and Health Complications     210
Providing Oral Contraceptives     224
Managing Side Effects     240
Instructions for Using Oral Contraceptives      249
Contraceptive Patch and Vaginal Contraceptive Ring   Kavita Nanda, MD, MHS     271
Contraceptive Patch     271
Description of Method     271
Effectiveness     272
Mechanism of Action     272
Advantages     272
Disadvantages and Cautions     274
Providing the Method     276
Managing Problems and Follow Up     279
User Instructions     280
Vaginal Contraceptive Ring     282
Description of Method     282
Effectiveness     282
Mechanism of Action     283
Advantages     283
Disadvantages and Cautions     285
Providing the Method     287
Managing Problems and Follow Up     289
User Instructions     291
Male Condoms   Lee Warner, PhD, MPH   Markus J. Steiner, PhD, MSPH     297
Mechanism of Action     298
Effectiveness Against Pregnancy     299
Advantages and Indications     301
Disadvantages and Cautions     301
Special Issues     302
Providing Condoms-Counseling     304
Managing Problems and Follow-Up      308
Instructions for Using Condoms     308
Vaginal Barriers And Spermicides   Willard Cates Jr., MD, MPH   Elizabeth G. Raymond, MD, MPH     317
Mechanism of Action     318
Effectiveness     322
Advantages     324
Disadvantages     326
Cautions     327
Providing Vaginal Barrier Methods     327
Managing Problems and Follow-Up     332
Instructions For Using Vaginal Barriers/Spermicides     333
Coitus Interruptus (Withdrawal)   Deborah Kowal, MA, PA     337
Mechanism of Action     338
Effectiveness     338
Advantages and Indications     338
Disadvantages and Cautions     339
Instructions for Using Coitus Interruptus     341
Fertility Awareness-Based Methods   Victoria H. Jennings, PhD   Marcos Arevalo, MD, MPH     343
Mechanism of Action     343
Effectiveness     344
Advantages and Indications     346
Disadvantages and Cautions     347
Providing Fertility Awareness-Based Methods     349
Instructions for Using Fertility Awareness-Based Methods     349
Female and Male Sterilization    Amy E. Pollac, MD, MPH, FACOG   Lisa J. Thomas, MD, FACOG   Mark A. Barone, DVM, MS     361
Female Sterilization     362
Effectiveness     362
Mechanism of Action     364
Advantages and Indications     364
Disadvantages and Cautions     365
Providing Female Sterilization     370
Managing Problems and Follow-Up     378
Male Sterilization     380
Effectiveness     380
Mechanism of Action     381
Advantages     381
Disadvantages and Cautions     382
Providing Male Sterilization     384
Managing Problems and Follow-Up     389
User Instructions for Vasectomy     392
Postpartum Contraception and Lactation   Kathy I. Kennedy, DrPH   James Trussell, PhD     403
Postpartum Infertility     404
Lactational Infertility     404
Contraceptive Benefits of Lactation     406
Postpartum Sexuality     408
Initiating Contraceptive Use Postpartum     410
Postpartum Contraception for the Nonbreastfeeding Woman     413
Postpartum Contraception for the Breastfeeding Woman     414
Breastfeeding: Advantages to the Infant     420
Breastfeeding and HIV     421
Breastfeeding: Effects on the Mother     422
Instructions for and Information About Breastfeeding     422
Contraceptive Research and Development   Henry L. Gabelnick, PhD   Jill Schwartz, MD   Jacqueline E. Darroch, PhD     433
Contraceptive Research Overview     433
Current Contraceptive Research     439
Improving Use-Effectiveness     447
The 21st Century     447
Menstrual Disorders and Related Concerns   Anita L. Nelson, MD   Susie Baldwin, MD, MPH     451
Dysmenorrhea     452
Secondary Dysmenorrhea     454
Menorrhagia     456
Amenorrhea     461
Oligomenorrhea     466
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)     469
Menstrually Induced Exacerbations of Other Medical Problems     476
Endometriosis     479
Chronic Pelvic Pain     481
Reproductive Tract Infections, Including HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections   Jeanne M. Marrazzo, MD, MPH   Felicia Guest, MPH, CHES   Willard Cates, Jr., MD, MPH     499
Magnitude and Risks of RTI     500
RTI Risk Assessment, Prevention and Risk Behaviors     502
Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment of RTI     505
Special Considerations Regarding HIV/AIDS in the Reproductive Health Setting     511
Alphabetical Catalogue of Reproductive Tract Infections     532
Female Genital Tract Cancer Screening   Michael S. Policar, MD, MPH     559
Screening for Cervical Cancer     561
Ovarian Cancer Screening     581
Breast Cancer Screening     583
Pregnancy Testing and Management of Early Pregnancy   Mary Fjerstad, NP   Felicia Stewart, MD     591
Essential Pre-Pregnancy Information for Everyone     592
Preconception Care Services     594
Pregnancy Evaluation     596
Pregnancy Test Options     602
Ultrasound in Very Early Pregnancy     609
Managing Problems in Early Pregnancy     618
Education and Counseling     628
Abortion   Maureen Paul, MD, MPH   Felicia H. Stewart, MD     637
Legal Status of Abortion     638
The Public Health Impact of Legal Abortion     639
Characteristics of Women Who Obtain Abortions     639
Methods of Abortion      642
Providing Abortion Services     649
Managing Post-Abortion Complications     660
Impaired Fertility   Anita L. Nelson, MD   John R. Marshall, MD     673
Probability of Pregnancy     674
Requirements for Fertility     676
Overview of Causes of Infertility     677
Further Evaluation of The Woman     681
Prognosis     686
Targeting Therapies for Infertility     686
Longer Term Impacts of Assisted Reproductive Technologies     692
Menopause and Perimenopausal Health   Anita L. Nelson, MD   Felicia H. Stewart, MD     699
Definitions: Perimenopause, Menopause, Post-Menopause     699
Perimenopause     701
Menopause     705
Postmenopausal Symptoms     708
Effect of Hormone Therapies on Other Aspects of Postmenopausal Health     724
Side Effects of Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy     732
Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Choices     733
Summary     735
Contraceptive Efficacy   James Trussell, PhD     747
No Method     748
Typical Use Of Spermicides, Withdrawal, Fertility Awareness-Based Methods, Diaphragm, Male Condom, Oral Contraceptive Pills, and Depo-Provera     748
Perfect Use of the Sponge and Diaphragm     749
Typical Use of the Sponge     750
Female Condom     750
Perfect Use of Withdrawal and Spermicides     750
Perfect Use of Fertility Awareness-Based Methods     752
Perfect Use of the Male Condom     752
Perfect Use of the Oral Contraceptive Pills, Depo-Provera, and Implanon, and Typical Use of Implanon     753
Evra and NuvaRing     753
IUD     754
Sterilization     754
Contraceptive Continuation     755
The Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)     756
Webpages with Active Links to Many Other Websites     827
Network of Professional Organizations     829
Pharmaceutical Websites and Phone Numbers     833
Hotlines and Websites     836
Index     841

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