Control of Human Movement / Edition 1

Control of Human Movement / Edition 1

by Mark Latash
     
 

ISBN-10: 0873224558

ISBN-13: 9780873224550

Pub. Date: 04/21/1993

Publisher: Human Kinetics Publishers

In Control of Human Movement, Mark Latash brings a diverse clinical and laboratory background to his approach to motor control. His work with physiology and motor control authorities Victor Gurfinkel, Anatol Feldman, and Gerald Gottlieb contributed to the comprehensive development of the equilibrium-point approach to motor control. His clinical experiences at the…  See more details below

Overview

In Control of Human Movement, Mark Latash brings a diverse clinical and laboratory background to his approach to motor control. His work with physiology and motor control authorities Victor Gurfinkel, Anatol Feldman, and Gerald Gottlieb contributed to the comprehensive development of the equilibrium-point approach to motor control. His clinical experiences at the Spinal Cord Trauma Center in Moscow and Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center in Chicago have helped him to better understand real-life clinical problems and their relationship to basic motor control studies. Issues studied from this compelling and controversial perspective include single- and multi-joint movements; the emergence of electromyographic patterns; the phenomena of motor learning and variability; postural control and preprogramming; and pathological aspects of motor control in such disorders as spasticity, Parkinson's disease, and Down syndrome.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780873224550
Publisher:
Human Kinetics Publishers
Publication date:
04/21/1993
Pages:
380
Product dimensions:
6.69(w) x 9.45(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
Ch. 1What Muscle Parameters Are Controlled by the Nervous System?1
Spring Properties of an Isolated Muscle7
Muscle and Its Reflexes9
Spring Properties of an Intact Muscle15
Merton's Servo-Hypothesis of Motor Control21
The [alpha]-Model23
The [lambda]-Model26
The Notion of Shifting Invariant Characteristics33
Preprogramming in Motor Control37
Ch. 2Analysis of Joint Compliance49
Equations of Mass-Spring Systems49
At Least Three Springs!52
Introducing Central Control56
Reconstruction of Static Joint Compliant Characteristics58
How to Reconstruct Joint Compliant Characteristics During Voluntary Movements59
Shifting Joint Compliant Characteristics During Slow Movements65
Shifting Joint Compliant Characteristics During Fast Movements71
N-Shaped Virtual Trajectories74
Virtual Trajectories of Oscillatory Movements75
Ch. 3The Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis and Movement Dynamics81
Phase Plane and Activation Zones81
Is [lambda] a Measure of [alpha]-Motoneuron Membrane Depolarization?86
Muscle Reactions to Length Changes90
Reciprocal and Renshaw Inhibition95
How Do the Electromyograms Emerge?98
Ch. 4Patterns of Single-Joint Movements103
Kinematic and Electromyographic Patterns of Single-Joint Isotonic Movements103
Kinetic and Electromyographic Characteristics of Single-Joint Isometric Contractions116
Hypotheses and Models120
Excitation Pulse and the Dual-Strategy Hypothesis127
Ch. 5Emergence of Electromyographic Patterns139
Basic Assumptions and Notions of the Model140
Initiation of an Isotonic Movement145
Termination of an Isotonic Movement152
Initiation of an Isometric Contraction159
Divergence of Isometric and Isotonic Patterns160
Correspondence of the Model to the Data164
Standard Motor Programs Can Lead to Different Peripheral Patterns166
Ch. 6Issues of Variability and Motor Learning173
Is There a Motor Program?173
Variability of Single-Joint Movements182
Variability in the [lambda]-Language190
Relation to Motor Learning199
Ch. 7Multijoint Movements205
The Bernstein Problem205
Kinematic Characteristics of Multijoint Movements210
Attempts to Solve the Bernstein Problem222
The Problem of Postural Stability234
Problems of Multilimb Coordination239
Ch. 8Optimization245
System Dynamics and Cost Functions246
Minimizing Indices of Performance247
Minimizing "Effort" and Maximizing "Comfort"252
Relativistic Motor Control255
Ch. 9Examples of Motor Disorders263
Spasticity265
Motor Disorders in Parkinson's Disease274
General Characteristics of Movements in Down Syndrome283
Some General Implications for Rehabilitation290
Ch. 10Language and Movement293
On the Laws of Coordination294
Deep Structure297
Transformation299
Surface Structure301
Tonic Stretch Reflex - An Example of Transformation307
Concluding Comments308
Ch. 11What to Do Next?311
Epilogue315
References319
Index371

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