Control of Modern Integrated Power Systems

Overview

In this comprehensive and systematically presented text, the various aspects of modern power system operation and control are discussed. Covered in the volume are: computer configurations and control aids, load-frequency control and automatic generation c ontrol, reactive power planning and scheduling procedure, security monitoring, and control under emergency conditions. Also presented are case study reports on power grid failures in different countries, examining how they occurred, how they were handled, and ...
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Overview

In this comprehensive and systematically presented text, the various aspects of modern power system operation and control are discussed. Covered in the volume are: computer configurations and control aids, load-frequency control and automatic generation c ontrol, reactive power planning and scheduling procedure, security monitoring, and control under emergency conditions. Also presented are case study reports on power grid failures in different countries, examining how they occurred, how they were handled, and what lessons that they can provide. A "defence" plan against similar major disturbances is detailed, including the overall system architecture adopted and the processing and communication sub-systems.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781447112525
  • Publisher: Springer London
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Series: Advances in Industrial Control Series
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1997
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 260
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Computer System for Power System Operation and Control.- 1.1 Computer Control of Power Systems.- 1.1.1 Computer Control — Definition.- 1.1.2 Advantages of Computer Control.- 1.1.3 Classification of a Computer Control System.- 1.1.4 Types of Control.- 1.1.5 System Concepts.- 1.1.6 Functions of a Computer Control System.- 1.1.7 Hardware Requirements.- 1.1.8 Software Requirements.- 1.1.9 Historical Development of Computer Facilities in Load Dispatching and Control.- 1.1.10 Planning a Computer Control System.- 1.2 Functions, Computer Configurations and Control aids.- 1.2.1 Functions of a Computer System.- 1.2.2 Classification and Monitoring of Power System Operating States.- 1.2.3 Role of Decision-Making in System Control.- 1.2.4 Real-Time Functions.- 1.2.5 Components of a Control Centre.- 1.2.6 Energy Management System Software Structure (EMS).- 1.3 Case Studies of Computerisation in Control Centres.- 1.3.1 The PJM Interconnection.- 1.3.2 The CEGB Power System.- 1.3.2.1 Salient features of the system.- 1.3.2.2 Short-term Operation Planning.- 1.3.2.3 On-line computational facilities.- 1.3.3 The ENEL Power System.- 1.3.3.1 Brief description of the system.- 1.3.3.2 Hierarchical levels of Dispatching/Control.- 1.3.3.3 Functions at different levels.- 1.3.3.4 Data communication routes.- 1.3.3.5 Control System Characteristics.- 1.3.3.6 Recent advances in ENEL’s Computer System for system operation and control..- 1.3.4 The Ontario Hydro Power System.- 1.3.5 The French System.- 2. System control.- 2.1 Economic Load Dispatch for Thermal Power Plants.- 2.1.1 Neglecting Transmission Losses.- 2.1.2 Considering Transmission Losses (Penalty Factors).- 2.1.3 Considering the Fuel Storage Capacity.- 2.2 Load-Frequency Control (LFC).- 2.2.1 General Principles.- 2.2.2 Primary Regulation.- 2.2.2.1 The speed governor.- 2.2.2.2 Regulation of a generator on a passive network.- 2.2.2.3 Regulation of a generator in parallel with infinite network.- 2.2.2.4 Regulation of more generators in parallel operation.- 2.2.2.5 Transfer functions of the primary energy systems and of prime movers..- 2.2.2.6 Static characteristics of regulation.- 2.2.2.7 Power control in thermal units.- 2.2.3 Secondary Regulation.- 2.2.3.1 Regulation of an isolated network.- 2.2.3.2 Regulation of interconnected networks.- 2.3 Automatic Generation Control (AGC).- 3. Reactive power balance and voltage control.- 3.1 General.- 3.2 Reactive Power Planning and Control Boundaries.- 3.2.1 Reactive Power Planning.- 3.2.2 Control Boundaries.- 3.3 Reactive Power Requirements.- 3.3.1 Transmission Network.- 3.3.2 Consumers’ Requirements.- 3.3.3 Total Requirements of Reactive Power.- 3.4 Reactive Power Balance — Case Study.- 3.5 Reactive Generation and Absorption.- 3.5.1 Generators.- 3.5.1.1 Generator Transformer Taps.- 3.5.1.2 Negative bias on AVRs.- 3.5.1.3 Automatic Voltage regulation.- 3.5.2 Reactive Elements.- 3.5.2.1 Synchronous condensor.- 3.5.2.2 Shunt capacitor.- 3.5.2.3 Shunt reactor.- 3.5.2.4 Series capacitor.- 3.5.2.5 Static Var Compensator.- 3.5.2.6 Saturable Reactors.- 3.5.2.7 Tap-staggered transformers.- 3.6 Two Case Studies.- 3.7 Reactive Scheduling Procedure.- 3.8 Operating Measures.- 3.9 Modern Trends in Voltage Regulation.- 3.9.1 Primary Voltage Regulation.- 3.9.2 Secondary Voltage Regulation.- 3.9.3 Tertiary Voltage Regulation.- 4. System Security and Quality of Operation.- 4.1 General.- 4.2 Definitions of Operating States, Voltage and Frequency Collapse, Electromagnetic Compatibility and Security Despatch.- 4.2.1 Network Disturbance.- 4.2.2 Severity of System Disturbance.- 4.2.3 Operating States of BES Concerning Security.- 4.2.4 Probabilistic Security.- 4.2.5 Voltage Collapse.- 4.2.6 Frequency Collapse.- 4.2.7 Instability of Generators.- 4.2.8 Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC).- 4.2.9 Security Dispatch.- 4.3 Security Monitoring.- 4.4 Quality of Operation.- 4.5 Effective Network Utilisation.- 4.6 Sources of Disturbances.- 5. Emergency Control.- 5.1 General.- 5.2 Measures to Prevent Frequency Collapse.- 5.3 Measures to Prevent Voltage Collapse.- 5.4 Prevention of Overloads and Instability.- 5.5 Prevention of Power Disparity.- 5.6 Operation of Generators in Emergency Conditions.- 5.7 Restoration Procedures.- 6. Grid Failures — Case Studies and ‘Defence’ Plan Against Failures.- 6.1 General.- 6.2 Case Studies.- 6.2.1 The Northeast Power Failure, NOV. 9 and 10, 1965.- 6.2.1.1 FPC’s recommendations for preventing failures.- 6.2.2 The Con Edison Power Failure, July 13–14, 1977.- 6.2.3 Power Failure in the French System, Dec. 19, 1978.- 6.2.3.1 Forecast of conditions to meet the 1978–79 Winter.- 6.2.3.2 Conditions on the eve of Dec. 19, 1978.- 6.2.3.3 Evolution of system conditions on Dec. 19, 1978.- 6.2.3.4 Description of the failure.- 6.2.3.5 Restoration of service.- 6.2.3.6 Analysis and action-plan for the future.- 6.2.4 Power Failure in Maharastra, India, July 13, 1983.- 6.2.4.1 The System.- 6.2.4.2 Failure on July 13, 1983.- 6.2.4.3 Analysis of the failure.- 6.2.4.4 Restoration of supply.- 6.2.4.5 Deficiencies and steps to overcome them.- 6.2.4.6 Conclusion.- 6.2.5 ESKOM Disturbance, Nov. 8, 1990.- 6.2.5.1 The incident on Nov 8, 1990.- 6.2.5.2 Conclusions.- 6.2.6 South-Western Norway Disturbance, January 16–17, 1993.- 6.2.6.1 Sequence of events.- 6.2.6.2 Conclusions.- 6.2.7 Egat System Disturbance, March 3, 1993.- 6.2.8 ENEL System Disturbance, May 20, 1993.- 6.2.8.1 The occurrence on 20 May 1993.- 6.2.8.2 Analysis and conclusions.- 6.2.9 New South Wales Bushfires Disturbances, January 3 TO 12, 1994.- 6.2.9.1 Summary of happenings.- 6.2.9.2 Operational practices.- 6.2.9.3 Land management problems.- 6.2.9.4 Staff performance.- 6.2.9.5 Conclusions.- 6.3 EDF’s ‘Defence’ Plan Against Major Disturbances..- 6.3.1 Load Shedding on Frequency Criterion.- 6.3.2 Action Taken in Case of Loss of Synchronism.- 6.3.3 New Defence System Against Loss of Synchronism.- 7. Effects of Grid Disturbances on Power Station and Consumer Equipment.- 7.1 General.- 7.2 Effects of Low Frequency Operation on Power Station Equipment.- 7.3 Effects of Low Frequency Operation on System Load.- 7.4 High — Frequency Operation During Light Load Periods.- Appendix 1: Dispatching and Control Functions at Various Levels.- Appendix 2.- Operating Principles of North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC).- Most Common Terms Used in Power System Operation.
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