Control Systems and Applications for HVAC/R / Edition 1

Control Systems and Applications for HVAC/R / Edition 1

by Thomas J. Horan
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0131251961

ISBN-13: 9780131251960

Pub. Date: 10/11/1996

Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference

Unique in combining into one book, the operational and selection characteristics of commonly used control devices with the thermal and response characteristics of HVAC processes. It presents step-by-step techniques for analyzing the response of actual control loops along with typical calibration procedures. This volume helps readers develop analytical skills used to

Overview

Unique in combining into one book, the operational and selection characteristics of commonly used control devices with the thermal and response characteristics of HVAC processes. It presents step-by-step techniques for analyzing the response of actual control loops along with typical calibration procedures. This volume helps readers develop analytical skills used to diagnose and rectify operational problems in any system by focusing on how and why a process responds in a given manner to changes in a measured variable.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780131251960
Publisher:
Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
Publication date:
10/11/1996
Edition description:
BK&DISK
Pages:
514
Product dimensions:
7.82(w) x 9.50(h) x 1.24(d)

Table of Contents

Part 1 Introduction to Control Theory 1(102)
Introduction to Control Systems
3(16)
What is the Meaning of Control?
4(3)
What is the Purpose of a Control System?
7(5)
Control Systems Classifications
12(5)
Summary
17(1)
Exercises
17(2)
Control System Terminology
19(16)
Air Handling System Terminology
20(6)
Control Loop Terminology
26(7)
Summary
33(1)
Exercises
33(2)
Basic Control Loop Components
35(13)
Control Loops
36(3)
Controllers
39(1)
Final Controlled Devices
40(3)
The Control Agent
43(1)
Basic Control Loop Construction
43(2)
Summary
45(1)
Exercises
46(2)
Control Loop Configurations
48(15)
Open and Closed Loop Configurations
49(5)
Closed Loop Configurations
54(4)
Transfer Functions
58(1)
Block Diagrams
59(2)
Summary
61(1)
Exercises
61(2)
Elements of a Transfer Function
63(14)
Control Device Transfer Functions
64(1)
The Proportional Gain of a Transfer Function
64(3)
The Phase Element of a Transfer Function
67(2)
The Timing Element of a Controller Transfer Function
69(5)
Summary
74(1)
Exercises
75(2)
Applying Transfer Functions
77(26)
Linear Control Systems
78(1)
The General Form of the Linear Transfer Function Equation
79(2)
Developing the Transfer Function for a Sensor
81(6)
The Controller Transfer Function
87(9)
Transfer Functions for Final Controlled Devices
96(2)
Summary
98(1)
Exercises
99(4)
Part 2 Operational Details of Control Devices 103(164)
Sensors
105(19)
Measuring the Control Point
105(1)
Sensor Operating Characteristics
106(6)
Types of HVAC Sensors
112(8)
Locating Sensors
120(2)
Summary
122(1)
Exercises
122(2)
Controllers
124(27)
Operational Characteristics of Controllers
125(1)
Controller Modes
126(5)
Timed Two-Position Contoller Mode
131(3)
Floating Controller Mode
134(4)
Proportional Controller Mode
138(2)
Proportional + Integral Controller Mode (PI)
140(2)
Proportional + Integral + Derivative Mode (PID)
142(1)
Analyzing the Response of Modulating Controller Modes
143(4)
Summary
147(1)
Exercises
148(3)
Modulating Final Controlled Devices
151(22)
Valves and Dampers
152(1)
Valve Construction
152(6)
How Fluids React to Changes in the Flow Area of the Valve Port
158(3)
Valve Flow Characteristics
161(4)
Valve Flow Terminology
165(3)
Damper Characteristics
168(3)
Summary
171(1)
Exercises
172(1)
Sizing and Selecting Control Valves and Dampers
173(24)
Modulating Flow Characteristics of Valves
174(3)
Flow Coefficient Sizing Formulas
177(2)
Calculating Required Flowrate for a Process
179(3)
Sizing Valves for Steam Flow
182(3)
Calculating the Process Steam Load
185(1)
Other Valve Selection Considerations
186(2)
Selecting a Valve Using a Manufacturer's Catalog Table
188(2)
Damper Sizing Procedures
190(3)
Actuator Selection
193(2)
Exercises
195(2)
Selecting a Controller Mode based on the Process Characteristics
197(18)
Thermal Process Characteristics
198(4)
Process Timing Characteristics
202(3)
Time Constant
205(1)
Determining a Process Controller Mode Based on the Process Characteristics
206(6)
Summary
212(1)
Exercises
213(2)
The Calibration and Response of Modulating Control Loops
215(23)
Calibrating an Open Loop Controller
216(3)
Operational Objectives for a Closed Loop Response
219(7)
The Five Possible Loop Responses
226(5)
Criteria for Evaluating Control Loop Responses
231(3)
Summary
234(2)
Exercises
236(2)
Microprocessor-Based Control Systems
238(29)
What are Microprocessor-Based Control Systems?
239(9)
DDC Hardware Points
248(6)
Electrical Magnetic Interference
254(2)
DDC Programs
256(4)
Energy Management Strategies
260(4)
Software Analysis Functions
264(1)
Summary
264(1)
Exercises
265(2)
Part 3 HVAC Applications 267(130)
Documenting Control Processes
269(19)
System Drawings
270(2)
Sequence of Operation
272(7)
Flowcharts
279(7)
Summary
286(1)
Exercises
286(2)
Mixing Damper Control Strategies
288(19)
Mixed Air Damper Strategies
288(2)
Mixing Damper Minimum Position
290(4)
Mixing Damper Economizer Strategy
294(5)
Commanding Dampers to their Normal Position
299(1)
Enthalpy-Based Economizer Loop Design and Operation
299(4)
Summary
303(1)
Exercises
304(3)
Heating Control Strategies
307(18)
Overview of the Different Heating Control Strategies
307(1)
Preheat Control Strategies
308(3)
Illustration of a Steam Preheat Control Strategy
311(5)
Illustration of a Hot Water Preheat Control Strategy
316(3)
Illustration of a Hot Water Heating Control Strategy
319(4)
Zone Heating Applications
323(1)
Exercises
323(2)
Cooling Control Strategies
325(12)
Overview of the Different Cooling Strategies
325(2)
Illustration of a Modulating Chilled Water Control Strategy
327(5)
Illustration of a Discharge Air Temperature Control Strategy Incorporating Sequenced Hot and Chilled Water Valve Actuator Springs
332(2)
Zone Cooling Applications Overview
334(1)
Exercises
335(2)
Humidity Control Strategies
337(16)
Overview of Humidifications Strategies
337(2)
Illustration of a Humidifying Control Strategy
339(4)
Overview of the Dehumidification Processes
343(1)
Illustration of a Dehumidifying Control Strategy
344(5)
Maintaining a Constant Humidity Set Point
349(1)
Chemical Dehumidification
350(1)
Exercises
351(2)
Duct Static Pressure Control
353(17)
Fan Pressure
353(5)
Static Pressure Sensors
358(1)
Illustration of a Supply Air Static Pressure Control Strategy
359(4)
Illustration of a Dual Fan Static Pressure Control Strategy
363(5)
Exercises
368(2)
Zone Terminal Device Control
370(27)
Single Duct Variable Air Volume Boxes
370(4)
Illustration of a Cooling Only VAV Terminal Unit
374(2)
Illustration of a VAV Terminal Unit with a Reheat Coil
376(3)
Fan Powered VAV Terminal Units
379(1)
Illustration of an Intermittent Fan Powered VAV Terminal Unit with a Reheat Coil
380(2)
Dual Duct Boxes
382(2)
Variable Volume Dual Duct Terminal Unit
384(2)
Constant Volume Terminal Units
386(1)
Fan Coil Units
386(3)
Unit Ventilators
389(1)
Illustration of an ASHRAE Cycle 1 Unit Ventilator Control Strategy
390(2)
Illustration of an ASHRAE Cycle 2 Unit Ventilator Control Strategy
392(3)
ASHRAE Cycle 3 Unit Ventilator Control Strategy
395(1)
Exercises
395(2)
Part 4 Application Response and Analysis 397(98)
Single Zone Air Handling Unit Configurations
399(14)
Single Zone, Constant Volume Air Handling Units
400(2)
Illustration of a Single Zone Constant Volume Dual Fan AHU with Humidification
402(4)
Process Responses to Load Changes
406(2)
Troubleshooting Systems
408(1)
Analysis of a Single Zone, Constant Volume Air Handling Unit
409(2)
Exercises
411(2)
Single Path, Constant Volume, Muliple Zone Air Handling Units with Reheat Coils
413(17)
Single Path Air Handling Units with Reheat Coils --- Multiple Zone Applications
413(1)
Control Strategy Differences Between Single Path, Single Zone Air Handling Units and Single Path, Multiple Zone Air Handling Unit Applications
414(4)
Illustration of a Single Path, Constant Volume, Multiple Zone AHU with Reheat
418(4)
Process Responses to Load Changes
422(2)
Analysis of a Single Path, Multiple Zone Air Handling Unit with Zone Reheat
424(4)
Exercises
428(2)
Single Path, Variable Volume, Multiple Zone Air Handling Units with Reheat Coils
430(15)
Variable Air Volume Systems
430(2)
Illustration of a Single Path, Variable Volume, Multiple Zone AHU with Reheat
432(4)
Process Responses to Load Changes
436(4)
Analysis of a Single Path, Variable Volume Air Handling Unit with Reheat
440(4)
Exercises
444(1)
Dual Path, Constant Volume Air Handling Units
445(16)
Dual Path Air Handling Units
445(3)
Illustration of a Multizone AHU
448(5)
Process Responses to Load Changes
453(3)
Analysis of a Multizone Air Handling Unit
456(3)
Exercises
459(2)
Make-Up Air Handling Units
461(10)
Make-up Air Handling Units
461(2)
Illustration of a Constant Volume, Make-up Air Unit
463(3)
Process Responses to Load Changes
466(2)
Analysis of a Make-up Air Unit
468(2)
Exercises
470(1)
Steam to Hot Water Converters
471(8)
Steam Converters
471(2)
Illustration of a Hot Water Converter
473(2)
Process Responses to Load Changes
475(1)
Analysis of a Steam to Hot Water Converter
476(2)
Exercises
478(1)
Fume Hood Control Systems
479(16)
Fume Hood Systems
480(5)
Illustration of a Fume Hood Control System
485(2)
Process Responses to Load Changes
487(4)
Analysis of a Fume Hood Control System
491(2)
Exercises
493(2)
Glossary 495(10)
Index 505

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