Converging Media: A New Introduction to Mass Communication / Edition 2

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Overview


Digital media is changing the ways in which we communicate: we watch TV and movies online, call friends on computers, and read newspapers on cell phones. Converging Media: A New Introduction to Mass Communication, Second Edition, by John V. Pavlik and Shawn McIntosh, uses the technologies we employ every day to explain our current media environment--and to project where we might be headed.

Rather than discussing each media industry in isolation, Converging Media shows how each branch of media (print, visual, and audio) relates to and influences the others. This enables students to see the inextricable and dynamic relationship between converging media and traditional media formats.

The fully revised and updated second edition:

• Opens with a discussion of digital media, giving students an immediate frame of reference as they learn about the historical development of mass communication

• Offers an entire chapter on newly emerging, cutting-edge media (Social Media and Web 2.0)

• Integrates ethics concerns and global perspectives throughout:
- Convergence Culture boxes cover the ways in which media impacts our social, political, and popular cultures
- Convergence Context boxes place hard-to-understand concepts and technologies within familiar, relevant contexts
- International Perspectives boxes showcase the similarities--and differences--of media and technology throughout the world

• Incorporates highly engaging pedagogy:
- Opening vignettes contain interesting stories and timely photos that relate chapter content to the overarching theme of media convergence
- Media Quizzes provide students with lighthearted--yet thought-provoking--self-tests
Conclusions, Discussion Questions, and up-to-date Further Reading lists round off every chapter

• Features a comprehensive support package:
- For students: Online study guide and Companion Website (www.oup.com/us/pavlik)
- For instructors: PowerPoint-based lecture slides, Instructor's Manual with printed Test Bank, and Computerized Test Bank

Cutting-edge, comprehensive, and compelling, Converging Media, Second Edition, is ideal for courses in introductory mass communication.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195379105
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 1/5/2010
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 544
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

John V. Pavlik is Professor and Chair of the Department of Journalism and Media Studies at the School of Communication and Information, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey.

Shawn McIntosh is a lecturer in strategic communications at Columbia University's School of Continuing Education.

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Table of Contents

** Each Chapter ends with "Looking Back and Moving Forward," Discussion Questions, and Suggestions for Further Reading. **

Preface
About the Authors

PART ONE: THE CHANGING MEDIA LANDSCAPE

CHAPTER 1: MASS COMMUNICATION AND ITS DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION

MEDIA QUIZ: The Nature of "Intermass" Communication

Telephony: Case Study in Convergence

Three Types of Convergence Technological Convergence Economic Convergence Cultural Convergence
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: User-Generated Content: Creativity or Piracy?

Convergence and Communications
Convergence and Content Convergence and the Audience
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Mapping Sex Offenders
Distribution Alters the Balance of Power
Audience Fragmentation and The Daily Me Convergence and Communications Organizations Convergence and Communications Professionals
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Olympic Mascots of the Apocalypse
Convergence and Global Media

Mass Communication in the Digital Age
Interpersonal Communication Mass Communication Whither Mass Communication?

Nature and Function of Mass Communication
Surveillance Correlation Cultural Transmission Entertainment

Theories of Communication
Transmission Models Critical Theory and Cultural Studies

CHAPTER 2: MEDIA LITERACY AND ETHICS

MEDIA QUIZ: How Media Literate Are You?

Education and Media

What Is Media Literacy?

Variations in Media Use Regulatory Factors Sociocultural Factors Technological Factors Economic Factors
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Text Messaging and the Thumb Tribe

Media Grammar
Subtext Messages Print Media Radio and Recorded Music Film and Television Online Media How to Recognize Reliable Information and Evaluate Resources Dos and Don'ts When Evaluating Online Information
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: Wikipedia in Our Cites: The Trouble with Collaborative Knowledge

Fragmentation of Media Channels
The Multichannel Universe Diversity of Voices Mass Audiences

Commercial Forces That Shape Media Content
Profit and Nonprofit Media Product Placement and Corporate Sponsorship Commercial Forces in Public Service Media Concentration of Media Ownership

Media Ethics
The Golden Rule The Golden Mean Categorical Imperative Utilitarianism The Veil of Ignorance Discourse Ethics Conflicts and Issues with Ethical Decision Making Public Interests Versus Business Interests New Worlds--or Cultural Imperialism?
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Giving Voice (and Video) to the Voiceless
Media Types Influencing Content

PART TWO: MASS-COMMUNICATION FORMATS

CHAPTER 3: DIGITAL MEDIA: ONLINE AND UBIQUITOUS

MEDIA QUIZ: How Tech Savvy Are You Really?

Key Concepts in Digital Media
Multimedia Interactivity Automation Ethereality

Discussing Digital Media: Networks Are Key

Social and Cultural Implications of Digital Media Pervasive Media Fluid Media Active Audiences Trust, Transparency, and Reputation Changing Conceptions of Privacy Digital Divide
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: The Trouble with "The Technology Made Me Do It"

Exploring the Foundations of Digital Media

Historical Development of the Internet and World Wide Web Creating an Internet Protocol
MEDIA TIMELINE: Milestones in the Development of the Internet
Creating the World Wide Web Creating Graphical Web Browsers

The Internet Today
Bandwidth Telephone and Cable Company Broadband Services Broadband Changing Consumer Patterns
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Mobile Telephony in the Developing World

The World of Digital Media
Digital Print
Digital Books
Digital Newspapers and Magazines Digital Audio Digital Visual Media
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: A Brief History of Interactive TV

TV/PC Convergence

Digital Television: Preparing the Way for Convergence Why DTV Matters in Mass Communication Capabilities of DTV

Digital Media Economics
The Open-Source Movement Revenue Models for Digital Media
Advertising
Subscriptions Ecommerce

CHAPTER 4: BOOKS, NEWSPAPERS, AND MAGAZINES

MEDIA QUIZ: Print Media

Readership Patterns: Unconventional Wisdom

Print Media and Their Functions Transmission of Culture Diffusion of Ideas and Knowledge Entertainment

Historical Development of Books
Monastic Scribes Johannes Gutenberg Beginnings of Mass Communication and Mass Literacy Cheaper and Smaller Books
Dime Novels
Mass-Market Paperbacks Print on Demand INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Education for All 2015

Three Major Trends in Today's Book Industry

Book Sales and Readership

Newspapers and Their Functions Local Newspapers National Newspapers

Historical Development of Newspapers
MEDIA TIMELINE: History (and Pre-History) of Newspapers
The Commercial Press The Partisan Press The Golden Age of Newspapers
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Freesheets: Riding the Rails of Newspapers' Future?

Newspapers Today

Newspaper Readership, Circulation, and Advertising Declining Number of Daily Newspapers Declining Advertising

The Newspaper Industry Today
Newspaper Chains; Newspapers Change
Benefits of Chains
Problems with Chains Leading Newspaper Chains
Gannett
Tribune Company The McClatchy Company Cox Enterprises Advance Publications The New York Times Company E. W. Scripps The Hearst Corporation Newspaper Economics

The Future of Newspapers

Magazines and Their Functions

Historical Development of Magazines

Specialization of Magazines

Circulation Patterns and Titles

Content Specialization
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: Will Printing on Dead Trees Ever Die?

The Future of Magazines

CHAPTER 5: AUDIO MEDIA: MUSIC RECORDINGS, RADIO

MEDIA QUIZ: The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (It Will Be Listened To)

The Recording Industry

Functions of the Recorded-Music Industry

Historical Development: From Edison to CDs

The Recorded-Music Industry Today

Recording-Industry Business Model
Creation Promotion Distribution Pricing Structure

Recording-Industry Reality Today: A Complex Landscape

What Is Broadcasting?
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: The Alphabet Soup of Spectrum Allocation

Radio

Functions of Radio

Radio's Historical Development Wireless Telegraphy Exploring Radio's Early Potential
MEDIA TIMELINE: Milestones in Early Radio-Technology Development
Voice Transmission Radio Before, During, and After WW I Widespread Public Adoption of Radio FM Radio, Edwin Howard Armstrong, and David Sarnoff

Development of a Radio Business Model

The Networks
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Trusting in the Power of the Airwaves

Radio Station Programming
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: NPR and PRI: America's Public Radio Networks

Radio Stations: The United States Today

Radio Station Ownership

Satellite Radio

CHAPTER 6: VISUAL MEDIA: MOVIES AND TELEVISION

MEDIA QUIZ: Eye-Q Test

Photography
Historical Development of Photography
MEDIA TIMELINE: Early Photography
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Photojournalist's Dilemma: Sudan, Starvation, and Suicide Seeing Beyond the Human Eye

Movies
The Functions of the Movie Industry Historical Development of Movies: The Early Years Silent Era: New Medium, New Technologies, New Storytelling

George M�li�s and D. W. Griffith

F. W. Murnau and Sergei Eisenstein
MEDIA TIMELINE: Selected Milestones in Early Motion Pictures
Sound and Color Come to Movies
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: 3-D Movies: Perennial Fad, or Wave of the Future?
Introduction to the Movie Industry

The Hollywood Star System
The Motion Picture Industry Today

Exhibition Windows for Movies

Going Digital

Television Functions of Television Television's Historical Development

Seeing the Light: The First Television Systems

Modern Television Takes Shape

The Rise of Flat-Panel Displays Television Distribution Broadcast TV Cable TV

Origins of Cable TV

Cable System Structure

Cable Services and Programming: Audience Fragmentation Satellite

Direct Broadcast Satellite

Satellite-Cable Convergence The Television Industry Today

The Shift to Digital Television
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Television Learns Music's Lessons

PART THREE: HOW DIGITAL MEDIA ARE CHANGING OUR WORLD

CHAPTER 7: INFORMATION OVERLOAD, USABILITY, AND INTERACTIVE MEDIA

MEDIA QUIZ: Searching for Knowledge

Characteristics of Storage, Representation, and Retrieval
Longevity Capacity Portability Accessibility Reproducibility

Nonelectronic Media Versus Electronic Media
MEDIA TIMELINE: Development of Electronic Recording Devices

Social and Political Impact of Storing Information
Stone Tablets to Papyrus Vellum to Paper The Kitchen Debate to Watergate Rodney King to the Oval Office Email to Facebook

Managing Information
Development of Digital Storage Devices
MEDIA TIMELINE: Development of Digital Storage Media
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: DVRs: Changing Television Viewing Habits--and the Industry Compression of Digital Audio and Video The Role of Search Engines Social and Political Impact of Information Overload

The Importance of User Interface

Current Problems with User Interface

Development of the User Interface The Television Screen Television and Remote Control The Computer Interface The Creation of Intuitive Interfaces
Keyboards
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: The Internet of Babel Computer Mouse Touch-Sensitive Screens Natural Input Methods Graphical User Interface

The Desktop Metaphor

Implications of User Interface for Mass Communication

Interactive Media

Interactivity Defined

The Importance of Interactive Media

Ethics of Interactive Media Free Speech for Everyone?
Interactive Advertising
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the (Google) Bomb
Search Engine Keywords

CHAPTER 8: NETWORKS AND DISTRIBUTING DIGITAL CONTENT

MEDIA QUIZ: Network Knowledge

Historical Influences on Modern Networks
Government and Private Industry Evolving Technology: From the Telegraph to Fiber Optics
Telegraphy
Telephony Wireless Telecommunications Satellites INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Al Jazeera: CNN of the Middle East?
Fiber Optics

The Nature of Networks: Key Concepts
Sarnoff's Law Metcalfe's Law Reed's Law

Computer Networks: Key Concepts
Peer-to-Peer Model Client/Server Model Wireless Networks Connectivity Quality of Service
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: The Great Net Neutrality Debate

Characteristics of Digital Distribution
Distributing Bits Low Distribution Costs Perfect Infinite Copies Instantaneous Distribution New Distribution Dynamics The Audience as Distributor

File-Sharing Services
Centralized File Sharing: The Case of Napster Decentralized File Sharing
Gnutella
Freenet Jabber Streaming File Sharing: The Next Wave
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: SETI@home: Is There Anybody Out There?

New Distribution Technologies, New Legal, Ethical, and Social Issues
Legal Issues Ethical Issues Social Issues

CHAPTER 9: SOCIAL MEDIA AND WEB 2.0

MEDIA QUIZ: How Connected Are You?

Defining Social Media
Differences with Traditional Media

What Is "Social" About Social Media?
Choice Conversation Curation Creation Collaboration
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Lily Allen: MySpace Star Reaches the Stars

Types of Social Media
Email Discussion Boards and Web Forums Chat Rooms Blogs Wikis Social-Networking Sites

Why Social Networks Matter
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Are We Really Separated by Six Degrees?

Collaborative Media Work
Roots in the Open-Source Movement Changing Audiences: From Consumers to "Produsers"
Reputation, Ratings, and Trust

Ethical and Legal Issues with Social Media
Privacy Transparency
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: Web 3.0: The Semantic Web

PART FOUR: MEDIA PERSPECTIVES

CHAPTER 10: JOURNALISM

MEDIA QUIZ: Nose for News

What Is News?

The Historical Development of Journalism
Objectivity and the Associated Press Minority Newspapers Pulitzer and Hearst: The Circulation Wars, Sensationalism, and Standards
Joseph Pulitzer
William Randolph Hearst The Muckrakers The Rise of Electronic Journalism
Murrow and News in TV's Golden Age
Changes in Television News Coverage

Foundations of Journalism
The Hutchins Commission and A Free and Responsible Press The Separation of Editorial and Business Operations Fairness and Balance in News Coverage Framing the News
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Covering Islam
Expert Sources The News Agenda of Newspapers The News Agenda of Television News

From Event to Public Eye: How News Is Created
Gathering the News Producing the News
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Platypus Journalism: Journalism's Future, or Evolutionary Dead End?
Distributing the News

Types of Journalism
Alternative Journalism Public Journalism Citizen Journalism An International Perspective

Journalism in the Digital World
The 24/7 News Cycle Nontraditional News Sources Online Users' Media Habits Personalization Contextualization of News Convergent Journalism

Journalism Ethics
Privacy Rights Versus the Public's Right to Know Going Undercover
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: Do the Ends Justify the Means?
Victimizing the Victims The Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics

The Business of Journalism
Salaries Diversity in the Newsroom

Careers in Journalism
Specialized Journalism Types
Business and Financial Journalism
Arts and Entertainment Journalism Sports Journalism Health or Medical Journalism Science and Technology Journalism Environmental Journalism

CHAPTER 11: ENTERTAINMENT

MEDIA QUIZ: Are You an Entertainment Junkie?

Functions of Entertainment

The Historical Development of Entertainment

Entertainment Media

Television Early Days: Programming and Genre Influences Pushing the Programming Envelope The MTV Generation and Rise of Cable Cable Comes of Age
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Pay-TV Piracy in Asia
Public Service Broadcasting: Public Service in a Commercial World Types of Programming
Changes in Media, Changes in Programming
Filling the Days CONVERGENCE CULTURE: The Quiz Show That Became a Town Filling the Nights Sports Questionable Programming

Movies
Hollywood's Legendary Movie Moguls
The Warner Brothers
Walt Disney Samuel Goldwyn Marcus Loew: Mogul of the East Louis B. Mayer Film Genres The Director as Auteur Technological Influences on Movie Genres Other Entertainment Sources for Movies DVDs and Videotapes

Video Games
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: Is Playing Video Games Bad for You?

Music
From Tin Pan Alley to Hollywood Roots of Rock and Roll Redefining Rock Music and MTV

Books and Magazines

Entertainment Ethics and Law The Censorship of Comics The Hays Code Stereotypes in Entertainment

The Business of Entertainment
Careers in Entertainment Salaries in Entertainment

CHAPTER 12: ADVERTISING AND PUBLIC RELATIONS

MEDIA QUIZ: The Power of Persuasion

Strategic Communications
Persuasive Communications The Role of Media in Persuasion

Advertising
The Historical Development of Advertising
Greater Prominence of Advertising
Development of the Advertising Agency Growth of Commercial Television Commercialization of the Internet CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: Me 2.0: The Guide to Branding Yourself The Rise of Branding Selling Products, Selling Ideas Advertising Channels
Print Media
Electronic Media CONVERGENCE CULTURE: The Super Bowl of Advertising Outdoor Direct Mail Advertising in a Digital World Email Marketing Banner Ads Pop-Ups, Interstitials, Superstitials, and Video Classifieds and Auction Sites Search Engine Ads Viral Marketing The Advertising Business Advertising Agencies Ethical Issues in Advertising
Deceptive Advertising
Puffery INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Finding the Right Formula for Advertising Regulations

Public Relations
The Historical Development of Public Relations Trends in the Development of Public Relations PR and Media Relations
Pseudo Events
Distributing News to the Media in the Digital Age Finding Sources Online PR Firms and the PR Industry Ethical Issues in Public Relations

Changing Trends in Advertising and PR
Careers in Advertising and PR

PART FIVE: MEDIA AND SOCIETY

CHAPTER 13: MEDIA THEORY AND RESEARCH: FROM WRITING TO TEXT MESSAGING

MEDIA QUIZ: Bringing Out Your Inner Researcher

The Role of Theory and Research

Media Research: What Type of Science Is It?
Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Qualitative and Quantitative Research Working Together

The First Media Revolution: The Written Word

Media Representations and Understanding the World Semiotics Media Ecology Agenda Setting and Framing

Mass Society, Mass Communication

Media-Effects Research Propaganda and the Magic Bullet Payne Fund Radio's Wider Impact Television and Violence
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Advertising and Its Negative Effects on Women
Limited Effects
Cultivation Analysis
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: It's a Mean, Mean World--At Least on TV Spiral of Silence Third-Person Effect Criticisms of Media-Effects Research

Understanding the Audience
Audiences Creating Meaning
Uses and Gratifications
Encoding/Decoding Reception Analysis

Cultural Studies
Ideology and the Culture Industry Political Economy
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Theories Old, Theories New, Theories Borrowed. . .
Criticisms of Cultural Studies

Digital Media Theory and Research
Information Society Audiences as Consumers, Users, or Produsers?

CHAPTER 14: COMMUNICATION LAW AND REGULATION IN THE DIGITAL AGE

MEDIA QUIZ: Legal Limits

The Legal Framework

The Foundations of Freedom of Expression National Security
Clear and Present Danger
Prior Restraint Libel
The New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
Protecting Journalists Against Libel Shield Laws Censorship
Indecent Content
Obscenity Criticism, Ridicule, or Humor

The Evolution of Regulating Electronic Media
Early Days and the Radio Act of 1912 (1911-1926)
Increasing Regulation and the Federal Radio Commission (1927-1933)
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: (Low) Power to the People
The Communications Act and Spectrum Scarcity (1934-1995)
The Telecommunications Act and Its Effects (1996-present)
Electronic Media Regulation Internationally
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: The Rise and Fall of Russian Media

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Regulating Radio and Television Universal Service Spectrum Auction The FCC, Station ID, and License Renewal FCC Limits on Stations

Regulating Content
Commercial Speech
Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising
False Advertising Political Speech
Equal-Time Rule
Fairness Doctrine

Children's Programming Protections
The Children's Television Act Violent and Sexual Programming: The V-Chip TV Parental Guidelines

Intellectual Property Rights
Fair Use

Legal Issues in the Digital World
Digital Rights Management
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: Creative Commons License
Privacy Content Rights and Responsibilities

CHAPTER 15: MASS COMMUNICATION AND POLITICS IN THE DIGITAL AGE

MEDIA QUIZ: Playing Politics

Four Theories of International Mass Communication
The Authoritarian Theory
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Searching for Truth: Self-Censorship in China
The Libertarian Theory The Social Responsibility Theory The Soviet Theory

The Public, the Public Sphere, and Public Opinion

Political Issues with Media Media in Developing Countries The Digital Divide

The Role of Media in Political Elections
Sound Bites and Horse Races CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: Sound Bite Shakespeare The Changing Tone of Television Political Coverage Opinion Polls Political Advertising
The Impact of Negative Advertising
Negative Advertising Effectiveness Political Debates
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: Image Is Everything

The Internet and Political Campaigns
The Role of YouTube Changing Rules for Politicians

Online Media and Political Communications

Glossary
Notes Credits Index

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