Core and Metro Networks / Edition 1

Core and Metro Networks / Edition 1

by Alexandros Stavdas
     
 

ISBN-10: 0470512741

ISBN-13: 9780470512746

Pub. Date: 04/26/2010

Publisher: Wiley

Find out everything you need to know about how current networks will have to evolve to provide for future broadband services

In this book, the authors provide an overview of the status, challenges, architectures, and technological solutions for core and metropolitan networks. Furthermore, the book describes the current state of core and metropolitan

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Overview

Find out everything you need to know about how current networks will have to evolve to provide for future broadband services

In this book, the authors provide an overview of the status, challenges, architectures, and technological solutions for core and metropolitan networks. Furthermore, the book describes the current state of core and metropolitan telecommunication networks, as well as the drivers and motives behind the current paradigm shift in the telecommunications industry. Moreover, the authors elaborate system design guidelines for both point-to-point and multi-hop optical networks taking into consideration the analogue nature of the transmission channel.

Key Features:

  • Provides coverage of all aspects of core and metro networks supporting future broadband services, and a detailed description of the state-of-the-art
  • Presents a clear path for migrating from point-to-point to   data-centric, dynamic,  multi-hop optical networks
  • Shows how current systems will need to evolve over the coming years, summarizing challenges and issues to be investigated in future research
  • Covers a wide range of topics from network architectures, to control plane, to key optical and optoelectronic devices, and best practice in transmission and system design
  • Provides results, best practices and guidelines for various technical problems, including numerous hands-on examples
  • Written by authors from cutting-edge companies such as Alcatel-Lucent, Siemens, Lucent, France Telecom, BT, and Telefonica

Optical Core and Metro Networks will be of interest to researchers in industry and academia, and advanced (final year undergraduate) and postgraduate students undertaking communications, networking and optics courses.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780470512746
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
04/26/2010
Series:
Wiley Series on Communications Networking & Distributed Systems Series, #30
Pages:
512
Product dimensions:
6.80(w) x 9.80(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 The Emerging Core and Metropolitan Networks Andrea Di Giglio Angel Ferreiro Marco Schiano 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Chapter's Scope and Objectives 1

1.2 General Characteristics of Transport Networks 1

1.2.1 Circuit- and Packet-Based Network Paradigms 2

1.2.2 Network Layering 3

1.2.3 Data Plane, Control Plane, Management Plane 4

1.2.4 Users' Applications and Network Services 4

1.2.5 Resilience 5

1.2.6 Quality of Service 7

1.2.7 Traffic Engineering 8

1.2.8 Virtual Private Networks 10

1.2.9 Packet Transport Technologies 11

1.3 Future Networks Challenges 12

1.3.1 Network Evolution Drivers 12

1.3.2 Characteristics of Applications and Related Traffic 12

1.3.3 Network Architectural Requirements 17

1.3.4 Data Plane, Control Plane, and Management Plane Requirements 24

1.4 New Transport Networks Architectures 31

1.4.1 Metropolitan Area Network 33

1.4.2 Core Network 36

1.4.3 Metro and Core Network (Ultra-long-term Scenario) 38

1.5 Transport Networks Economics 39

1.5.1 Capital Expenditure Models 39

1.5.2 Operational Expenditure Models 42

1.5.3 New Business Opportunities 44

Acronyms 52

References 54

2 The Advances in Control and Management for Transport Networks Dominique Verchere Bela Berde 55

2.1 Drivers Towards More Uniform Management and Control Networks 55

2.2 Control Plane as Main Enabler to Autonomic Network Integration 58

2.2.1 Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching 59

2.2.2 Evolution in Integrated Architectures 71

2.3 Multilayer Interactions and Network Models 74

2.3.1 Introduction 74

2.3.2 Vertical Integration and Models 78

2.3.3 Horizontal Integration and Models 79

2.3.4 Conclusions on UNI Definitions from ITU-T, OIF, IETF, and OIF UNI: GMPLS UNI Interoperability Issues 104

2.4 Evolution of Connection Services and Special Cases of Optical Networks 105

2.4.1 Evolution in Network Services 105

2.4.2 Virtual Private Networks 106

2.4.3 Layer 1 VPN 109

2.4.4 Layer 2 VPN 118

2.4.5 Layer 3 VPN 122

2.5 Conclusion 123

References 124

3 Elements from Telecommunications Engineering Chris Matrakidis John Mitchell Benn Thomsen 127

3.1 Digital Optical Communication Systems 127

3.1.1 Description of Signals in the Time and Frequency Domains 127

3.1.2 Digital Signal Formats 132

3.2 Performance Estimation 135

3.2.1 Introduction 136

3.2.2 Modeling 141

3.2.3 Comparison of Techniques 146

3.2.4 Standard Experimental Measurement Procedures 149

References 158

4 Enabling Technologies Stefano Santoni Roberto Cigliutti Massimo Giltrelli Pasquale Donadio Chris Matrakidis Andrea Paparella Tanya Politi Marcello Potenza Erwan Pincemin Alexandros Stavdas 161

4.1 Introduction 161

4.2 Transmitters 161

4.2.1 Introduction 161

4.2.2 Overview of Light Sources for Optical Communications 167

4.2.3 Transmitters for High Data-Rate Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Systems 178

4.3 Receiver 202

4.3.1 Overview of Common Receiver Components 202

4.4 The Optical Fiber 212

4.4.1 Short Introduction to the Waveguide Principle 213

4.4.2 Description of Optical Single-Mode Fibers 216

4.4.3 Special Fiber Types 222

4.5 Optical Amplifiers 223

4.5.1 Introduction to Optical Amplifiers 225

4.5.2 Principle of Operation 229

4.5.3 Gain Saturation 231

4.5.4 Noise 234

4.5.5 Gain Dynamics 235

4.5.6 Optical Fiber and Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers 236

4.5.7 Raman Amplifiers 239

4.5.8 Lasers and Amplifiers 243

4.6 Optical Filters and Multiplexers 245

4.6.1 Introduction 245

4.6.2 Optical (De-)Multiplexing Devices 246

4.6.3 Overall Assessment of (De-)Multiplexing Techniques 256

4.6.4 Optical Filters 257

4.6.5 Tunable Filters 260

References 263

5 Assessing Physical Layer Degradations Andrew Lord Marcello Potenza Marco Forzati Erwan Pincemin 267

5.1 Introduction and Scope 267

5.2 Optical Power Budgets, Part I 268

5.2.1 Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Q Factor 268

5.2.2 Noise 273

5.2.3 Performance Parameters. Light Path Evaluation Rules 290

5.2.4 Transmission Impairments and Enhancements: Simple Power Budgets 295

5.3 System Bandwidth 334

5.3.1 System Bandwidth, Signal Distortion, Intersymbol Interference 334

5.3.2 Fiber-Optical Nonlinear Effects 346

5.3.3 Optical Transients 356

5.4 Comments on Budgets for Nonlinear Effects and Optical Transients 362

5.4.1 Compensators/Equalizers 363

5.4.2 CD Equalization 363

5.4.3 PMD Equalization 364

5.4.4 Simultaneous Presence of Distortions, Electronic Equalization, and Cumulative Filtering 364

5.4.5 General Features of Different Modulation Formats 368

5.5 Semianalytical Models for Penalties 370

5.6 Translucent or Hybrid Networks 370

5.6.1 Design Rules for Hybrid Networks 371

5.7 Appendix 372

5.7.1 Dispersion Managed Links 372

5.7.2 Intrachannel Nonlinear Effects 374

References 378

6 Combating Physical Layer Degradations Herbert Haunstein Harald Rohde Marco Forzati Erwan Pincemin Jonas Martensson Anders Djupsjöbacka Tanya Politi 381

6.1 Introduction 381

6.2 Dispersion-Compensating Components and Methods for CD and PMD 382

6.2.1 Introduction on Optical CD and PMD Compensator Technology 382

6.2.2 Optical Compensation Schemes 383

6.2.3 Key Parameters of Optical Compensators 387

6.2.4 Compensators Suitable for Translucent Networks 389

6.2.5 Impact of Group-Delay Ripple in Fiber Gratings 391

6.3 Modulation Formats 396

6.3.1 On-Off Keying Modulation Formats 397

6.3.2 Comparison of Basic OOK Modulation Formats: NRZ, RZ, and CSRZ for 40 Gbit/s Transmission 400

6.3.3 A Power-Tolerant Modulation Format: APRZ-OOK 408

6.3.4 DPSK Modulation Formats 412

6.3.5 Spectrally Efficient Modulation Formats 414

6.4 Electronic Equalization of Optical Transmission Impairments 416

6.4.1 Electronic Equalization Concepts 416

6.4.2 Static Performance Characterization 420

6.4.3 Dynamic Adaptation of FFE- and DFE-Structures 420

6.4.4 General Remarks 423

6.5 FEC in Lightwave Systems 424

6.5.1 Application of FEC in Lightwave Systems 424

6.5.2 Standards for FEC in Lightwave Systems 425

6.5.3 FEC Performance Characterization 426

6.5.4 FEC Application in System Design 429

6.6 Appendix: Experimental Configuration and Measurement Procedure for Evaluation and Comparison for Different Modulation Formats for 40 Gbit/s Transmission 431

6.6.1 Simulation Setup 434

Acknowledgments 435

References 435

Dictionary of Optical Networking Didier Colle Chris Matrakidis Josep Solé-Pareta 441

Acronyms 465

Index 477

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