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Corrections in America: An Introduction / Edition 9

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Overview

Corrections in America, 9th edition boasts of all new four-color graphics and photos that enhance the text's readability. This text has been completely updated and revised based on comments and suggestions from both instructors and students. These efforts have resulted in the best and most user-friendly introductory corrections text on the market.

Practitioners, researchers, academics, and even the interested layperson will gain a clearer understanding of corrections from this comprehensive text. Some of the new features include:

  • Correctional Briefs describe new issues as they pertain to the text material
  • Correctional Bytes expand upon key terms and related issues
  • Correctional Profiles highlight key figures in the field of corrections
  • Correctional Champions introduce some of the best professionals in the field of corrections
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130895424
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
  • Publication date: 8/28/2000
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 240

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

The ninth edition of Corrections in America: An Introduction is also the authors' celebration of the new century and millennium. The past eight editions are now surpassed by a complete overhaul of the entire text. For over a quarter of a century this book has been modified and changed many times, primarily as a result of comments and recommendations received from users of this text in their classes and from correctional professionals and other valued colleagues. We, the authors, feel #hat these major new efforts will provide the instructor and students with the finest introductory-level correctional text available on the market.

Experts in crime and criminology, practitioners in the field of institutional and community corrections, and instructors who have used our text year in and year out make your authors proud and humble—and that faith has motivated us to attempt to provide them with even more reasons for this book to continue to earn such praise.

In this totally new edition, we continue to attempt to provide a clear overview of each of the categories that make up corrections. We do not try to explore some subjects in too much depth at the expense of other subjects that are important to the introductory student. We offer this almost totally new edition to the student and instructor in the hope of providing not only an educational experience but also of provoking an enjoyable awakening to the vast field of corrections and its impact on society We hope the instructors will find the presentation, design, flow, and great new pedagogical tools and other materials helpful to their teaching experience, making it aseffective and interesting as possible. We have always tried to remain academically sound and "student friendly."

Traditions of the Past Continue into the New Millennium

This ninth edition of Corrections in America has undergone more revisions and changes than all of the previous eight editions combined. Most of the changes are based on reviews and comments from our colleagues and friends in academia and are aimed at making the text more accurate, complete, and useful as a teaching and learning tool. We have always sought to present a balance between current and past research, grand and applied theory, and practical and predictive examples and issues. The first thing the user will notice is that the publishers have given us a "full-color" format that allows us to present people, programs, institutions, graphics, art, and special features in exciting and stimulating color! We have incorporated the three new learning aids from the eighth edition with other exciting additions to the text—and in sparkling color. From the eighth edition we kept and improved these features: "Profiles," which describe persons of note or notoriety at a particular time or point in the text; "Sidebars," which are aimed at providing interesting facts and definitions from corrections and criminal justice to the student with the goal of reinforcing the materials being covered in the text without interfering with the flow of the main textual materials; and "Correctional Briefs," which are specific presentations of processes or programs that illustrate the points in the main body of the text in an interesting and illustrative manner. A new feature is "Correctional Champions," which highlights persons who have been selected by the American Correctional Association as the "best in the business." These are spread throughout. the text to honor their service and show what an individual can do to improve corrections. "Words to Remember" at the end of each chapter will again appear in bold in the text in order to enhance their learning potential. We have also redesigned and updated all tables, figures, and graphs to be more attractive and clear—and in color. We have added numerous color photographs to emphasize issues discussed in the text and highlight the persons, facilities, and programs that are important to the history and future of corrections. The field of correctional employment and careers is broad, varied and of great interest to students. A major new appendix addresses how to find out about correctional careers in city, county, state, private, and federal systems for those interested in institutions, probation, parole, and many other professions that serve to protect society and help reintegrate offenders. This new appendix, thanks to the miracle of the Internet, lists for the instructor or student the most current addresses, phone, fax numbers, and e-mail addresses, and web sites for all the major departments of corrections in the United States, with many excellent links and information sources about careers in Corrections.

The following features from the eighth edition continue to enhance the ninth:

  • Its systems approach explores each element of corrections as an integrated and interrelated series of subsystems of persons, programs, and processes. The systems approach develops the processes, programs, and people involved so that the information flows well and builds on previous material in an additive fashion.
  • Its unbiased presentation and the wide range of topics covered make the text suitable for instructors who come from every point of view and academic orientation.
  • Its end-of-chapter materials contain summaries, review questions, words to remember, extensive endnotes on other references to points covered, plus recommended readings at the end of each major part.

Special New Features

In addition to the features mentioned above, we have made major changes and added specific features to the ninth edition as follows:

  • The authors have completely revised and realigned all of the text and graphic materials to update them with materials and references that are the most current and relevant available.
  • The first section of the book, Part 1, dealing with history of corrections, has been reduced from four to two chapters, but retains the richness of the materials in a more concise format. Repetition and redundancy have been screened and weeded out without losing content about the rich history of corrections.
  • The four chapters on the justice process have been also streamlined and reduced to two, again following careful editing to retain essential material.
  • The chapters on jails, probation, and intermediate sanctions have been realigned in Part 3. This leads to a more systematic and logical flow The chapters have been placed in a new Part 3, which is now named Alternatives to Imprisonment.
  • Following the plan to realign the topics in a more linear fashion, Part 4 now explains the concepts and practices of imprisonment and the systems in which offenders are imprisoned, and includes an updated chapter on the growing private prisons sector.
  • Part 5 streamlines the former three chapters dealing with correctional staff and functions into two updated, revised and expanded chapters that deal with custody staff and functions and with noncustody functions.
  • The chapter on female inmates has been greatly expanded and moved to Chapter 14, followed by chapters on male inmates, juveniles, and special category inmates. This effort responds to the need for a more balanced handling of the accelerating growth in specific clientele groups of corrections, with new material on the growing problems of dealing with geriatric inmates.
  • The chapters on inmate and ex-offender rights, and the death penalty, now appear much later in the text and have been made more balanced and shorter, while still reflecting the latest data and problems in this critical sector involving the rights of those who move through the various systems of corrections.
  • Chapters on parole and community-based corrections have been moved to their logical locations at the end of the linear process we call corrections. This approach allows instructors to develop their view of corrections in a logical and linear manner.
  • Topics are better covered by use of the most current data from the many new web sites on the Internet, as well as from the NSA, ACA, AJA, NU, UCR, and OJJDP.
  • Current critical issues such as elderly inmates, juveniles treated as adults, gang violence, the increase in sex offenders, home detention, the impact of the ADA on corrections, and many others have been covered in appropriate chapters, and are reexamined in depth in the final chapter that explores corrections as it enters the first decade of the twenty-first century.

Organization of the Text

The ninth edition is now realigned into nine "parts" containing twenty-two k chapters. The authors have been diligent as possible in covering as many of the changes and trends that took place in the last half of the 1990s.

PART 1: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

This part provides the basis of historical development and presents philosophies in the handling of those who fall outside accepted norms of behavior. Based on input from users, it has been reduced to two chapters.

Chapter 1: Early History (2000 B.C. to A.D. 1800)
This chapter outlines the development of dealing with unacceptable behavior from tribalism to the beginnings of scientific enlightenment, covering the period from 2000 B.C. Up to A.D. 1800.

Chapter 2: Prisons and Ideologies (1800 to the Present)
This chapter explains the emergence of imprisonment in 1790 as a form of punishment and atonement for crime and the ideological changes that have impacted the development of standards. This chapter explains the use of imprisonment as a means of punishment and atoning for crime, from 1790 to the present. Also included are philosophical changes that have led to the more recent development of correctional standards.

PART 2: THE JUSTICE PROCESS

This part deals with how the offender is processed from arrest through the legal and justice system after being charged with a criminal act.

Chapter 3: From Crime to Conviction
This chapter explains misdemeanor and felony offenses, the two types of crime that bring offenders into the system, and discusses how each is processed. The correctional filtering process, which occurs as offenders move through the system, is shown to result in very few offenders being incarcerated.

Chapter 4: The Court Process: Sentencing and Appeals
This chapter discusses sentencing functions and options as methods of dealing with convicted offenders, as well as imposing alternatives to incarceration (discussed in detail in Part 3). This chapter also explains methods and routes of appeals and the current appellate logjam in the higher courts.

PART 3: ALTERNATIVES TO IMPRISONMENT

This part has been redesigned, aligned, and placed where it should be to examine the major alternatives available to the courts when deciding whether or not to send an offender to prison.

Chapter 5: Jails and Detention Facilities
This chapter addresses the start of the correctional process and makes clear that the court disposition of the offender's case has a major impact on the rest of the process, as well as on the offender.

Chapter 6: Probation
This chapter on probation describes the most frequently used sentencing option before incarceration, how it developed, where it is today, and how it will develop in the twenty-first century.

Chapter 7: Intermediate Sanctions
This chapter identifies relatively new alternatives to probation and imprisonment and how they may be imposed in dealing with offenders who would not benefit from sentences to probation or jail but who should not be incarcerated.

PART 4: CORRECTIONAL SYSTEMS

Chapter 8: Imprisonment
This major chapter deals with the processes, impacts, and potentials of imprisonment in the past and present systems in the United States.

Chapter 9: State and Local Prison Systems
A review is provided of the major systems in the United States that deal with adult felons and how they are impacted by overcrowding and the legalistic environment of incarceration. This chapter includes major city, military, and other adult correctional systems.

Chapter 10: The Federal System
The chapter reflects on the historical underpinnings of the Federal Bureau of Prisons and the changing nature of federal law as it impacts the types of crimes and offenders in federal programs and institutions, especially drug offenders.

Chapter 11: Private Sector Systems
This chapter explains and evaluates both the roles in and general picture of private correctional efforts and those corporate entities that have become valuable adjuncts to the public sector.

PART 5: CORRECTIONAL FUNCTIONS

The continual battle between custody staff and functions with noncustody staff and functions is examined in the context of unit team methods and the need to deal with the serious overcrowding, reduced budgets, and other factors in institutional settings.

Chapter 12: Custody Functions and Tasks
This chapter examines management problems and issues involved with providing safety and security with the growing violent and problematic populations of America's prisons. It also describes and explains custody services and programs.

Chapter 13: Management and Treatment
This chapter describes treatment services in prison and other correctional settings, examining the impact of the death of the "medical model," the "get tough" movement, expanding prison populations, geriatric and other challenged populations, and juveniles sentenced and confined as adults. It also examines other noncustody functions that must be performed in a safe and secure manner in the nation's correctional facilities.

PART 6: INSTITUTIONAL CLIENTS

Part 6 takes a detailed look at the varied kinds of persons, or "clients," who end up somewhere in the corrections system, as well as their characteristics and needs.

Chapter 14: Female Inmates
This greatly expanded chapter builds on the growing body of knowledge with regard to female offender populations in the entire corrections system.

Chapter 15: Male Offenders
Chapter 15 has been expanded to provide a broader look at the major health, safety, and security issues for today's institutionalized male offenders, especially ' light of the prison population explosion and rising percentages of violent prisoners.

Chapter 16: Juvenile Offenders
This revised chapter reflects the changing attitudes toward juvenile offenders and details efforts to deal with the violent youths and gang members of today. It discusses the rising numbers of youths being tried as adults and the comitant problems of housing them in institutions for juveniles and for adults.

Chapter 17: Special Category Offenders
This chapter identifies and describes categories of offenders that are not mainstream ("general population"), focusing on mental, sexual, physical, aging, and health problems that require special programs. Special attention is given to the aging population, those inmates serving life certain sentences who occupy cells in already overcrowded correctional facilities.

PART 7: RIGHTS OF CORRECTIONAL CLIENTS

Part 7 examines the rights of convicted offenders in a number of situations and legal environments to better trace the development and application of these rights.

Chapter 18: Inmate and Ex-Offender Rights
This extensively revised and updated chapter describes and compares the conflicts between prisoner rights in confinement and the needs of administrators to manage a safe and secure institution. It also examines barriers to reentry into society and the collateral consequences of conviction that are experienced by former inmates and the effect on their right to hold a job.

Chapter 19: The Death Penalty—The Ultimate Right
This more streamlined chapter explains the development of the death penalty and how it has been and could be applied to the rapidly rising number of inmates who are eligible for execution in twenty-first century America.

PART 1: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

Part 8 explores the two major systems that attempt to reintegrate former inmates back into society: parole and community-based systems.

Chapter 20: Parole
This chapter covers the parole system, which continues to come under attack. Yet this major subsystem for supervision over offenders after release from prison is beginning to change and grow.

Chapter 21: Community Corrections
This chapter details the major community programs and efforts across jurisdictional levels that deal with those offenders who must be handled in correctional options other than incarceration.

PART 9: A LINK TO THE FUTURE

In the final part, the authors expound on corrections in the twenty-first century and where future trends, innovations, and programs might develop and be expanded. Issues and problems are reexamined in the context of the social nexus of contemporary society.

Chapter 22: The Futures of Corrections
This chapter looks back, as well as ahead, identifying prospects for corrections in the twenty-first century. We examine the impacts of a correctional population of 10.5 million offenders who will represent one in twenty-eight adult Americans by 2010. Possible future scenarios are identified for this fascinating area.

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Table of Contents

Foreword
Preface
About the Authors
Pt. I History and Evolution of Corrections 1
Ch. 1 Early History (2000 B.C. to A.D. 1700) 3
Ch. 2 A Century of Change (1700 to 1800) 16
Ch. 3 The Age of Prisons (1800 to the Present) 30
Ch. 4 The Pendulum of Correctional Ideologies 53
Pt. II Law and the Legal Process 75
Ch. 5 The Incidence of Crime 77
Ch. 6 The Correctional Filter 98
Ch. 7 Sentencing 115
Ch. 8 Appellate Review 134
Pt. III The Correctional Process 159
Ch. 9 Jails and Detention Facilities 161
Ch. 10 Probation 183
Ch. 11 Intermediate Sanctions 199
Ch. 12 Imprisonment 217
Ch. 13 Parole 238
Pt. IV The Correctional Client 257
Ch. 14 Jail Inmates 259
Ch. 15 Male Offenders 275
Ch. 16 Female Offenders 291
Ch. 17 Juvenile Offenders 316
Ch. 18 Special Category Offenders 343
Pt. V Rights of the Sentenced Offender 371
Ch. 19 Offender Rights in Confinement 373
Ch. 20 The Death Penalty: The Ultimate Right 398
Ch. 21 The Rights of Ex-Offenders 426
Pt. VI Corrections as a Profession 447
Ch. 22 Custody Functions and Tasks 449
Ch. 23 Management and Treatment Functions and Tasks 474
Ch. 24 Specialized Functions and Tasks 491
Pt. VII Correctional Systems 513
Ch. 25 State and Local Systems 515
Ch. 26 The Federal System 537
Ch. 27 Community-Based Systems 554
Ch. 28 Private Sector Systems 570
Pt. VIII The Future of Corrections 591
Ch. 29 Corrections Enters the Twenty-first Century 593
Glossary 605
Index of Authors 631
Subject Index 643
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