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Overview

Offering a practical approach, this text introduces students to the ideas and practices characteristic of modern corrections, while equipping them with the skills necessary to succeed in the field. Its three-pronged approach to corrections includes a thorough description of correctional ideology, including professionalism, policy issues, and society's avowed goals for the correctional enterprise; a comprehensive overview of correctional practice, including the everyday operations of correctional agencies, prisons, jails, and the procedures of parole and probation; and the development of personal skills applicable to the corrections field. The text's central theme throughout is professionalism in corrections.

The extensively updated, revised, and reorganized third edition features enhanced coverage of the goals of punishment, restorative and retributive justice, the impact of terrorism on facility management, prison and sentencing reform, professional credentialing, capital punishment, and much more.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780073268682
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
  • Publication date: 2/24/2006
  • Edition description: 3RD PKG
  • Edition number: 3
  • Product dimensions: 8.20 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Frank Schmalleger, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. He also serves as director of the Justice Research Association, a private consulting firm and think tank focusing on issues of crime and justice.

Dr. Schmalleger holds a bachelor’s degree from the University of Notre Dame and both a master’s and a doctorate in sociology from The Ohio State University with a special emphasis in criminology. From 1976 to 1994, he taught criminal justice courses at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke, serving for many years as a tenured full professor. For the last 16 of those years, he chaired the Department of Sociology, Social Work, and Criminal Justice. As an adjunct professor with Webster University in St. Louis, Missouri, Dr. Schmalleger helped develop a graduate program in security management and loss prevention that is currently offered on U.S. military bases around the world. He taught courses in that curriculum for more than a decade, focusing primarily on computer and information security. Dr. Schmalleger has also taught in the New School for Social Research’s on-line graduate program, helping to build the world’s first electronic classrooms for criminal justice distance learning.Dr. Schmalleger is the author of numerous articles and many books, including Criminal Justice Today (Prentice Hall, 2005); Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction (Prentice Hall, 2004), Criminology Today (Prentice Hall, 2004); and Criminal Law Today (Prentice Hall, 2002). He is founding editor of the journal The Justice Professional and has served as imprint advisor for Greenwood Publishing Group’s criminal justice referenceseries.

Dr. Schmalleger is also the creator of a number of award-winning web sites (including cybrary.info and crimenews.info), and founder and codirector of the Criminal Justice Distance Learning Consortium (cjdlc.org), a project of the Justice Research Association.

John Ortiz Smykla, Ph.D., is currently professor and chair of the Division of Criminal Justice and Legal Studies at The University of West Florida. Previously he was professor and chair of the Department of Political Science and Criminal Justice at the University of South Alabama. Before that, he was professor of criminal justice at the University of Alabama and served as department chair for ten years.

Using multimedia, Dr. Smykla teaches courses in corrections and research methods and has supervised more than 50 master’s and doctoral students. He has taught two-way interactive corrections courses across several campuses of the University of Alabama system.

Dr. Smykla earned the interdisciplinary social science Ph.D. in criminal justice, sociology, and anthropology from Michigan State University. He holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in sociology from California State University at Northridge.

Dr. Smykla has authored or edited four corrections books. His dataset, Executions in the United States, 1608-2002: The Espy File, is one of the most frequently requested criminal justice datafiles from the University of Michigan’s Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dr. Smykla has published more than 40 research articles on corrections issues, including “The Human Impact of Capital Punishment," "Placing Uruguayan Corrections in Context," "The Impact of the ‘New Penology’ on ISP," "Effects of a Prison Facility on the Regional Economy," "Jail Type and Inmate Behavior," and most recently, "Juvenile Drug Courts." Dr. Smykla has delivered more than 50 conference papers in the United States and abroad, and he serves on the editorial boards of Criminal Justice Review, International Criminal Justice Review, and Journal of Crime and Justice.. In 1986, he was a Senior Fulbright Scholar in Argentina and Uruguay.

Dr. Smykla is a member of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences and the Southern Criminal Justice Association. In 1996, the Southern Criminal Justice Association named him Educator of the Year. In 1997, he served as Chair of the ACJS annual program committee. In 2000, he served as President of the Southern Criminal Justice Association. Among his civic activities today, Dr. Smykla is a member of the Mobile County Metro Jail Planning Committee and the Mobile Chamber of Commerce Candidates’ Campaign Workshop, a forum for educating citizens interested in running for public office about campaign issues.

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Table of Contents

BRIEF CONTENTS

Part 1: INTRODUCTION TO CORRECTIONS

Chapter 1: Corrections: An Overview

Chapter 2: Punishments: A Brief History

Chapter 3: Sentencing: To Punish or to Reform?




Part 2: COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS

Chapter 4: Diversion and Probation: How Most Offenders Are Punished

Chapter 5: Intermediate Sanctions: Between Probation and Incarceration


Part 3: INSTITUTIONAL CORRECTIONS

Chapter 6: Jails: Way Stations along the Justice Highway

Chapter 7: Prisons Today: Change Stations or Warehouses?

Chapter 8: Parole: Early Release and Reentry




Part 4: THE PRISON WORLD

Chapter 9: The Staff World: Managing the Prison Population


Chapter 10: The Inmate World: Living Behind Bars

Chapter 11: The Legal World: Prisoners' Rights

Chapter 12: Special Prison Populations: The Elderly, HIV/AIDS, and the Mentally Challenged





Part 5: ISSUES IN CORRECTIONS

Chapter 13: Prison Issues and Concerns: Security, Privatization, Technology, and Accreditation

Chapter 14: The Victim: Helping Those in Need

Chapter 15: Death: The Ultimate Sanction

Chapter 16: Juvenile Corrections: End of an Era?

Chapter 17: Professionalism in Corrections




Appendix: Careers in Corrections

Endnotes

Glossary

Credits

Case Index

Author/Subject Index


DETAILED CONTENTS

BoxedFeatures

Preface

A Guided Tour

PART 1. INTRODUCTION TO CORRECTIONS

CHAPTER 1. Corrections: An Overview

The Corrections Explosion
Historical Roots of the Corrections Explosion
Correctional Employment

Crime and Corrections

Measuring Crime
The Crime Funnel

Corrections and the Criminal Justice System

Entering the Correctional System
Prosecution and Pretrial Procedure
Judicial Procedures
Sentencing and Sanctions
The Correctional Subsystem

Professionalism in Corrections

Standards and Training
Basic Skills and Knowledge
Standard-Setting Organizations
Education

Social Diversity in Corrections

CHAPTER 2. Punishments: A Brief History

Punishments in Ancient Times

Ancient Greece
Ancient Israel
Early Rome

Physical Punishments

Flogging
Branding
Mutilation
Instant Death
Lingering Death
The Role of Torture
Exile and Transportation
Public Humiliation
Confinement

Incarceration as Punishment

The House of Correction (1550–1700)
The Emergence of the Prison

The Reformers

William Penn
John Howard
Cesare Beccaria
Jeremy Bentham
Sir Samuel Romilly
Sir Robert Peel
Elizabeth Fry
Mary Belle Harris

CHAPTER 3. Sentencing: To Punish or to Reform?

Sentencing: Philosophy and Goals
Philosophy of Criminal Sentencing
The Goals of Sentencing

Sentencing Options and Types of Sentences

Options
Types of Sentences

Sentencing Models

Indeterminate Sentencing
Determinate Sentencing
Guideline Sentencing
Mandatory Minimum Sentencing

Three-Strikes Models—Washington and California

Impact on Local Courts and Jails
Impact on State Prison Systems

Issues in Sentencing

Proportionality
Equity
Social Debt
Truth in Sentencing
Broader Issues

PART 2. COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS

CHAPTER 4. Diversion and Probation: How Most Offenders Are Punished

Overview of Diversion and Probation

Diversion
Rationales for Diversion
The Process of Diversion
Diversion Policy Issues

Probation

Reasons for and Goals of Probation
History of Probation
Characteristics of Adults on Probation
Who Administers Probation?
Does Probation Work?

What Probation Officers Do

Case Investigation
Supervision

CHAPTER 5. Intermediate Sanctions: Between Probation and Incarceration

Intermediate Sanctions
Value of Intermediate Sanctions
Varieties of Intermediate Sanctions
Policy-Centered Approach to Developing Intermediate Sanctions
Program-Centered Approach to Developing

Intermediate Sanctions

Community Corrections
Community Corrections Acts

PART 3. INSTITUTIONAL CORRECTIONS

CHAPTER 6. Jails: Way Stations Along the Justice Highway

Purpose of Jails

First Jail in America
American Jails in the 20th Century
Architecture and Inmate Management

Characteristics of Jail Inmates, Facilities, and Staff

Jail Inmates
Jail Facilities
Jail Staff

Jail Issues

Privatization
Overcrowding
Ways to Reduce Jail Crowding
Educational and Vocational Programs
Mental Health Programs
Religious Programs
Jail Accreditation
Jail Staff as Professionals

CHAPTER 7. Prisons Today: Change Stations or Warehouses?

History of Prisons in America
Stages of Development

Who Is in Prison Today?

State and Federal Inmates Held in Privately Operated Facilities
State and Federal Inmates Held in Local Jails
Gender
Race
Age
Most Serious Offense

Programs for Prisoners

Classification
Orientation to the Institution
Unit Management
Daily Routine
Work Assignments
Education and Recreation Programs
Health Care

Prison Organization and Administration

State Prison Systems
Federal Bureau of Prisons

Does Incarceration “Work”?

CHAPTER 8. Parole: Early Release and Reentry

Parole as Part of the Criminal Justice System

Historical Overview
Reentry

Characteristics of Parolees

Trends in the Parole Population
Does Parole Work?

Issues in Parole

Can Parolees Vote?
Reentry Courts and Community Partnership Councils
Reintegration of Offenders
Reintegration Involving Victims
Legal Decisions Affecting Parole
Abolition of Discretionary Parole Board Release

PART 4. THE PRISON WORLD

CHAPTER 9. The Staff World: Managing the Prison Population

The Staff Hierarchy

The Correctional Officer—The Crucial Professional
Bases of Power
The Staff Subculture
Gender and Ethnicity of Correctional Officers
Correctional Officer Personalities
Correctional Officer Job Assignments

Correctional Staff Issues

Female Officers
Stress
Staff Safety
Job Satisfaction
Professionalism
The Impact of Terrorism on Corrections

CHAPTER 10. The Inmate World: Living Behind Bars

Men in Prison
What Is the Inmate Subculture?
How Does an Inmate Subculture Form?
Norms and Values of Prison Society
Prison Argot—The Language of Confinement
Social Structure in Men’s Prisons
Sexuality in Men’s Prisons

Women in Prison

Characteristics of Women Inmates
Offenses of Incarcerated Women
Social Structure in Women’s Prisons
Pseudofamilies and Sexual Liaisons
Special Needs of Female Inmates
Mothers in Prison
Cocorrectional Facilities

CHAPTER 11. The Legal World: Prisoners’ Rights

The Hands-Off Doctrine
Decline of the Hands-Off Doctrine

Prisoners’ Rights

Legal Foundations
Mechanisms for Securing Prisoners’ Rights
Inmate Grievance Procedures

The Prisoner Rights Era (1970–1991)

First Amendment
Fourth Amendment
Eighth Amendment
Fourteenth Amendment
End of the Prisoner Rights Era

Female Inmates and the Courts

The Cases

CHAPTER 12. Special Prison Populations: The Elderly, HIV/AIDS, and the Mentally Challenged

Special-Needs Inmates
Substance-Abusing Inmates
HIV-Positive and AIDS Inmates
Mentally Ill Inmates
Inmates with Tuberculosis
Older Inmates

Drug Treatment Programs

Recidivism
Program Evaluation
Recommendations for Managing Substance-Abusing Offenders

Drug Courts

HIV and AIDS in Correctional Facilities
Education and Prevention

Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Jail

Legal Issues
Inmates with Disabilities
Inmates with HIV/AIDS
Inmates with Mental Illness

PART 5. ISSUES IN CORRECTIONS

CHAPTER 13. Prison Issues and Concerns: Security, Privatization, Technology, and Accreditation

Overcrowding

Why Are Prisons Overcrowded?
How Can Prison Overcrowding Be Controlled?
What Are the Consequences of Prison Overcrowding?

Prison Security

Prison Gangs—Security Threat Groups
Prison Riots and Disturbances

Supermax Housing and “No-Frills” Prisons and Jails

Supermax Housing
“No-Frills” Prisons and Jails

Accreditation

Why Should Correctional Agencies and Facilities Be Accredited?

Privatization

The Debate
Privatizing Community Supervision
Future Trends

Technocorrections

Communication
Offender and Officer Tracking and Recognition
Detection
Implementation

CHAPTER 14. The Victim: Helping Those in Need

A Brief History of America’s Victims’ Rights Movement
Legislation
The Proposal for a Federal Victims’ Rights

Constitutional Amendment

The Costs and Consequences of Victimization
Who Pays the Bill?

The Role of Corrections

Victim Notification
Victim and Witness Protection
Community Notification
Crime Impact Classes
Victim-Offender Dialogue
The Victimization of Correctional Staff

Victim Compensation

President’s Task Force on Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime Act
Recent Trends
Eligibility Requirements
Benefit Criteria
Restitution

The Office for Victims of Crime

Victim Impact Statements

The Future of Victims’ Rights

CHAPTER 15. Death: The Ultimate Sanction

History of Capital Punishment

Capital Punishment Around the World

Capital Punishment in the United States

The Federal Death Penalty

Death Row Today

Characteristics of People Executed Since 1977
Characteristics of Prisoners Under Sentence of Death
Murder Rates, Race, and the Death Penalty
Victim Race and Gender and the Death Penalty
Methods of Execution
What Is Death Row Like?
Public Opinion, Politics, and Capital Punishment

The Courts and the Death Penalty

Appealing the Death Penalty

Death Penalty Issues in the 21st Century

Wrongful Convictions: The Liebman Study
Banning the Juvenile Death Penalty
Banning the Execution of People with Mental Retardation

CHAPTER 16. Juvenile Corrections: End of an Era?

History of the Juvenile Justice System
Houses of Refuge
Reform Schools
Industrial Schools
The First Juvenile Court

The U.S. Supreme Court and the Juvenile Justice System

Kent v. United States (1966)
In re Gault (1967)
In re Winship (1970)
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania (1971)
Breed v. Jones (1975)
Schall v. Martin (1984)
Impact on Juvenile Court

The Contemporary Juvenile Justice System

Juvenile Crime
Profile of the Juvenile Delinquent

The Juvenile Justice Process

Intake
Adjudication
Disposition
Transfer to Adult Criminal Court

Teen Gangs

Youth Gangs

The American Correctional Association and Juvenile Justice Reform

CHAPTER 17. Professionalism in Corrections

Today’s Challenges

The Expansion of Prison Construction
Who Is Entering Our Jails and Prisons?
New Technology
The Effects of 9/11
The Public Image of Corrections
Safety First
Inmate Programs Second
Recruitment
The Importance of Training
Execution Teams
Inmates

Professionalism

The Need for Professionalism
What Is Professionalism?
How to Foster Professionalism
Relationships
Participation in the Larger Corrections Community
Professional Development
Employee Recognition

APPENDIX

Careers in Corrections

Career Planning

Self-Assessment
Occupational Research
Decision Making

Seeking Employment

Submitting an Application
Writing Your Résumé
Résumé Format
The Cover Letter
The Examination Process: Testing and Background

Investigation

The Job Interview
The Thank-You Letter

Reevaluation

Endnotes

Glossary

Credits

Case Index

Author/Subject Index
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