Corrections in the United States: A Contemporary Perspective / Edition 4

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Overview

This edition of Corrections in the United States: A Contemporary Perspective, 4/e has the following new features:
  • Concise synopsis of the history of American corrections, featuring development and parole
  • Complete discussion of presentence investigation reports and their functions and preparation
  • Extensive jail and prison coverage, including jail and prison characteristics, functions, and goals
  • Comprehensive discussion of juvenile corrections, including community corrections strategies
  • Description of women's prisons, including their history and evolution in the United States: women's prison and community programs, inmate mothers and infant care
  • New personality highlights from both prisoners and professionals working in all aspects of corrections, their views, and their advice to students
  • Discussion of jail and prison officer recruitment and training, including state and federal hiring requirements, pay scales, and fringe benefits
  • Elaborate presentation of inmate classification and screening for offender risk and needs
  • Description of complete range of community corrections programs, including electronic monitoring, global satellite tracking, home, confinement, intensive supervised probation/parole, work/educational release, prerelease, halfway houses, day fine programs, restitution, and community service
  • Key correctional issues discussed, including jail/prison architecture and design, new generation jails, privatization, overcrowding; health issues (HIV-AIDS, tuberculosis), and jail/prison reforms
  • Extensive examination of key federal and state casesconcerning probation/parole revocation and problems related to supervised releases
  • Detailed discussion of major sentencing systems, including indeterminate, determinate, mandatory, and guideline-based or presumptive sentencing
  • Ancillaries include test bank, comprehensive glossary, and bibliography
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A textbook for undergraduate students on the punishment phase of the criminal justice system. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
Booknews
Details elements of the US corrections system for beginning students. Treatment is reader friendly, but layout is austere, with no illustrations or boxes. Part I examines the history of US corrections and overviews the criminal justice and sentencing systems. Correctional alternatives are examined, including diversion and probation. Part II distinguishes between jails and prisons and discusses issues such as suicide, AIDS, recruitment of personnel, and rights of prisoners. Part III focuses on parole and community-based corrections programs, and Part IV describes the role of the probation officer in detail, as well as the roles of volunteers and paraprofessionals, and looks at issues related to female and juvenile offenders. Includes review questions and key terms. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131027367
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 3/5/2004
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 768
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Pt. I Corrections and the Criminal Justice System
1 An Introduction to Corrections: Philosophy, Goals, and History 1
2 Classifying Offenders and Locating Corrections in the Criminal Justice System 30
3 Sentencing and Sentencing Issues 70
4 Diversion and Standard and Intensive Supervised Probation Programs 130
Pt. II Jails and Prisons: History, Functions, Types, and Issues
5 Jails: History, Functions, and Types of Inmates 177
6 Jail Administration: Officer Training, Inmate Supervision, and Contemporary Issues 200
7 Prison and Prisoners 235
8 Corrections Administration and the Privatization of Jails and Prisons 290
9 Jailhouse Lawyers and Inmate Rights 315
Pt. III Parole and Community-Based Corrections Programs
10 Parole, Parole Programs, and Effectiveness 366
11 Community Corrections: Types, Goals, and Functions 416
Pt. IV Personnel, Women, and Juveniles
12 Correctional Officer Selection and Training 453
13 Women and Corrections 510
14 Juvenile Corrections 556
Glossary 607
References 629
Name Index 677
Subject Index 685
Cases Cited 698
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Preface

Corrections in the United States: A Contemporary Perspective (4th ed.) is about the punishment phase of the criminal justice system. When crimes are committed and suspects are apprehended, prosecuted, and convicted, correctional agencies take over. Corrections is the vast collective of persons, agencies, and organizations that manages criminals. The most visible part of corrections is prisons and jails. Various notorious prisons have been popularized by the media. Prisons, such as San Quentin, Alcatraz, Sing Sing, Leavenworth, Attica, and Marion, are familiar to the general public. But prisons and jails, though important, are only two parts of the larger corrections mosaic. Another part of corrections manages offenders who either have been granted early release from prison or have been convicted but not incarcerated. Community correctional agencies are increasingly popular as nonincarcerative alternatives for probationers and parolees. One reason for their popularity is that they are more cost-effective than maintaining inmates in prisons and jails. In some instances less serious offenders are not prosecuted, but rather, they are diverted from the criminal justice system. They are also managed by certain corrections agencies for a specified period. Community corrections supervises two thirds of all convicted and unconvicted offenders.

Today, correctional agencies and organizations face several significant challenges. Rising crime rates and greater numbers of criminal prosecutions are establishing new prison and jail population records. At the same time, new prison and jail construction is not keeping pace with these escalating prison and jail populations. Overcrowdingis inevitable, and it fosters living conditions for inmates that are both intolerable and unconstitutional. In recent years a litigation explosion has occurred where thousands of lawsuits have been filed by prisoners against prison and jail administrators and correctional officers. Inmate rights is an increasingly important issue.

The organization of this book is as follows. Chapter 1 examines the history of corrections in the United States and contrasts several important philosophies that have influenced correctional reforms. The goals and functions of corrections are outlined and discussed. Several correctional models are presented that guide the thinking of correctional administration and staff. Chapter 2 presents several types of sentencing systems used in the United States. Offenders are profiled. The sentencing process is described, including sentencing hearings and the preparation of presentence investigation reports. Aggravating and mitigating circumstances that influence sentencing decisions are presented. Several contemporary issues associated with sentencing systems are discussed.

Chapter 3 examines some of the preliminary events following arrests of alleged offenders. Pretrial diversion is examined, where prosecutors temporarily suspend prosecutions against particular suspects. The eligibility criteria for diversion are examined. Another pretrial option is alternative dispute resolution, where selected criminal cases are diverted from the criminal justice system for possible civil resolution. The strengths and weaknesses of alternative dispute resolution are discussed, together with an examination of the types of cases that result in such outcomes. When offenders are convicted of crimes, they may or may not be incarcerated. This chapter continues with an examination of the probation option, where many offenders are sentenced to terms in their own communities. These sentences are always conditional, requiring offenders to participate in rehabilitative programs, perform community service, and/or pay fines. The philosophy and functions of probation are presented. Probationers are profiled, and typical probation programs and their conditions are examined. For some offenders, they may be sentenced to shock probation, where they may be subject to unexpected short-term confinement. This sentencing option, together with split sentencing and other sentencing variations, is examined. For many offenders, especially youthful ones, more regimentation may be required as a part of their rehabilitation and reintegration back into society. One sentencing option is boot camp, which is, a military-like punishment requiring strict obedience to rules and a high degree of regimentation. The philosophy, goals, and clientele of boot camps are described. The chapter concludes with an examination of the process whereby probation is revoked. All probationers are within the original jurisdiction of sentencing judges. Judges may or may not revoke one's probation program, depending upon the circumstances. The probation revocation process is examined in some detail, including a presentation of selected state and federal cases pertaining to this process.

Chapter 4 examines community corrections and provides a broad overview of community corrections programs. These are programs that are usually operated at the state or local levels. Community correctional clientele are described. Some of the community programs discussed in detail include home confinement, electronic monitoring, and day reporting centers. In each case, the particular program is explained, and the philosophy, goals, and functions of the programs are clearly articulated. The chapter concludes with an examination of several important issues closely associated with community corrections. Because offenders involved in community corrections are essentially free to roam about their communities, there is some concern among community residents for their safety and security. There is even some public resistance to community corrections. This issue is discussed. Furthermore, private corporations have become involved to a greater degree in offender management, particularly in communities. Not everyone supports the privatization of community corrections, and the constitutionality and propriety of private interests supervising convicted offenders is sometimes questioned. This issue will be explored. When offenders are supervised in their communities, there is a legitimate concern about public safety and security. How effective is the community supervision of offenders on probation, home confinement, or electronic monitoring? The public safety issue will be addressed. Other issues pertain to services delivery and special needs offenders. A , growing community corrections clientele with diverse needs draws increasingly on more community resources and personnel for assistance and support. The quality and availability of these services are explored. Also, there are growing numbers of special-needs offenders, or persons with drug/alcohol dependencies, mental diseases, defects, or illnesses, debilitating and infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, and ambulatory ailments. The problems posed by special-needs offenders will be discussed.

Chapter 5 examines the history of jails and jail systems. Jail inmate characteristics are described. Several important functions of jails are listed. The types of jail inmates accommodated are presented and discussed. Chapter 6 discusses the administration of jail systems. This discussion includes the selection of jail personnel and their training. Several important jail issues are presented, including jail overcrowding, jail suicides; and inmate classification problems. Chapter 7 examines prisoners and prison issues. The history of prisons in the United States is presented together with a profile of state and federal prison inmates. Several popular prison inmate classification systems are presented. A distinction between prisons and jails is provided. Several important functions of prisons are listed.

Chapter 8 looks at corrections administration. Several organizational models are presented, including the bureaucratic and human relations models. Both state and federal prison organization are described. The selection and training of prison administrators and staff is described. Selected issues in prison administration are presented, including the professionalization of administration, public accountability, public reaction to privatization, and political considerations.

In Chapter 9, the rights of prisoners are discussed, including the increasingly important role of the jailhouse lawyer and related legal issues which often prompt civil and criminal lawsuits filed by inmates against institutional staff. The constitutional basis for inmate claims against prison and jail systems is examined. Several avenues for filing lawsuits are treated, including habeas corpus petitions, civil rights actions, and tort litigation. Several important constitutional amendments that affect inmates are also discussed. These include the First, Fourth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments. One of the most controversial punishments is the death penalty. Capital punishment has come under fire in recent years because of the fact that several condemned offenders have been shown to be innocent of their conviction offenses. In some instances, innocent persons have been executed. Technological advances in DNA testing and other scientific discoveries have caused judges and others to re-examine the original convictions of those sentenced to death. Thus, the death penalty and the philosophical underpinnings of it are critically examined. Most arguments favoring the death penalty as well as opposing it are presented. The chapter concludes with a discussion of various grievance procedures available to inmates who have complaints about their incarceration and treatment.

Chapter 10 focuses upon parole and parole programs. Parole is defined and a brief history of parole developments in the United States is presented. Included here are the philosophy and goals of parole programs. Parolees are also profiled. Whenever parolees and/or probationers violate one or more conditions of their conditional programs, their respective programs may be revoked. The revocation process is described, including some of the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decisions relating to such revocation actions. In most states, parole boards function to determine one's early release eligibility. This decision making involves anticipating used in risk assessment will be described. The nature and functions of parole boards will be examined. Various types of parole board actions are described, including an overview of some of the programs into which prospective parolees may be directed. The quality of decision making in parole actions is assessed according to rates of recidivism among probationers and parolees. Recidivism rates are measured in different ways. Different types of recidivists are profiled. The chapter concludes with an examination of the parole revocation process. Included in this examination are the rights of parolees and several leading U.S. Supreme Court cases that have influenced this process, as well as some of the state-level parole revocation cases which have been decided.

Chapter 11 describes correctional officer selection and training. Corrections officers may work in institutions or within communities. Conventionally, corrections officers work in prisons or jails, while other types of corrections officers known as probation and parole officers work with offenders in their communities. The selection and recruitment of probation and parole officers will also be examined. The education, training, and role performance of these officers will be highlighted. Additionally, for those working with offenders within the community, caseload assignments are made and determine the numbers and types of offenders who will be supervised at any given time. Several important caseload assignment models will be identified and discussed. Correctional work, whether it is institutional or within the community, is stressful. Stress often leads to burnout. Therefore, some of the factors that contribute to stress and burnout will be examined, together with a discussion of some of the strategies officers use to combat and/or overcome stress.

Also described in Chapter 11 is the increasingly important role of volunteers and paraprofessionals who become involved in correctional work. Some of the legal liabilities of volunteers and paraprofessionals will be examined. Also, more offenders with special needs are being supervised, both in institutions and communities. Clients with special needs include those who are alcohol or drug-dependent, the mentally ill, sex offenders, those with AIDS and other communicable diseases, and offenders with various physical handicaps. Communities have been responsive to meeting these offender needs in diverse ways.

Chapter 12 is an examination of women in corrections. Nearly ten percent of all inmates and probationers/parolees are women. Women's prisons are generally different from male facilities in several important ways. Also, female offenders have different needs compared with their male counterparts. Some of the major differences in male and female inmates and clients will be examined. Included are selected issues relating to women's prisons, such as the problem of inmate-mothers, vocational/educational programs for women, and the general problem of co-correctional facilities.

Juvenile corrections is described in Chapter 13. A brief overview of the juvenile justice system is presented, together with the leading cases which have shaped it over the years. Various types of community corrections programs for juveniles are discussed, together with probation and parole programs and revocation actions.

As helpful study aides at chapter ends, questions are included which are designed to assist students in reviewing important chapter features. These questions are also useful as a means of studying chapter contents and learning important concepts and issues. Key terms important to all aspects of corrections have been boldfaced throughout each chapter. Additionally, these key terms have been defined and listed in a comprehensive glossary included in an appendix. Each chapter also contains several contemporary suggested readings for those desiring to learn more about specific chapter subject topics, for class report or paper writing and/or preparation, and general research investigations on particular subjects. An extensive up-to-date bibliography is included. Students will find these references helpful in their own research projects on various, corrections topics. Finally, several important Internet sites have been listed at chapter ends to assist students in looking up important information and maximizing their learning through online means. Almost all of these sites have important links to other interesting locations on the growing cyberhighway.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Corrections in the United States: A Contemporary Perspective (4th ed.) is about the punishment phase of the criminal justice system. When crimes are committed and suspects are apprehended, prosecuted, and convicted, correctional agencies take over. Corrections is the vast collective of persons, agencies, and organizations that manages criminals. The most visible part of corrections is prisons and jails. Various notorious prisons have been popularized by the media. Prisons, such as San Quentin, Alcatraz, Sing Sing, Leavenworth, Attica, and Marion, are familiar to the general public. But prisons and jails, though important, are only two parts of the larger corrections mosaic. Another part of corrections manages offenders who either have been granted early release from prison or have been convicted but not incarcerated. Community correctional agencies are increasingly popular as nonincarcerative alternatives for probationers and parolees. One reason for their popularity is that they are more cost-effective than maintaining inmates in prisons and jails. In some instances less serious offenders are not prosecuted, but rather, they are diverted from the criminal justice system. They are also managed by certain corrections agencies for a specified period. Community corrections supervises two thirds of all convicted and unconvicted offenders.

Today, correctional agencies and organizations face several significant challenges. Rising crime rates and greater numbers of criminal prosecutions are establishing new prison and jail population records. At the same time, new prison and jail construction is not keeping pace with these escalating prison and jail populations. Overcrowding isinevitable, and it fosters living conditions for inmates that are both intolerable and unconstitutional. In recent years a litigation explosion has occurred where thousands of lawsuits have been filed by prisoners against prison and jail administrators and correctional officers. Inmate rights is an increasingly important issue.

The organization of this book is as follows. Chapter 1 examines the history of corrections in the United States and contrasts several important philosophies that have influenced correctional reforms. The goals and functions of corrections are outlined and discussed. Several correctional models are presented that guide the thinking of correctional administration and staff. Chapter 2 presents several types of sentencing systems used in the United States. Offenders are profiled. The sentencing process is described, including sentencing hearings and the preparation of presentence investigation reports. Aggravating and mitigating circumstances that influence sentencing decisions are presented. Several contemporary issues associated with sentencing systems are discussed.

Chapter 3 examines some of the preliminary events following arrests of alleged offenders. Pretrial diversion is examined, where prosecutors temporarily suspend prosecutions against particular suspects. The eligibility criteria for diversion are examined. Another pretrial option is alternative dispute resolution, where selected criminal cases are diverted from the criminal justice system for possible civil resolution. The strengths and weaknesses of alternative dispute resolution are discussed, together with an examination of the types of cases that result in such outcomes. When offenders are convicted of crimes, they may or may not be incarcerated. This chapter continues with an examination of the probation option, where many offenders are sentenced to terms in their own communities. These sentences are always conditional, requiring offenders to participate in rehabilitative programs, perform community service, and/or pay fines. The philosophy and functions of probation are presented. Probationers are profiled, and typical probation programs and their conditions are examined. For some offenders, they may be sentenced to shock probation, where they may be subject to unexpected short-term confinement. This sentencing option, together with split sentencing and other sentencing variations, is examined. For many offenders, especially youthful ones, more regimentation may be required as a part of their rehabilitation and reintegration back into society. One sentencing option is boot camp, which is, a military-like punishment requiring strict obedience to rules and a high degree of regimentation. The philosophy, goals, and clientele of boot camps are described. The chapter concludes with an examination of the process whereby probation is revoked. All probationers are within the original jurisdiction of sentencing judges. Judges may or may not revoke one's probation program, depending upon the circumstances. The probation revocation process is examined in some detail, including a presentation of selected state and federal cases pertaining to this process.

Chapter 4 examines community corrections and provides a broad overview of community corrections programs. These are programs that are usually operated at the state or local levels. Community correctional clientele are described. Some of the community programs discussed in detail include home confinement, electronic monitoring, and day reporting centers. In each case, the particular program is explained, and the philosophy, goals, and functions of the programs are clearly articulated. The chapter concludes with an examination of several important issues closely associated with community corrections. Because offenders involved in community corrections are essentially free to roam about their communities, there is some concern among community residents for their safety and security. There is even some public resistance to community corrections. This issue is discussed. Furthermore, private corporations have become involved to a greater degree in offender management, particularly in communities. Not everyone supports the privatization of community corrections, and the constitutionality and propriety of private interests supervising convicted offenders is sometimes questioned. This issue will be explored. When offenders are supervised in their communities, there is a legitimate concern about public safety and security. How effective is the community supervision of offenders on probation, home confinement, or electronic monitoring? The public safety issue will be addressed. Other issues pertain to services delivery and special needs offenders. A , growing community corrections clientele with diverse needs draws increasingly on more community resources and personnel for assistance and support. The quality and availability of these services are explored. Also, there are growing numbers of special-needs offenders, or persons with drug/alcohol dependencies, mental diseases, defects, or illnesses, debilitating and infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, and ambulatory ailments. The problems posed by special-needs offenders will be discussed.

Chapter 5 examines the history of jails and jail systems. Jail inmate characteristics are described. Several important functions of jails are listed. The types of jail inmates accommodated are presented and discussed. Chapter 6 discusses the administration of jail systems. This discussion includes the selection of jail personnel and their training. Several important jail issues are presented, including jail overcrowding, jail suicides; and inmate classification problems. Chapter 7 examines prisoners and prison issues. The history of prisons in the United States is presented together with a profile of state and federal prison inmates. Several popular prison inmate classification systems are presented. A distinction between prisons and jails is provided. Several important functions of prisons are listed.

Chapter 8 looks at corrections administration. Several organizational models are presented, including the bureaucratic and human relations models. Both state and federal prison organization are described. The selection and training of prison administrators and staff is described. Selected issues in prison administration are presented, including the professionalization of administration, public accountability, public reaction to privatization, and political considerations.

In Chapter 9, the rights of prisoners are discussed, including the increasingly important role of the jailhouse lawyer and related legal issues which often prompt civil and criminal lawsuits filed by inmates against institutional staff. The constitutional basis for inmate claims against prison and jail systems is examined. Several avenues for filing lawsuits are treated, including habeas corpus petitions, civil rights actions, and tort litigation. Several important constitutional amendments that affect inmates are also discussed. These include the First, Fourth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments. One of the most controversial punishments is the death penalty. Capital punishment has come under fire in recent years because of the fact that several condemned offenders have been shown to be innocent of their conviction offenses. In some instances, innocent persons have been executed. Technological advances in DNA testing and other scientific discoveries have caused judges and others to re-examine the original convictions of those sentenced to death. Thus, the death penalty and the philosophical underpinnings of it are critically examined. Most arguments favoring the death penalty as well as opposing it are presented. The chapter concludes with a discussion of various grievance procedures available to inmates who have complaints about their incarceration and treatment.

Chapter 10 focuses upon parole and parole programs. Parole is defined and a brief history of parole developments in the United States is presented. Included here are the philosophy and goals of parole programs. Parolees are also profiled. Whenever parolees and/or probationers violate one or more conditions of their conditional programs, their respective programs may be revoked. The revocation process is described, including some of the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decisions relating to such revocation actions. In most states, parole boards function to determine one's early release eligibility. This decision making involves anticipating used in risk assessment will be described. The nature and functions of parole boards will be examined. Various types of parole board actions are described, including an overview of some of the programs into which prospective parolees may be directed. The quality of decision making in parole actions is assessed according to rates of recidivism among probationers and parolees. Recidivism rates are measured in different ways. Different types of recidivists are profiled. The chapter concludes with an examination of the parole revocation process. Included in this examination are the rights of parolees and several leading U.S. Supreme Court cases that have influenced this process, as well as some of the state-level parole revocation cases which have been decided.

Chapter 11 describes correctional officer selection and training. Corrections officers may work in institutions or within communities. Conventionally, corrections officers work in prisons or jails, while other types of corrections officers known as probation and parole officers work with offenders in their communities. The selection and recruitment of probation and parole officers will also be examined. The education, training, and role performance of these officers will be highlighted. Additionally, for those working with offenders within the community, caseload assignments are made and determine the numbers and types of offenders who will be supervised at any given time. Several important caseload assignment models will be identified and discussed. Correctional work, whether it is institutional or within the community, is stressful. Stress often leads to burnout. Therefore, some of the factors that contribute to stress and burnout will be examined, together with a discussion of some of the strategies officers use to combat and/or overcome stress.

Also described in Chapter 11 is the increasingly important role of volunteers and paraprofessionals who become involved in correctional work. Some of the legal liabilities of volunteers and paraprofessionals will be examined. Also, more offenders with special needs are being supervised, both in institutions and communities. Clients with special needs include those who are alcohol or drug-dependent, the mentally ill, sex offenders, those with AIDS and other communicable diseases, and offenders with various physical handicaps. Communities have been responsive to meeting these offender needs in diverse ways.

Chapter 12 is an examination of women in corrections. Nearly ten percent of all inmates and probationers/parolees are women. Women's prisons are generally different from male facilities in several important ways. Also, female offenders have different needs compared with their male counterparts. Some of the major differences in male and female inmates and clients will be examined. Included are selected issues relating to women's prisons, such as the problem of inmate-mothers, vocational/educational programs for women, and the general problem of co-correctional facilities.

Juvenile corrections is described in Chapter 13. A brief overview of the juvenile justice system is presented, together with the leading cases which have shaped it over the years. Various types of community corrections programs for juveniles are discussed, together with probation and parole programs and revocation actions.

As helpful study aides at chapter ends, questions are included which are designed to assist students in reviewing important chapter features. These questions are also useful as a means of studying chapter contents and learning important concepts and issues. Key terms important to all aspects of corrections have been boldfaced throughout each chapter. Additionally, these key terms have been defined and listed in a comprehensive glossary included in an appendix. Each chapter also contains several contemporary suggested readings for those desiring to learn more about specific chapter subject topics, for class report or paper writing and/or preparation, and general research investigations on particular subjects. An extensive up-to-date bibliography is included. Students will find these references helpful in their own research projects on various, corrections topics. Finally, several important Internet sites have been listed at chapter ends to assist students in looking up important information and maximizing their learning through online means. Almost all of these sites have important links to other interesting locations on the growing cyberhighway.

Read More Show Less

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