Corrosion under Insulation (CUI) Guidelines (EFC55)

Hardcover (Print)


Corrosion under insulation (CUI) refers to the external corrosion of piping and vessels that occurs underneath externally clad/jacketed insulation as a result of the penetration of water. By its very nature CUI tends to remain undetected until the insulation and cladding/jacketing is removed to allow inspection or when leaks occur. CUI is a common problem shared by the refining, petrochemical, power, industrial, onshore and offshore industries.

The European Federation of Corrosion (EFC) Working Parties WP13 and WP15 have worked to provide guidelines on managing CUI together with a number of major European refining, petrochemical and offshore companies including BP, Chevron-Texaco, Conoco-Phillips, ENI, Exxon-Mobil, IFP, MOL, Scanraff, Statoil, Shell, Total and Borealis. The guidelines within this document are intended for use on all plants and installations that contain insulated vessels, piping and equipment. The guidelines cover a risk-based inspection methodology for CUI, inspection techniques (including non-destructive evaluation methods) and recommended best practice for mitigating CUI, including design of plant and equipment, coatings and the use of thermal spray techniques, types of insulation, cladding/jacketing materials and protection guards. The guidelines also include case studies.

  • Guidelines cover inspection methodology for CUI, inspection techniques, including non-destructive evaluation methods and recommended best practice
  • Case studies are included illustrating key points in the book
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Dr Stefan Winnik is a Materials and Corrosion Specialist with ExxonMobil chemical company in the UK.
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Table of Contents

Series introduction     viii
Volumes in the EFC series     x
List of abbreviations     xvi
Dedication     xvii
Introduction     1
Purpose of the document     5
References     9
Economic consideration     11
Statistical analysis     11
Size of the issue     12
Key performance indicators     14
Ownership and responsibility     15
Senior management     15
Engineering manager     15
Maintenance     15
Operations     16
Inspection     16
Members of a project team; corrosion-under-insulation programme     16
The risk-based inspection methodology for corrosion-under-insulation     17
Introduction     17
Unit level prioritisation     18
Challenging the need for insulation     20
Data validation     24
Using risk-based inspection to design corrosion-under-insulation inspection plans     28
Reference     38
Inspection activities and strategy     39
General considerations     39
Typical locations on piping circuits susceptible tocorrosion-under-insulation     40
Typical locations on equipment susceptible to corrosion-under-insulation     41
Examples of a risk-based inspection plan     44
Non-destructive examination and testing screening techniques for corrosion-under-insulation     46
Non-destructive examination and testing techniques     46
Reference     46
Recommended best practice to mitigate corrosion-under-insulation     53
Background     53
Current corrosion-under-insulation prevention methods     54
How to achieve a life expectancy of over 25 years     55
Benefits of thermally sprayed aluminium     58
Use of personnel protective guards     59
Use of aluminium foil to mitigate chloride external stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel     60
References     62
Design for the prevention of corrosion-under-insulation     63
Introduction     63
Challenge the requirement for insulation     63
Plant layout     64
Mechanical considerations: equipment and tanks     64
Mechanical considerations: piping     65
Materials of construction     65
Coatings and wrappings     66
Insulation      67
Weatherproofing     68
References     69
Appendix overview     70
Cost-economic evaluation     71
Quality assurance     76
Additional guidelines on the implementation of corrosion-under-insulation best practice     78
Maintenance and remediation issues     78
Minimum standards     79
Types of insulation service     79
Surface preparation     81
References     88
Coatings     89
General comments     89
Protective coatings     89
Thermally sprayed aluminium     89
Surface and moisture tolerance     91
Alternative coatings; tape coatings     91
Reference     91
Application of thermally sprayed aluminium     92
Application of thermally sprayed coatings     92
Use of organic topcoats     94
Application strategies     95
Thermally sprayed aluminium coating specification     95
Definitions     97
Referenced codes, standards and specifications     97
Coating philosophy     97
Coating system     98
Thermally sprayed aluminium material      99
Seal coat     99
Design     100
Surface preparation     100
Weather and surface conditions     101
Application process     101
Specific requirements for on-site thermally sprayed aluminium application     102
Piping field welds     102
Inspection and acceptance     103
Documentation     105
Surface and moisture tolerance     105
Alternative coatings; tape coatings     105
Types and forms of insulation material     106
Mineral fibre     106
Low-density glass fibre     109
Calcium silicate     109
Cellular glass     110
Ceramic fibre paper     112
Glass rope insulation     112
Self-setting cement     112
Flexible reusable insulation covers     112
Preformed rigid polyurethane foam (polyurethane-polyisocyanurate)     113
Flexible elastomeric foam     115
Flexible elastomeric foam (ethylene propylene diene monomer)     116
Polyethylene     116
Perlite     117
Vermiculite     118
Cladding and jacketing materials     120
Metallic cladding materials     120
Non-metallic materials     122
Use of protection guards     127
Design considerations     127
Method guidance notes     127
Non-destructive examination and testing techniques     130
Visual inspection     130
Manual ultrasonic thickness measurement through inspection openings     130
Radiography     131
Real-time radiography     132
Guided-wave ultrasonic measurements     134
Pulsed-eddy-current technique     134
Digital radiography     135
Infrared thermography     136
Neutron backscattering     137
Dye penetrant testing     138
Case studies     139
Case study 1     140
Case study 2     142
Case study 3     144
Case study 4     145
Case study 5     146
Case study 6     148
Case study 7     150
Case study 8     152
Index     154
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