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This monograph describes the behaviour of cosmic rays in the magnetosphere of the Earth and of some other planets. Recently this has become an important topic both theoretically, because it is closely connected with the physics of the Earth’s magnetosphere, and practically, since cosmic rays determine a significant part of space weather effects on satellites and aircraft.
The book contains eight chapters, dealing with
– The history of the discovery of geomagnetic effects caused by cosmic rays and their importance for the determination of the nature of cosmic rays or gamma rays
– The first explanations of geomagnetic effects within the framework of the dipole approximation of the Earth’s magnetic field
– Trajectory computations of cutoff rigidities, transmittance functions, asymptotic directions, and acceptance cones in the real geomagnetic field taking into account higher harmonics
– Cosmic ray latitude-longitude surveys on ships, trains, tracks, planes, balloons and satellites for determining the planetary distribution of the intensity of cosmic rays and how it changes with time
– Geomagnetic time variations of cosmic rays caused by the changing of internal sources of Earth’s main magnetic field and variable magnetospheric current systems
– Magnetospheric models and how to check them by galactic and solar cosmic rays
– The behaviour of cosmic rays in the atmospheres and magnetospheres of Venus, Mars, and Jupiter.
The work concludes with a discussion of future developments and unsolved problems and contains a list of about thousand full references.
This book will be of great interest to experts and students in cosmic ray research, solar-terrestrial physics, magnetosphere physics, and space physics.
Preface. Acknowledgements. Frequently used Abbreviations and Notations. 1. First Measurements of Cosmic Ray Geomagnetic Effects and the Problem of CR Nature. 2. Cosmic Rays in the Dipole Geomagnetic Field. 3. Cosmic Rays in the Real Geomagnetic Field. 4. Cosmic Ray Planetary Surveys on Ships, Trains, Tracks, Planes, Balloons and Satellites. 5. Main Results of Cosmic Ray Survey to Antarctica on the Ship ‘Italia’ in 1996-1997. 6. Geomagnetic Variations of Cosmic Rays. 7. Magnetospheric Models and their Checking by Cosmic Rays. 8. Galactic Cosmic Rays in Atmospheres and Magnetospheres of Other Planets. Conclusion and Problems. References. Object Index. Author Index. Appendix A1-A72.