Counter-Terrorism for Emergency Responders / Edition 2

Counter-Terrorism for Emergency Responders / Edition 2

by Robert Burke, Burke Burke

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ISBN-10: 0849399238

ISBN-13: 9780849399237

Pub. Date: 06/15/2006

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Terrorism is no longer something that only happens to other countries. Attacks on US soil in the 1990’s brought the reality of terrorism home and the Sept 11th tragedy let us know that the United States is a high priority target. The goal of today’s terrorist is body count, and while traditional bombings have served them in the past, the


Terrorism is no longer something that only happens to other countries. Attacks on US soil in the 1990’s brought the reality of terrorism home and the Sept 11th tragedy let us know that the United States is a high priority target. The goal of today’s terrorist is body count, and while traditional bombings have served them in the past, the allure of killing thousands of people with a very small amount of biological or chemical agent will prove irresistible. Our only defense on the front line is a well-prepared emergency response team.

The key to an effective terrorist response is to understand and contain the hazardous materials involved. Counter-Terrorism for Emergency Responders, Second Edition meticulously details the characteristics, actions, identification, containment, and emergency treatment of all types of agents. Drastically updated from the 1999 edition, chapter after chapter is packed with new information on chemical agents, biological agents, and explosive, nuclear, and incendiary devices.

Using his 26 years of experience in emergency services and his skills as a hazardous materials consultant in more than 15 states, the author prepares the first responder to handle everything from re-establishing control and on-scene triage to investigating the crime. Including information on pre-incident and avoidance tactics, the author provides new monitoring and detection techniques, protective equipment and decontamination, and an extensive list of resource organizations and training opportunities. The worst may never happen to your community, but will you be prepared if it does?

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Taylor & Francis
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6.10(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.30(d)

Table of Contents

Introduction: It’s Just Another Hazardous
Materials Incident! History of Terrorism Chemical Terrorist Agents
Nerve Agents
Blister Agents or Vesicants
Blood Agents (Cyanogens)
Choking Agents (Lung Damaging Agents)
Riot Control Agents (Irritant Agents)
Vomiting Agents
Miscellaneous Chemical Agents Biological Terrorist Agents
Bacterial Agents
Biological Toxins Explosive Terrorism
ATF Bomb Threat Checklist
Characteristics of Explosions
Categories of Explosions
Types of Chemical Explosions
Two Phases of Explosions
Yield vs. Order
Improvised Explosive Devices
Letter and Package Bombs
Explosives under ATF Jurisdiction Nuclear Terrorism
Definition of Radioactive Material
History of Radiation
Atomic Structure
Nuclear Fission
Types of Radiation
Measurements of Radioactivity
Biological Effects of Nuclear Explosions
Radiation Exposure
Effects of Nuclear Explosions Incendiary Terrorism
What is Arson?
The Firefighter’s Role
History of Incendiary Terrorist Incidents
Types of Incendiary Devices
Chemistry of Fire and Fire Behavior
Heat Transfer
Stages of Fire Development
Clues to Arson and Terrorism
Fire Causes
Monitoring and Detection Equipment for
Terrorist Agents
Monitoring for Oxygen Levels
Monitoring for Flammable Atmospheres
Monitoring Toxic Atmospheres
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
Colorimetric Sampling Tubes
Chemical Agent Detectors
Direct-Read Instruments
Test Kits
Test Strips
CDP Five-Step Process for Biological Materials
Five-Step Testing Process
Agent Characteristics for Monitoring
Biological Agent Detectors
Radiation Detection Equipment
Air Monitoring during Terrorist Incidents
Explosives Monitoring
Anthrax Field Test Update
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and Decontamination for Terrorist Agents
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Respiratory Protection
Body Protection
Guidelines for Choosing Chemical and Biological Agent
Protective Clothing
PPE Required for Protection from Specific Agents
CDC Interim Recommendations for the Selection and Use of
Protective Clothing and Respirators against Biological Agents
Heat and Cold Stress
PPE of the Future
Technical Decontamination
Emergency Decontamination
Removing Clothing
Skin Decontamination Solutions and Agents
Equipment Decontamination Solutions and Agents
Decontamination Corridor Setup
Response Tactics for Terrorism: “The Rules Have Changed”
Approaching the Scene
Establishing Scene Control
Identifying the Hazards
Public Protection Options
Managing the Incident
National Incident Management System (NIMS)
Incident Operations
Triage, Treatment, and Transport
Preparing the Hospitals
Managing the Deceased
Fighting Fires Involving Chemical Agents
Investigating the Crime
Termination of the Incident
Developing a Plan
Response to Incidents Involving Radioactive Materials
Department of Energy Nuclear Emergency Search Team (NEST)
FEMA’s Urban Search & Rescue (US&R) Program
Metropolitan Medical Strike Force Teams (MMST)
FBI Explosives Unit — Bomb Data Center
U.S. Army Soldier Systems Command (SBCCOM)
U.S. Coast Guard Strike Force
National Guard Civil Support Teams (Formerly Rapid Assessment and Initial Detection [RAID] Teams)
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Visual First Responder (VFR)
Homeland Security Alert System
Trident/One Mass Decontamination Device
Terrorism Resources and Response Training
National Fire Academy: Emmitsburg, Maryland
Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP): Fort McClellan, Alabama
Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP) Training Programs
Resident Training
Center for Domestic Preparedness Training Update
L.Z. Johnson Retires as Center for Domestic Preparedness Director
Hospital Preparedness for Terrorism
Types of MMRS/IEMC Programs
National Center for Emergency Preparedness
National Center for Combating Terrorism (NCCT) (Nevada Test Site)
New Mexico Tech Energetic Materials Research and Training Center (EMRTC)
Louisiana State University (LSU) (Academy of Counter-Terrorist Education)
National Emergency Response and Rescue Training Center (NERRTC)
Training Videos Available from the Department of Justice Glossary
1 References
Appendix A
Terrorism Web Sites
Appendix B
U.S. Urban Search & Rescue Response System
Appendix C
Conversion Charts
Temperature Conversions
Radiation Term Conversion Factors
Common Conversions 66
Appendix D
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms
List of Explosive Materials
Appendix E
Regulations on the Transfer or Receipt of Select Agents
CDC Form EA-101
Transfer of Select Agents
Other Restrictions
Additional Exemptions
Appendix F
Chronological Listing of UNABOMBER Targets 1978–1995
Appendix G
Tools Needed for Bomb or Explosives Scene Investigation Safety
General Crime Scene Tools
Scene Documentation
Evidence Collection
Specialized Equipment
Appendix H
List of Resource Organizations for Bomb and Explosives Incidents

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