Course in Phonetics / Edition 4

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Overview

A best-selling and accessible introduction to the sounds of human language

Phonetics is understandable-and success in your course is attainable-with A Course in Phonetics, written and revised by two leading phoneticians with a world of experience in research and teaching. In this comprehensive introduction to phonetics, Peter Ladefoged and Keith Johnson present the main concepts and branches of phonetics. You will learn how speech is produced, how to describe speech in acoustic terms, and how to use practical phonetic skills. Learning to distinguish, describe, and transcribe the sounds of English and other world languages, both manually and digitally, is truly fascinating.

Attuning your ear and practicing speech sounds is easy with the text's CD-ROM, which includes more than 4,000 audio files of many versions of English and almost 100 other languages. The CD also contains material for every chapter-recordings of words in the tables and performance exercises-and maps with links to sounds of the languages spoken in various areas of the world. You can hear the sounds being described and pronounce them yourself. You can even click symbols on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) chart and hear their sounds.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780155073197
  • Publisher: Cengage Heinle
  • Publication date: 7/28/2000
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 304

Meet the Author

The late Peter Ladefoged, preeminent phonetician, founded the UCLA Phonetics Laboratory and was its director from 1962 to 1991. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1959. His major research interests included experimental phonetics and describing the sounds of the world's languages; his ground-breaking fieldwork took him to Europe, Africa, India, Australia, China, and elsewhere to record many languages. He was a member of many professional organizations and president of a few, including the International Phonetic Association (1986-1991) and the Linguistic Society of America (1980). He wrote extensively and was awarded many professional honors.

Keith Johnson is a professor of linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley. He received his Ph.D. from Ohio State University and taught in the department of linguistics from 1993 to 2005. Dr. Johnson received postdoctoral fellowships from Indiana University and UCLA, where he worked with Peter Ladefoged and Patricia Keating. His primary research field focuses on the processes of speech perception as they relate to phonetic and phonological theory. Dr. Johnson's research and teaching on acoustic phonetics and psycholinguistics is widely recognized.

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Table of Contents

Preface x

Part I Introductory Concepts 1

Chapter 1 Articulation and Acoustics 2

Speech Production 2

Sound Waves 6

Places of Articulatory Gestures 8

The Oro-Nasal Process 13

Manners of Articulation 14

Stop 14

Oral Stop 14

Nasal Stop 14

Fricative 14

Approximant 15

Lateral (Approximant) 15

Additional Consonantal Gestures 15

The Waveforms of Consonants 17

The Articulation of Vowel Sounds 19

The Sounds of Vowels 21

Suprasegmentals 23

Exercises 29

Chapter 2 Phonology and Phonetic Transcription 33

The Transcription of Consonants 35

The Transcription of Vowels 38

Consonant and Vowel Charts 42

Phonology 45

Exercises 48

Performance Exercises 52

Part II English Phonetics 55

Chapter 3 The Consonants of English 56

Stop Consonants 57

Fricatives 65

Affricates 67

Nasals 67

Approximants 68

Overlapping Gestures 69

Rules for English Consonant Allophones 72

Diacritics 77

Exercises 77

Performance Exercises 82

Chapter 4 English Vowels 85

Transcription and Phonetic Dictionaries

Vowel Quality 87

The Auditory Vowel Space 88

American and British Vowels 89

Diphthongs 92

Rhotic Vowels 94

Unstressed Syllables 96

Tense and Lax Vowels 98

Rules for English Vowel Allophones 100

Exercises 102

Performance Exercises 105

Chapter 5 English Words and Sentences 107

Words in Connected Speech 107

Stress 111

Degrees of Stress 113

Sentence Rhythm 116

Intonation 118

Target Tones 127

Exercises 131

Performance Exercises 134

Part III General Phonetics 135

Chapter 6 Airstream Mechanisms and Phonation Types 136

Airstream Mechanisms 136

Slates of the Glottis 148

Voice Onset Time 151

Summary of Actions of theGlottis 156

Exercises 157

Performance Exercises 160

Chapter 7 Consonantal Gestures 163

Articulatory Targets 163

Types of Articulatory Gestures 172

Stops 172

Nasals 174

Fricatives 174

Trills, Taps, and Flaps 175

Laterals 178

Summary of Manners of Articulation 180

Exercises 181

Performance Exercises 183

Chapter 8 Acoustic Phonetics 187

Source/Filter Theory 187

Tube Models 190

Perturbation Theory 192

Acoustic Analysis 193

Acoustics of Consonants 198

Interpreting Spectrograms 204

Individual Differences 212

Exercises 215

Chapter 9 Vowels and Vowel-like Articulations 217

Cardinal Vowels 217

Secondary Cardinal Vowels 222

Vowels in Other Accents of English 224

Vowels in Other Languages 226

Advanced Tongue Root 228

Rhotacized Vowels 229

Nasalization 231

Summary of Vowel Quality 232

Semivowels 232

Secondary Articulatory Gestures 234

Exercises 237

Performance Exercises 238

Chapter 10 Syllables and Suprasegmental Features 243

Syllables 243

Stress 249

Length 251

Timing 252

Intonation and Tone 254

Stress, Tone, and Pitch Accent Languages 260

Exercises 261

Performance Exercises 263

Chapter 11 Linguistic Phonetics 267

Phonetics of the Community and of the Individual 267

The International Phonetic Alphabet 268

Feature Hierarchy 272

A Problem with Linguistic Explanations 277

Controlling Articulatory Movements 278

Memory for Speech 281

The Balance between Phonetic Forces 284

Performance Exercises 286

Appendix A Additional Material for Transciption 293

Appendix B Suggestions for Contributors to the Journal of the International Phonetic Association 295

Notes 299

Glossary 305

Further Reading 313

Index 317

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