Craft of Argument / Edition 3

Craft of Argument / Edition 3

by Joseph M. Williams, Gregory G. Colomb
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0321453271

ISBN-13: 9780321453273

Pub. Date: 10/31/2006

Publisher: Pearson

The Craft of Argument is designed to help integrate the skills of writing, critical thinking, and arguing for the purpose of enabling the writer to write arguments that are clear, sound, and persuasive.

Overview

The Craft of Argument is designed to help integrate the skills of writing, critical thinking, and arguing for the purpose of enabling the writer to write arguments that are clear, sound, and persuasive.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780321453273
Publisher:
Pearson
Publication date:
10/31/2006
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
544
Sales rank:
370,393
Product dimensions:
5.80(w) x 8.90(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

Preface: Teaching the Craft of Argument

A Message to Students

Acknowledgments

I. THE NATURE OF ARGUMENT: INTRODUCTION

1. Argument and Rationality.

What Is Argument?

What Good Is Argument?

Arguments Help Us Think Critically

Arguments Help us Sustain Communities

Arguments Define Academic and Professional Communities

Arguments Enable Democracy

What's Not an Argument.?: Three Forms of Persuasion That Are Not Arguments

Arguments and Explanations

Arguments and Stories

Arguments and Visual Images

WRITING PROCESS: Argument and Critical Thinking

Thinking and Talking

Reading and Researching

Preparing and Planning

Drafting

Revising

Working Collaboratively

INQUIRIES: Reflections; Tasks; Projects

FOCUS ON WRITING

IN A NUTSHELL

2. Argument as Civil Conversation.

The Five Questions of Argument.

The Roots of Argument in Civil Conversation.

Review: Modeling an Argument.

The Core of an Argument: Claim + Reason + Evidence

Dialogue with Readers: Acknowledgment + Response

Explaining Logic: Warrants

Crafting Written Arguments.

Thickening Your Argument.

WRITING PROCESS: Argument as Civil Conversation

Thinking and Talking

Preparing and Planning

Drafting

Revising

INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects

FOCUS ON WRITING

SAMPLE ESSAYS

IN A NUTSHELL

3. Motivating Your Argument.

Two Kinds of Problems.

How Practical and Conceptual Problems Motivate Arguments

The Two-Part Structure of Practical Problems

The Two-Part Structure of Conceptual Problems

How To Identify Motivating Costs or Consequences by Asking So What?

Framing Problems in Introductions.

The Core of an Introduction: Conditions and Costs

The Outer Frame of an Introduction: Common Ground and Solution

Conclusions.

Introductions and Conclusions as Ways of Thinking.

Problem-Posing Versus Problem-Solving Arguments

WRITING PROCESS: Motivating Your Argument

Reading and Research

Preparing and Planning

Drafting

Revising

Working Collaboratively

INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects

FOCUS ON WRITING

SAMPLE ESSAYS

IN A NUTSHELL

II. DEVELOPING YOUR ARGUMENT: INTRODUCTION

4. The Core of Your Argument: Finding and Stating A Claim

Exploring Claims Without Rushing to Judgment.

What Kind of Claim Does Your Problem Require?

Is Your Claim Pragmatic or Conceptual?

How Strongly Do You Want Your Readers to Accept Your Claim?

What Counts as a Claim Worth Considering?

What Does a Thoughtful Claim Look Like?

Is Your Claim Conceptually Rich?

Is Your Claim Logically Rich?

Is Your Claim Appropriately Qualified?

WRITING PROCESS: Finding and Stating Claims

Drafting

Revising

INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects

FOCUS ON WRITING

SAMPLE ESSAYS

IN A NUTSHELL

5. The Core of Your Argument: Reasons and Evidence.

Supporting Claims

Reasons and Evidence as Forms of Support.

Distinguishing Reasons and Evidence.

Distinguishing Evidence and Reports of It

Direct and Reported Evidence

Multiple Reasons.

Reasons in Parallel

Reasons in Sequence

The Deep Complexity of Serious Arguments

Using Reasons to Help Readers Understand Evidence.

WRITING PROCESS: Reasons and Evidance

Preparing and Planning

Drafting: Integrating Quotations into Your Sentences; Avoiding Inadvertent Plagiarism

Revising

INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects

FOCUS ON WRITING

SAMPLE ESSAYS

IN A NUTSHELL

6. The Core of Your Argument: Reporting Evidence.

Weigh Your Burden of Evidence.

Make a Plan to Find Evidence

The Four Maxims of Quality.

Trustworthy Reports of Evidence.

Reports of Memories

Anecdotes

Reports from Authorities

Visual Reports with Photographs, Drawings, and Recordings

Visual Presentations of Quantitative Data

Radical Skepticism

WRITING PROCESS: Reporting Evidence

Reading and Research

Working Collaboratively

INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects

FOCUS ON WRITING

SAMPLE ESSAYS

IN A NUTSHELL

7. Your Readers’ Role in Your Argument: Acknowledgments and Responses

The Importance of Other Viewpoints.

Questions about Your Problem and Its Solution.

Questions about Your Support.

Questions about Your Consistency.

Responding with Subordinate Arguments

WRITING PROCESS: Acknowledgment and Responses

Reading and Research

Preparing and Planning

Drafting

Working Collaboratively

INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects

FOCUS ON WRITING

IN A NUTSHELL

8. The Logic of Your Argument: Warranting Claims and Reasons

The Reasoning behind Reasons

What Warrants Look Like.

How Warrants Work

Knowing When to Use Warrants in a Written Argument

The Most Common Uses for Warrants

Two Special Uses for Warrants

How to Test a Warrant

Distinguishing Reasons and Warrants

The Challenge of Using Warrants.

Review: A Test Case.

Warranting Evidence

Arguing by Evidence vs. Arguing by Warrants.

WRITING PROCESS: Warrants

Preparing and Planning

Working Collaboratively

INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects

FOCUS ON WRITING

IN A NUTSHELL

III. THINKING ABOUT THINKING IN ARGUMENTS: INTRODUCTION

9. The Forms of Reasoning.

Three Forms of Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning; From Specifics to a General Conclusion

Deductive Reasoning: From a Generalization to a Specific Conclusion

Abductive Reasoning: From Problem to Hypothesis to Confirmation

Real Life Barriers to Abductive Critical Thinking

Don’t Rely on Warrants in Place of Evidence

Don’t Collect Evidence Randomly

Guard Against the Biases Common in Abductive Thinking

WRITING PROCESS: Forms of Reasoning

Preparing and Planning

INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects

FOCUS ON WRITING

IN A NUTSHELL

10. Arguments about Meanings.

Some Terminology.

Meanings and Problems.

What Problems Does Your Definition Solve?

Is the Issue of Meaning a Surrogate for a Larger Problem?
How to Argue about Meanings.

Do Readers Expect Common or Authorized Meanings?

Strategies for Using Common Meanings

Strategies for Using Authorized Meanings

When to Rely on Authorized Definitions

Why Dictionaries Cannot Settle Arguments over Meaning

WRITING PROCESS: Arguments about Meanings

Preparing and Planning

Drafting

INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks, Projects

FOCUS ON WRITING

IN A NUTSHELL

11. Arguments about Causes

The Impossible Vastness of Causes.

Finding Relevant Causes.

Everyday Thinking about Causation

Thoughtful Thinking about Causation

Analyzing Causation Systematically.

The Principle of Similarity and Difference

The Principle of Co-Variation

Four Cautions about Using the Principles

Causation and Personal Responsibility.

Who’s Responsible?

Five Criteria for Assigning Personal Responsibility

Attribution Bias

WRITING PROCESS: Arguments about Causes

Preparing and Planning

Drafting

INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks

FOCUS ON WRITING

IN A NUTSHELL

IV. THE LANGUAGES OF ARGUMENT: INTRODUCTION

12. Clear Language.

Some Principles of Clear and Direct Writing.

The Principles in a Nutshell

Concision and Vividness.

How to Be Concise

How to Be Vivid

Abstract vs. Concrete

The System of Imageable Words

Deliberate Generality

WRITING PROCESS: Clear Language

Revising

INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks

A GUIDE TO TERMS

IN A NUTSHELL

13. The Overt and Covert Force of Language.

Invoking Values, Evoking Feeling.

Value-Laden Words

You Can’t Avoid Values

When Emotional Language Undermines Sound Thinking

Polarizing Language

Cynical Language

Subjects and Point of View.

Manipulating Subjects to Assign Responsibility

Treating Means as Agents

Abstractions as Characters.

Metaphorical Scenarios.

WRITING PROCESS: The Overt and Covert Force of Language

Drafting

Revising

INQUIRIES: Reflections, Tasks

IN A NUTSHELL

Appendix 1: Avoiding Inadvertent Plagiarism through Proper Citations

Appendix 2: Cognitive Biases and Fallacies

V. READINGS

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