Created Equal: A History of the United States from 1865 / Edition 3

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With its sweeping, inclusive view of American history, Created Equal emphasizes social history—including the lives and labors of women, immigrants, working people, and minorities in all regions of the country—while delivering the familiar chronology of political and economic history. By integrating the stories of a variety of groups and individuals into the historical narrative, Created Equal helps connect the nation’s past with the student’s present.

Created Equal explores an expanding notion of equality and American identityone that encompasses the stories of diverse groups of people, territorial growth and expansion, the rise of the middle class, technological innovation and economic development, and engagement with other nations and peoples of the world.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205585847
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 1/29/2008
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 608
  • Product dimensions: 8.48 (w) x 10.82 (h) x 0.81 (d)

Meet the Author

Jacqueline Jones was born in Christiana, Delaware, a small town of 400 people in the northern part of the state. The local public school was desegregated in 1955, when she was a third grader. That event, combined with the peculiar social etiquette of relations between blacks and whites in the town, sparked her interest in American history. She attended the University of Delaware in nearby Newark and went on to graduate study at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, where she received her Ph.D. in history. Her scholarly interests have evolved over time, focusing on American labor and women’s, African American, and southern history. She teaches American history at Brandeis University, where she is Harry S. Truman Professor. In 1999, she received a MacArthur Fellowship.

Dr. Jones is the author of several books, including Soldiers of Light and Love: Northern Teachers and Georgia Blacks (1980); Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and Family Since Slavery (1985), which won the Bancroft Prize and was a finalist for a Pulitzer Prize; The Dispossessed: America’s Underclasses Since the Civil War (1992); and American Work: Four Centuries of Black and White Labor (1998). In 2001, she published a memoir that recounts her childhood in Christiana: Creek Walking: Growing Up in Delaware in the 1950s. She recently completed a book titled Savannah’s Civil War, which spans the period 1854 to 1872 and chronicles the strenuous but largely thwarted efforts of black people in lowcountry Georgia to achieve economic opportunity and full citizenship rights during and after the Civil War.

Peter H. Wood was born in St. Louis (before the famous arch was built). He recalls seeing Jackie Robinson play against the Cardinals, visiting the courthouse where the Dred Scott case originated, and traveling up the Mississippi to Hannibal, birthplace of Mark Twain. Summer work on the northern Great Lakes aroused his interest in Native American cultures, past and present. He studied at Harvard (B.A., 1964; Ph.D., 1972) and at Oxford, where he was a Rhodes Scholar (1964-1966). His pioneering book Black Majority (1974), concerning slavery in colonial South Carolina, won the Beveridge Prize of the American Historical Association. Since 1975, he has taught early American history and Native American history at Duke University. The topics of his articles range from the French explorer LaSalle to Gerald Ford’s pardon of Richard Nixon. He has written a short overview of early African Americans, entitled Strange New Land, and he has appeared in several related films on PBS. He has published two books about the famous American painter Winslow Homer and coedited Powhatan’s Mantle: Indians in the Colonial Southeast (revised, 2007). His demographic essay in that volume provided the first clear picture of population change in the eighteenth-century South.

Dr. Wood has served on the boards of the Highlander Center, Harvard University, Houston’s Rothko Chapel, and the Institute of Early American History and Culture in Williamsburg. He is married to colonial historian Elizabeth Fenn. His varied interests include archaeology, documentary film, and growing gourds. He keeps a baseball bat used by Ted Williams beside his desk.

Thomas (“Tim”) Borstelmann, the son of a university psychologist, grew up in North Carolina as the youngest child in a family deeply interested in history. His formal education came at Durham Academy, Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire, Stanford University (A.B., 1980), and Duke University (Ph.D., 1990). Informally, he was educated on the basketball courts of the South, the rocky shores of new England, the streets of Dublin, Ireland, the museums of Florence, Italy, and the high-country trails of the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains. He taught history at Cornell University from 1991 to 2003, when he moved to the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to become the first E. N. and Katherine Thompson Distinguished Professor of Modern World History. Since 1988 he has been married to Lynn Borstelmann, a nurse and hospital administrator, and his highest priority for almost two decades has been serving as the primary parent for their two sons. He is an avid cyclist, runner, swimmer, and skier.

Dr. Borstelmann’s first book, Apartheid’s Reluctant Uncle: The United States and Southern Africa in the Early Cold Ward (1993), won the Stuart L. Bernath Book Prize of the Society for Historians of Foreign Relations. His second book, The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in the Global Arena, appeared in 2001. At Cornell he won a major teaching award, the Robert and Helen Appel Fellowship. He is currently working on a book about the United States and the world in the 1970s.

Elaine Tyler May grew up in the shadow of Hollywood, performing in neighborhood circuses with her friends. Her passion for American history developed in college when she spent her junior year in Japan. The year was 1968. The Vietnam War was raging, along with turmoil at home. As an American in Asia, often called on to explain her nation’s actions, she yearned for a deeper understanding of America’s past and its place in the world. She returned home to study history at UCLA, where she earned her B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. She has taught at Princeton and Harvard Universities and since 1978 at the University of Minnesota, where she was recently named Regents professor. She has written four books examining the relationship between politics, public policy, and private life. Her widely acclaimed Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era was the first study to link the baby boom and suburbia to the politics of the Cold War. The Chronicle of Higher Education featured Barren in the Promis4ed Land: Childless Americans and the Pursuit of Happiness as a pioneering study of the history of reproduction. Lingua Franca named her coedited volume Here, there, and Everywhere: The Foreign Politics of American Popular Culture a “Breakthrough Book.”

Dr. May served as president of the American Studies Association in 1996 and as Distinguished Fulbright Professor of American History in Dublin, Ireland, in 1997. In 2007 she became president-elect of the Organization of American Historians. She is married to historian Lary May and has three children, who have inherited their parents’ passion for history.

Vicki L. Ruiz is a professor of history and Chicano/Latino studies and interim Dean for the School of Humanities at the university of California, Irvine. For her, history remains a grand adventure, one that she began at the kitchen table, listening to the stories of her mother and grandmother, and continued with the help of the local bookmobile. She read constantly as she sat on the dock, catching small fish (“grunts”) to be used as bait on her father’s fishing boat. As she grew older, she was promoted to working with her mother, selling tickets for the Blue Sea II. The first in her family to receive an advanced degree, she graduated from Gulf Coast Community College and Florida State University, then went on to earn a Ph.D. in history at Stanford in 1982. She is the author of Cannery Women, Cannery Lives and From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in 20th-Century America (named a Choice Outstanding Academic Book of 1998 by the American Library Association). She and Virginia Sánchez Korrol have coedited Latinas in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia (named a 2007 Best in Reference work by the New York Public Library).

Active in student mentorship projects, summer institutes for teachers, and public humanities programs, Dr. Ruiz served as an appointee to the National Council of the Humanities. In 2006 she became and elected fellow of the Society of American Historians. She is the past president of the Organization of American Historians and the Berkshire Conference on the History of Women and currently serves and president of the American Studies Association. The mother of two grown sons, she is married to Victor Becerra, urban planner, community activist, and gourmet cook extraordinaire.

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Table of Contents

Detailed Contents


Figures and Tables




Meet the Authors
A Conversation with the Authors


15. Consolidating a Triumphant Union, 1865—1877

The Struggle over the South

Wartime Preludes to Postwar Policies

Presidential Reconstruction, 1865—1867

The Southern Postwar Labor Problem

Building Free Communities

Landscapes and Soundscapes of Freedom

Congressional Reconstruction: The Radicals’ Plan

The Remarkable Career of Blanche K. Bruce

Claiming Territory for the Union

Federal Military Campaigns Against Western Indians

The Postwar Western Labor Problem

Land Use in an Expanding Nation

Buying Territory for the Union

The Republican Vision and Its Limits

Postbellum Origins of the Woman Suffrage Movement

Workers’ Organizations

Political Corruption and the Decline of Republican Idealism


Envisioning History Two Artists Memorialize the Battle of Little Big Horn

The Wider World When Did Women Get the Vote?

Interpreting History A Southern Labor Contract

Part Six. The Emergence of Modern America, 1877—1900

16. Standardizing the Nation: Innovations in Technology, Business, and Culture, 1877—1890

The New Shape of Business

New Systems and Machines–and Their Price

Alterations in the Natural Environment

Innovations in Financing and Organizing Business

Immigrants: New Labor Supplies for a New Economy

Efficient Machines, Efficient People

The Birth of a National Urban Culture

Economic Sources of Urban Growth

Building the Cities

Local Government Gets Bigger

Thrills, Chills, and Bathtubs: The Emergence of Consumer Culture

Shows and Sports as Spectacles

Entertainment Collides with Tradition

“Palaces of Consumption”

Defending the New Industrial Order

The Contradictory Politics of Laissez-Faire

Social Darwinism and the “Natural” State of Society


Envisioning History What Every Woman Wants: An Ad for a Bathtub

The Wider World Some Major Inventions of the Late Nineteenth Century

Interpreting History Andrew Carnegie and the “Gospel of Wealth”

17. Challenges to Government and Corporate Power, 1877—1890

Resistance to Legal and Military Authority

Chinese Lawsuits in California

Blacks in the “New South”

“Jim Crow” in the West

The Ghost Dance on the High Plains

Revolt in the Workplace

Trouble on the Farm

Militancy in the Factories and Mines

The Haymarket Bombing

Crosscurrents of Reform

The Goal of Indian Assimilation

Transatlantic Networks of Reform

Women Reformers: “Beginning to Burst the Bonds”


Envisioning History Jacob Riis Photographs Immigrants on the Lower East Side of New York City

The Wider World The Jewish Diaspora

Interpreting History “Albert Parsons’s Plea for Anarchy”

18. Political and Cultural Conflict in a Decade of Depression and War: The 1890s

Frontiers at Home, Lost and Found

Claiming and Managing the Land

The Tyranny of Racial Categories

New Roles for Schools

Connections Between Mind and Behavior

The Search for Domestic Political Alliances

Class Conflict

Rise and Demise of the Populists

Barriers to a U.S. Workers’ Political Movement

Challenges to Traditional Gender Roles

American Imperialism

Cultural Encounters with the Exotic

Initial Imperialist Ventures

The Spanish-American-Cuban-Filipino War of 1898

Critics of Imperialism


Envisioning History Housing Interiors and the Display of Wealth

The Wider World The Age of Imperialism, 1870-1914

Interpreting History Proceedings of the Congressional Committee on the Philippines

Part Seven. Reform at Home, Revolution Abroad, 1900—1929

19. Visions of the Modern Nation: The Progressive Era, 1900—1912

Expanding National Power

Theodore Roosevelt: The “Rough Rider” as President

Reaching Across the Globe

Protecting and Preserving the Natural World

William Howard Taft: The One-Term Progressive

Immigration: Visions of a Better Life

Land of Newcomers

The Southwest: Mexican Borderlands

Asian Immigration and the Impact of Exclusion

Newcomers from Southern and Eastern Europe

Reformers and Radicals

Muckraking, Moral Reform, and Vice Crusades

Women’s Suffrage

Radical Politics and the Labor Movement

Resistance to Racism

Work, Science, and Leisure

The Uses and Abuses of Science

Scientific Management and Mass Production

New Amusements

“Sex O’Clock in America”

Artists Respond to the New Era


Envisioning History Resisting Eugenics: A Political Cartoon
The Wider World The Immigrants Who Went Back Home
Interpreting History Defining Whiteness

20. War and Revolution, 1912—1920

A World and a Nation in Upheaval

The Apex of European Conquest

Confronting Revolutions in Asia and Europe

Influencing the Political Order in Latin America

Conflicts over Race and Ethnicity at Home

Women’s Challenges

Workers and Owners Clash

American Neutrality and Domestic Reform

“The One Great Nation at Peace”

Reform Priorities at Home

The Great Migration

Limits to American Neutrality

The United States Goes to War

The Logic of Belligerency

Mobilizing the Home Front

Ensuring Unity at Home

Joining the War in Europe

The Russian Revolution and the War in the East

The Struggle to Win the Peace

Peacemaking and the Versailles Treaty

Waging Counterrevolution Abroad

The Red and Black Scares at Home


Envisioning History Political Cartoons and Wartime Dissent

The Wider World Casualties of the Great War, 1914-1918

Interpreting History Sex and Citizenship

21. All That Jazz: The 1920s

The Decline of Progressive Reform and the Business of Politics

Women’s Rights After the Struggle for Suffrage

Prohibition: The Experiment That Failed

Reactionary Impulses

Marcus Garvey and the Persistence of Civil Rights Activism

Warren G. Harding: The Politics of Scandal

Calvin Coolidge: The Hands-Off President

Herbert Hoover: The Self-Made President

Hollywood and Harlem: National Cultures in Black and White

Hollywood Comes of Age

The Harlem Renaissance

Radios and Autos: Transforming Leisure at Home

Science on Trial

The Great Flood of 1927

The Triumph of Eugenics: Buck v. Bell

Science, Religion, and the Scopes Trial

Consumer Dreams and Nightmares

Marketing the Good Life

Writers, Critics, and the “Lost Generation”

Poverty Amid Plenty

The Stock Market Crash


Envisioning History Selling Treats in the Los Angeles Suburbs

The Wider World Global Hollywood

Interpreting History F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby

Part Eight. From Depression and War to World Power, 1929—1953

22. Hardship and Hope: The Great Depression of the 1930s

The Great Depression

Causes of the Crisis

Surviving Hard Times

Enduring Discrimination

The Dust Bowl

Presidential Responses to the Depression

Herbert Hoover: Failed Efforts

Franklin Delano Roosevelt: The Pragmatist

Eleanor Roosevelt: Activist and First Lady

“Nothing to Fear but Fear Itself”

The New Deal

The First Hundred Days

Monumental Projects Transforming the Landscape

Protest and Pressure from the Left and the Right

The Second New Deal

FDR’s Second Term

A New Political Culture

The Labor Movement

The New Deal Coalition

A New Americanism


Envisioning History In the Shadow of the American Dream

The Wider World The Great Depression in North America and Western Europe

Interpreting History Songs of the Great Depression

23. Global Conflict: World War II, 1937—1945

The United States Enters the War

Fascist Aggression in Europe and Asia

The “Great Debate” over Intervention

The Attack on Pearl Harbor

Japanese American Relocation

Foreign Nationals in the United States

Wartime Migrations

Total War

The Holocaust

The War in Europe

The War in the Pacific

The Home Front

Propaganda and Morale

Home Front Workers, Rosie the Riveter, and Victory Girls

Racial Tensions at Home and the “Double V” Campaign

The End of the War

The Manhattan Project

Planning for the Postwar Era

Victory in Europe and the Pacific


Envisioning History The Limits of Racial Tolerance

The Wider World Casualties of World War II

Interpreting History Zelda Webb Anderson, “You Just Met One Who Does Not Know How to Cook”

24. Cold War and Hot War, 1945—1953

The Uncertainties of Victory

Global Destruction

Vacuums of Power

Postwar Transition to Peacetime Life

Challenging Racial Discrimination

Class Conflict Between Owners and Workers

The Quest for Security

Redefining National Security

Conflict with the Soviet Union

The Policy of Containment

Colonialism and the Cold War

The Impact of Nuclear Weapons

American Security and Asia

The Chinese Civil War

The Creation of the National Security State

At War in Korea

A Cold War Society

Family Lives

The Growth of the South and the West

Harry Truman and the Limits of Liberal Reform

Cold War Politics at Home

Who Is a Loyal American?


Envisioning History The Unity of Communists?

The Wider World The Most Populous Urban Areas

Interpreting History NSC-68

Part Nine. The Cold War at Full Tide, 1953—1979

25. Domestic Dreams and Atomic Nightmares, 1953—1963

Cold War, Warm Hearth

Consumer Spending and the Suburban Ideal

Race, Class, and Domesticity

Women: Back to the Future

Mobilizing for Peace and the Environment

The Civil Rights Movement

Brown v. Board of Education

White Resistance, Black Persistence

Boycotts and Sit-Ins

The Eisenhower Years

The Middle of the Road

Eisenhower’s Foreign Policy

Cultural Diplomacy

Outsiders and Opposition

The Kennedy Era

Kennedy’s Domestic Policy

Kennedy’s Foreign Policy

1963: A Year of Turning Points


Envisioning History The Family Fallout Shelter

The Wider World The Distribution of Wealth

Interpreting History Rachel Carson, Silent Spring

26. The Vietnam War and Social Conflict, 1964—1971

Lyndon Johnson and the Apex of Liberalism

The New President

The Great Society: Fighting Poverty and Discrimination

The Great Society: Improving the Quality of Life

The Liberal Warren Court

Into War in Vietnam

The Vietnamese Revolution and the United States

Johnson’s War

Americans in Southeast Asia

1968: The Turning Point

“The Movement”

From Civil Rights to Black Power

The New Left and the Struggle Against the War

Cultural Rebellion and the Counterculture

Women’s Liberation

The Many Fronts of Liberation

The Conservative Response


The Turmoil of 1968 at Home

The Nixon Administration

Escalating and Deescalating in Vietnam


Envisioning History Pop Art

The Wider World Military Expenditures, 1966

Interpreting History Martin Luther King Jr. and the Vietnam War

27. Reconsidering National Priorities, 1972—1979

Twin Shocks: Détente and Watergate

Triangular Diplomacy

Scandal in the White House

The Nation After Watergate

Discovering the Limits of the U.S. Economy

The End of the Long Boom

The Oil Embargo

The Environmental Movement

Reshuffling Politics

Congressional Power Reasserted

Jimmy Carter: “I Will Never Lie to You”

Rise of a Peacemaker

The War on Waste

Pressing for Equality

The Meanings of Women’s Liberation

New Opportunities in Education, the Workplace, and Family Life

Equality Under the Law


Integration and Group Identity


Envisioning History U.S. Dependence on Petroleum Imports

The Wider World Conservative Religious Resurgence in the 1970s

Interpreting History The Church Committee and CIA Covert Operations

Part Ten. Global Connections, at Home and Abroad, 1979—2007

28. The Cold War Returns–and Ends, 1979—1991

Anticommunism Revived

Iran and Afghanistan

The Conservative Victory of 1980

Renewing the Cold War

Republican Rule at Home


The Environment Contested

The Affluence Gap

Cultural Conflict

The Rise of the Religious Right

Dissenters Push Back

The New Immigrants

The End of the Cold War

From Cold War to Détente

The Iran-Contra Scandal

A Global Police?


Envisioning History The Mall of America

The Wider World Global Immigration in the 1980s

Interpreting History Religion and Politics in the 1980s

29. Post—Cold War America, 1991—2000

The Economy: Global and Domestic

The Post—Cold War Economy

The Widening Gap Between Rich and Poor

Service Workers and Labor Unions

Industry versus the Environment

Tolerance and Its Limits

The Los Angeles Riots: “We Can All Get Along”

Values in Conflict

Courtroom Dramas: Clarence Thomas and O. J. Simpson

The Changing Face of Diversity

The Clinton Years

The 1992 Election

Clinton’s Domestic Agenda and the “Republican Revolution”

The Impeachment Crisis

Trade, Peacemaking, and Military Intervention

Terrorism and Danger at Home and Abroad

The Contested Election of 2000

The Campaign, the Vote, and the Courts

The Aftermath

Legacies of Election 2000


Envisioning History The Great American Voting Machine

The Wider World How Much Do the World’s CEOs Make Compared to Workers?

Interpreting History Vermont Civil Union Law

30. A Global Nation in the New Millennium

George W. Bush and War in the Middle East

The President and the “War on Terror”

Security and Politics at Home

Into War in Iraq

The Election of 2004 and the Second Bush Administration

The American Place in a Global Economy

The Logic and Technology of Globalization

Free Trade and the Global Assembly Line

Who Benefits from Globalization?

The Stewardship of Natural Resources

Ecological Transformations


Environmentalism and Its Limitations

The Expansion of American Popular Culture Abroad

A Culture of Diversity and Entertainment

U.S. Influence Abroad Since the Cold War

Resistance to American Popular Culture

Identity in Contemporary America

Negotiating Multiple Identities

Social Change and Abiding Discrimination

Still an Immigrant Society


Envisioning History Where Is the West?

The Wider World Capital Punishment, Abolition and Use

Interpreting History The “War on Terror”


The Declaration of Independence

The Article of Confederation

The Constitution of the United States of America

Amendments to the Constitution

Presidential Elections

Present Day United States

Present Day World





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