Created Equal, Volume I: A History of the United States: To 1877 / Edition 3

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With its sweeping, inclusive view of American history, Created Equal emphasizes social history–including the lives and labors of women, immigrants, working people, and minorities in all regions of the country–while delivering the familiar chronology of political and economic history. By integrating the stories of a variety of groups and individuals into the historical narrative, Created Equal helps connect the nation’s past with the student’s present.

Created Equal explores an expanding notion of equality and American identity—-one that encompasses the stories of diverse groups of people, territorial growth and expansion, the rise of the middle class, technological innovation and economic development, and engagement with other nations and peoples of the world.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205585830
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 1/29/2008
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 489
  • Sales rank: 1,319,087
  • Product dimensions: 8.38 (w) x 10.77 (h) x 0.77 (d)

Meet the Author

Jacqueline Jones was born in Christiana, Delaware, a small town of 400 people in the northern part of the state. The local public school was desegregated in 1955, when she was a third grader. That event, combined with the peculiar social etiquette of relations between blacks and whites in the town, sparked her interest in American history. She attended the University of Delaware in nearby Newark and went on to graduate study at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, where she received her Ph.D. in history. Her scholarly interests have evolved over time, focusing on American labor and women’s, African American, and southern history. She teaches American history at Brandeis University, where she is Harry S. Truman Professor. In 1999, she received a MacArthur Fellowship.

Dr. Jones is the author of several books, including Soldiers of Light and Love: Northern Teachers and Georgia Blacks (1980); Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work, and Family Since Slavery (1985), which won the Bancroft Prize and was a finalist for a Pulitzer Prize; The Dispossessed: America’s Underclasses Since the Civil War (1992); and American Work: Four Centuries of Black and White Labor (1998). In 2001, she published a memoir that recounts her childhood in Christiana: Creek Walking: Growing Up in Delaware in the 1950s. She recently completed a book titled Savannah’s Civil War, which spans the period 1854 to 1872 and chronicles the strenuous but largely thwarted efforts of black people in lowcountry Georgia to achieve economic opportunity and full citizenship rights during and after the Civil War.

Peter H. Wood was born in St. Louis (before the famous arch was built). He recalls seeing Jackie Robinson play against the Cardinals, visiting the courthouse where the Dred Scott case originated, and traveling up the Mississippi to Hannibal, birthplace of Mark Twain. Summer work on the northern Great Lakes aroused his interest in Native American cultures, past and present. He studied at Harvard (B.A., 1964; Ph.D., 1972) and at Oxford, where he was a Rhodes Scholar (1964-1966). His pioneering book Black Majority (1974), concerning slavery in colonial South Carolina, won the Beveridge Prize of the American Historical Association. Since 1975, he has taught early American history and Native American history at Duke University. The topics of his articles range from the French explorer LaSalle to Gerald Ford’s pardon of Richard Nixon. He has written a short overview of early African Americans, entitled Strange New Land, and he has appeared in several related films on PBS. He has published two books about the famous American painter Winslow Homer and coedited Powhatan’s Mantle: Indians in the Colonial Southeast (revised, 2007). His demographic essay in that volume provided the first clear picture of population change in the eighteenth-century South.

Dr. Wood has served on the boards of the Highlander Center, Harvard University, Houston’s Rothko Chapel, and the Institute of Early American History and Culture in Williamsburg. He is married to colonial historian Elizabeth Fenn. His varied interests include archaeology, documentary film, and growing gourds. He keeps a baseball bat used by Ted Williams beside his desk.

Thomas (“Tim”) Borstelmann, the son of a university psychologist, grew up in North Carolina as the youngest child in a family deeply interested in history. His formal education came at Durham Academy, Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire, Stanford University (A.B., 1980), and Duke University (Ph.D., 1990). Informally, he was educated on the basketball courts of the South, the rocky shores of new England, the streets of Dublin, Ireland, the museums of Florence, Italy, and the high-country trails of the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains. He taught history at Cornell University from 1991 to 2003, when he moved to the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to become the first E. N. and Katherine Thompson Distinguished Professor of Modern World History. Since 1988 he has been married to Lynn Borstelmann, a nurse and hospital administrator, and his highest priority for almost two decades has been serving as the primary parent for their two sons. He is an avid cyclist, runner, swimmer, and skier.

Dr. Borstelmann’s first book, Apartheid’s Reluctant Uncle: The United States and Southern Africa in the Early Cold Ward (1993), won the Stuart L. Bernath Book Prize of the Society for Historians of Foreign Relations. His second book, The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in the Global Arena, appeared in 2001. At Cornell he won a major teaching award, the Robert and Helen Appel Fellowship. He is currently working on a book about the United States and the world in the 1970s.

Elaine Tyler May grew up in the shadow of Hollywood, performing in neighborhood circuses with her friends. Her passion for American history developed in college when she spent her junior year in Japan. The year was 1968. The Vietnam War was raging, along with turmoil at home. As an American in Asia, often called on to explain her nation’s actions, she yearned for a deeper understanding of America’s past and its place in the world. She returned home to study history at UCLA, where she earned her B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. She has taught at Princeton and Harvard Universities and since 1978 at the University of Minnesota, where she was recently named Regents professor. She has written four books examining the relationship between politics, public policy, and private life. Her widely acclaimed Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era was the first study to link the baby boom and suburbia to the politics of the Cold War. The Chronicle of Higher Education featured Barren in the Promis4ed Land: Childless Americans and the Pursuit of Happiness as a pioneering study of the history of reproduction. Lingua Franca named her coedited volume Here, there, and Everywhere: The Foreign Politics of American Popular Culture a “Breakthrough Book.”

Dr. May served as president of the American Studies Association in 1996 and as Distinguished Fulbright Professor of American History in Dublin, Ireland, in 1997. In 2007 she became president-elect of the Organization of American Historians. She is married to historian Lary May and has three children, who have inherited their parents’ passion for history.

Vicki L. Ruiz is a professor of history and Chicano/Latino studies and interim Dean for the School of Humanities at the university of California, Irvine. For her, history remains a grand adventure, one that she began at the kitchen table, listening to the stories of her mother and grandmother, and continued with the help of the local bookmobile. She read constantly as she sat on the dock, catching small fish (“grunts”) to be used as bait on her father’s fishing boat. As she grew older, she was promoted to working with her mother, selling tickets for the Blue Sea II. The first in her family to receive an advanced degree, she graduated from Gulf Coast Community College and Florida State University, then went on to earn a Ph.D. in history at Stanford in 1982. She is the author of Cannery Women, Cannery Lives and From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in 20th-Century America (named a Choice Outstanding Academic Book of 1998 by the American Library Association). She and Virginia Sánchez Korrol have coedited Latinas in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia (named a 2007 Best in Reference work by the New York Public Library).

Active in student mentorship projects, summer institutes for teachers, and public humanities programs, Dr. Ruiz served as an appointee to the National Council of the Humanities. In 2006 she became and elected fellow of the Society of American Historians. She is the past president of the Organization of American Historians and the Berkshire Conference on the History of Women and currently serves and president of the American Studies Association. The mother of two grown sons, she is married to Victor Becerra, urban planner, community activist, and gourmet cook extraordinaire.

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Table of Contents

Detailed Contents


Figures and Tables




Meet the Authors

A Conversation with the Authors


Part One. North American Founders

1. First Founders

Ancient America

The Question of Origins

The Archaic World

The Rise of Maize Agriculture

A Thousand Years of Change: 500 to 1500

Valleys of the Sun: The Mesoamerican Empires

The Anasazi: Chaco Canyon and Mesa Verde

The Mississippians: Cahokia and Moundville

Linking the Continents

Oceanic Travel: The Norse and the Chinese

Portugal and the Beginnings of Globalization

Looking for the Indies: Da Gama and Columbus

In the Wake of Columbus: Competition and Exchange

Spain Enters the Americas

The Devastation of the Indies

The Spanish Conquest of the Aztec

Magellan and Cortés Prompt New Searches

Three New Views of North America

The Protestant Reformation Plays Out in America

Reformation and Counter-Reformation in Europe

Competing Powers Lay Claim to Florida

The Background of English Expansion

Lost Colony: The Roanoke Experience


Envisioning History The World as a Clover: Mapping for Art, Religion, or Science

The Wider World The Lateen Rig: A Triangular Sail That Helped to Conquer Oceans

Interpreting History “These Gods That We Worship Give Us Everything We Need”

2. European Footholds in North America, 1600–1660

Spain’s Ocean-Spanning Reach

Vizcaíno in California and Japan

Oñate Creates a Spanish Foothold in the Southwest

New Mexico Survives: New Flocks Among Old Pueblos

Conversion and Rebellion in Spanish Florida

France and Holland: Overseas Competition for Spain

The Founding of New France

Competing for the Beaver Trade

A Dutch Colony on the Hudson River

“All Sorts of Nationalities”: Diverse New Amsterdam

English Beginnings on the Atlantic Coast

The Virginia Company and Jamestown

“Starving Time” and Seeds of Representative Government

Launching the Plymouth Colony

The Puritan Experiment

Formation of the Massachusetts Bay Company

“We Shall Be as a City upon a Hill”

Dissenters: Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson

Expansion and Violence: The Pequot War

The Chesapeake Bay Colonies

The Demise of the Virginia Company

Maryland: The Catholic Refuge

The Dwellings of English Newcomers

The Lure of Tobacco


Envisioning History A Roof Overhead: Early Chesapeake Housing

The Wider World Freedom of the Seas: Grotius and Maritime Law

Interpreting History Anne Bradstreet: “The Tenth Muse, Lately Sprung Up in America”

3. Controlling the Edges of the Continent, 1660–1715

France and the American Interior

The Rise of the Sun King

Exploring the Mississippi Valley

King William’s War in the Northeast

Founding the Louisiana Colony

The Spanish Empire on the Defensive

The Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico

Navajo and Spanish on the Southwestern Frontier

Borderland Conflict in Texas and Florida

England’s American Empire Takes Shape

Monarchy Restored and Navigation Controlled

Fierce Anglo-Dutch Competition

The New Restoration Colonies

The Contrasting Worlds of Pennsylvania and Carolina

Bloodshed in the English Colonies: 1670–1690

Metacom’s War in New England

Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia

The “Glorious Revolution” in England

The “Glorious Revolution” in America

Consequences of War and Growth: 1690–1715

Salem’s Wartime Witch Hunt

The Uneven Costs of War

Storm Clouds in the South


Envisioning History La Salle’s Ship, the Belle, Is Raised from a Watery Grave

The Wider World William Dampier: The World Became His University

Interpreting History “Marry or do not marry”

Part Two. A Century of Colonial Expansion to 1775

4. African Enslavement: The Terrible Transformation

The Descent into Race Slavery

The Caribbean Precedent

Ominous Beginnings

Alternative Sources of Labor

The Fateful Transition

The Growth of Slave Labor Camps

Black Involvement in Bacon’s Rebellion

The Rise of a Slaveholding Tidewater Elite

Closing the Vicious Circle in the Chesapeake

England Enters the Atlantic Slave Trade

Trade Ties Between Europe and Africa

The Slave Trade on the African Coast

The Middle Passage Experience

Saltwater Slaves Arrive in America

Survival in a Strange New Land

African Rice Growers in South Carolina

Patterns of Resistance

A Wave of Rebellion

The Transformation Completed

Second Class Status in the North

Uncertain Voices of Dissent

Is This Consistent “with Christianity or Common Justice”?

Oglethorpe’s Antislavery Experiment

The End of Equality in Georgia


Envisioning History Drums and Banjos: African Sounds in English Colonies

The Wider World The Odyssey of Job Ben Solomon

Interpreting History “Releese Us out of This Cruell Bondegg”

5. An American Babel, 1713–1763

New Cultures on the Western Plains

The Spread of the Horse

The Rise of the Comanche

Creation of Comanchería on the Southern Plains

The Expansion of the Sioux

Britain’s Mainland Colonies: A New Abundance of People

Population Growth on the Home Front

“Packed Like Herrings”: Arrivals from Abroad

Non-English Newcomers in the British Colonies

The Varied Economic Landscape

Sources of Gain in Carolina and Georgia

Chesapeake Bay’s Tobacco Economy

New England Takes to the Sea

Economic Expansion in the Middle Colonies

Matters of Faith: The Great Awakening

Seeds of Religious Toleration

The Onset of the Great Awakening: Pietism and George Whitefield

“The Danger of an Unconverted Ministry”

The Consequences of the Great Awakening

The French Lose a North American Empire

Prospects and Problems Facing French Colonists

British Settlers Confront the Threat from France

An American Fight Becomes a Global Conflict

Quebec Taken and North America Refashioned


Envisioning History Putting Mary Jemison on a Pedestal

The Wider World Solving the Problem of Longitude
Interpreting History “Pastures Can Be Found Almost Everywhere”: Joshua von Kocherthal Recruits Germans to Carolina

6. The Limits of Imperial Control, 1763–1775

New Challenges to Spain’s Expanded Empire

Pacific Exploration, Hawaiian Contact

The Russians Lay Claim to Alaska

Spain Colonizes the California Coast

New Challenges to Britain’s Expanded Empire

Midwestern Lands and Pontiac’s War for Indian Independence

Grenville’s Effort at Reform

The Stamp Act Imposed

The Stamp Act Resisted

“The Unconquerable Rage of the People”

Power Corrupts: An English Framework for Revolution

Americans Practice Vigilance and Restraint

Rural Unrest: Tenant Farmers and Regulators

A Conspiracy of Corrupt Ministers?

The Townshend Duties

Virtuous Resistance: Boycotting British Goods

The Boston Massacre

The Gaspée Affair Prompts Committees of Correspondence

Launching a Revolution

The Tempest over Tea

The Intolerable Acts

From Words to Action


Envisioning History William Hogarth’s “The Times,” 1762

The Wider World “Farther than Any Other Man”: Cook’s Second Voyage

Interpreting History “Squeezed and Oppressed”: A 1768 Petition by 30 Regulators

Part Three. The Unfinished Revolution, 1775–1803

7. Revolutionaries at War, 1775–1783

“Things Are Now Come to That Crisis”

The Second Continental Congress Takes Control

“Liberty to Slaves”

The Struggle to Control Boston

Declaring Independence

“Time to Part”

The British Attack New York

“Victory or Death”: A Desperate Gamble Pays Off

The Struggle to Win French Support

Breakdown in British Planning

Saratoga Tips the Balance

Forging an Alliance with France

Legitimate States, a Respectable Military

The Articles of Confederation

Creating State Constitutions

Tensions in the Military Ranks

Shaping a Diverse Army

The War at Sea

The Long Road to Yorktown

Indian Warfare and Frontier Outposts

The Unpredictable War in the South

The Final Campaign

Winning the Peace


Envisioning History Benjamin Franklin: The Diplomat in a Beaver Hat

The Wider World The Journey of Tom and Sally Peters

Interpreting History “Revoking Those Sacred Trusts Which Are Violated”: Proclaiming Independence in South Carolina, May 1776

8. New Beginnings: The 1780s

Beating Swords into Plowshares

Will the Army Seize Control?

The Society of the Cincinnati

Renaming the Landscape

An Independent Culture

Competing for Control of the Mississippi Valley

Disputed Territory: The Old Southwest

Southern Claims and Indian Resistance

“We Are Now Masters”: The Old Northwest

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Debtor and Creditor, Taxpayer and Bondholder

New Sources of Wealth

“Tumults in New England”

Shay’s Rebellion: The Massachusetts Regulation

Drafting a New Constitution

Philadelphia: A Gathering of Like-Minded Men

Compromise and Consensus

Questions of Representation

Slavery: The Deepest Dilemma

Ratification and the Bill of Rights

The Campaign for Ratification

Dividing and Conquering the Anti-Federalists

Adding a Bill of Rights


Envisioning History “Grand Federal Processions”
The Wider World John Ledyard’s Wildly Ambitious Plan

Interpreting History Demobilization: “Turned Adrift Like Old Worn-Out Horses”

9. Revolutionary Legacies, 1789–1803

Competing Political Visions in the New Nation

Federalism and Democratic-Republicanism in Action

Planting the Seeds of Industry

Echoes of the American Revolution: The Whiskey Rebellion

Securing Peace Abroad, Suppressing Dissent at Home

People of Color: New Freedoms, New Struggles

Blacks in the North

Manumissions in the South

Continuity and Change in the West

Indian Wars in the Great Lakes Region

Patterns of Indian Acculturation

Land Speculation and Slavery

Shifting Social Identities in the Post-Revolutionary Era

The Search for Common Ground

Artisan-Politicians and Menial Laborers

“Republican Mothers” and Other Well-Off Women

A Loss of Political Influence: The Fate of Nonelite Women

The Election of 1800

The Enigmatic Thomas Jefferson

Protecting and Expanding the National Interest


Envisioning History President-Elect Washington is Greeted by the Women and Girls of Trenton, New Jersey

The Wider World Comparative Measures of Equality in the Post-Revolutionary World

Interpreting History A Farmer Worries about the Power of “the Few”

Part Four. Expanding the Boundaries of Freedom and Slavery, 1804–1848

10. Defending and Expanding the New Nation, 1804–1818

The British Menace

The Embargo of 1807

On the Brink of War

The War of 1812

Pushing North

Fighting on Many Fronts

An Uncertain Victory

The “Era of Good Feelings”?

Praise and Respect for Veterans After the War

A Thriving Economy

Transformations in the Workplace

The Market Revolution

The Rise of the Cotton Plantation Economy

Regional Economies of the South

Black Family Life and Labor

Resistance to Slavery


Envisioning History A Government Agent Greets a Group of Creek Indians

The Wider World Which Nations Transported Slaves in 1800?

Interpreting History Cherokee Women Petition Against Further Land Sales to Whites in 1817

11. Society and Politics in the “Age of the Common Man,” 1819–1832

The Politics Behind Western Migration

The Missouri Compromise

Ways West: The Erie Canal

Spreading American Cultureand Slavery

Migration and Its Effects on the Western Environment

The Panic of 1819 and the Plight of Western Debtors

The Monroe Doctrine

Andrew Jackson’s Rise to Power

Federal Authority and Its Opponents

Judicial Federalism and the Limits of Law

The “Tariff of Abominations”

The “Monster Bank”

Americans in the “Age of the Common Man”

Wards, Workers, and Warriors: Native Americans

Slaves and Free People of Color

Legal and Economic Dependence: The Status of Women

Ties That Bound a Growing Population

New Visions of Religious Faith

Literary and Cultural Values in America


Envisioning History A Rowdy Presidential Inauguration

The Wider World The Global Trade in Cotton

Interpreting History Eulalia Perez Describes Her Work in a California Mission

12. Peoples in Motion, 1832–1848

Mass Migrations

Newcomers from Western Europe

The Slave Trade

Trails of Tears

Migrants in the West

Government-Sponsored Exploration

The Oregon Trail

New Places, New Identities

Changes in the Southern Plains

A Multitude of Voices in the National Political Arena

Whigs, Workers, and the Panic of 1837

Suppression of Antislavery Sentiment

Nativists as a Political Force

Reform Impulses

Public Education

Alternative Visions of Social Life

Networks of Reformers

The United States Extends Its Reach

The Lone Star Republic

The Election of 1844

War with Mexico


Envisioning History An Owner Advertises for His Runaway Slave

The Wider World The U.S. and Other Railroad Networks Compared

Interpreting History Senator John C. Calhoun Warns Against Incorporating Mexico into the United States

Part 5. Disunion and Reunion

13. The Crisis over Slavery, 1848–1860

Regional Economies and Conflicts

Native American Economies Transformed

Land Conflicts in the Southwest

Ethnic and Economic Diversity in the Midwest

Regional Economies of the South

A Free Labor Ideology in the North

Individualism Versus Group Identity

Putting into Practice Ideas of Social Inferiority

“A Teeming Nation”—America in Literature

Challenges to Individualism

The Paradox of Southern Political Power

The Party System in Disarray

The Compromise of 1850

Expansionism and Political Upheaval

The Republican Alliance

The Deepening Conflict over Slavery

The Rising Tide of Violence

The Dred Scott Decision

The Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Harpers Ferry and the Presidential Election of 1860


Envisioning History An Artist Renders County Election Day in the 1850s

The Wider World When Was Slavery Abolished?

Interpreting History Professor Howe on the Subordination of Women

14. “To Fight to Gain a Country”: The Civil War

Mobilization for War, 1861–1862

The Secession Impulse

Preparing to Fight

Barriers to Southern Mobilization

Indians in the Service of the Confederacy

The Ethnic Confederacy

The Course of War, 1862–1864

The Republicans’ War

The Ravages of War

The Emancipation Proclamation

Persistent Obstacles to the Confederacy’s Grand Strategy

The Other War: African American Struggles for Liberation

The Unfolding of Freedom

Enemies Within the Confederacy

The Ongoing Fight Against Prejudice

Battle Fronts and Home Fronts in 1863

Disaffection in the Confederacy

The Tide Turns Against the South

Civil Unrest in the North

The Desperate South

The Prolonged Defeat of the Confederacy, 1864–1865

“Hard War” Toward African Americans and Indians

“Father Abraham”

Sherman’s March from Atlanta to the Sea

The Last Days of the Confederacy


Interpreting History A Virginia Slaveholder Objects to the Impressment of Slaves

Envisioning History A Civil War Encampment

The Wider World Deaths of Americans in Principal Wars, 1775-1991

15. Consolidating a Triumphant Union, 1865–1877

The Struggle over the South

Wartime Preludes to Postwar Policies

Presidential Reconstruction, 1865–1867

The Southern Postwar Labor Problem

Building Free Communities

Landscapes and Soundscapes of Freedom

Congressional Reconstruction: The Radicals’ Plan

The Remarkable Career of Blanche K. Bruce

Claiming Territory for the Union

Federal Military Campaigns Against Western Indians

The Postwar Western Labor Problem

Land Use in an Expanding Nation

Buying Territory for the Union

The Republican Vision and Its Limits

Postbellum Origins of the Woman Suffrage Movement

Workers’ Organizations

Political Corruption and the Decline of Republican Idealism


Envisioning History Two Artists Memorialize the Battle of Little Big Horn

The Wider World When Did Women Get the Vote?

Interpreting History A Southern Labor Contract


The Declaration of Independence

The Article of Confederation

The Constitution of the United States of America

Amendments to the Constitution

Presidential Elections

Present Day United States

Present Day World





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