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In response to today's needs to tailor instruction for the lower grades (pre-K-4), this new text features sample lessons for virtually every major literacy skill/strategy and offers numerous reinforcement suggestions and generous listings of materials appropriate for the lower grades. The methods emphasized are those that have been validated by research and/or practice. Extensive coverage is provided for areas of instruction mandated by federal programs such as Reading First: phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. However, the text also presents the theories behind the methods, so readers will be free to choose, adapt, and/or construct their own approaches as they create a balanced program of literacy instruction.
THOMAS G. GUNNING has taught courses in methods of teaching reading and writing for 20 years and was the director of the Reading Clinic at Southern Connecticut State University. Before that, as a secondary English teacher, secondary reading specialist, and an elementary school reading consultant, he worked extensively with achieving and struggling readers. He now teaches a variety of reading methods courses at central Connecticut State University.
Dr. Gunning is a well-known and highly regarded textbook author, having written and revised such titles as Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties (2002) and Creating Literacy Instruction for All Children (2003). He also wrote Best Books for Beginning Readers (1997), Best Books for Building Literacy for Elementary School Children (1999), Building Words: A Resource Manual for Teaching Word Analysis and Spelling Skills and Strategies (2001), and Phonological Awareness and Primary Phonics (2000). All are Allyn & Bacon books.
Each chapter begins with “Anticipation Guide,” and “Using What You Know. ”Most chapters conclude with “Help for Struggling Readers and Writers,” “Essential Standards,” “Assessment,” “Summary,” “Extending and Applying,” “Developing a Professional Portfolio,” and “Developing a Resource File.”
1. The Nature of Literacy and Today’s Children.
The Nature of Reading.
The Readers Role in the Reading Process.
Approaches to Reading Instruction: Whole versus Part Learning.
Stages of Reading Development.
No Child Left Behind.
Scientifically Based Reading Instruction.
A Reading and Writing Program for Today’s Students.
The Nature of Evaluation.
Norm-Referenced versus Criterion-Referenced Tests.
Judging Assessment Measures.
Functional Level Assessment.
Other Methods of Assessment.
Basal Reader Assessment.
Screening and Diagnostic Instruments and Classroom-Based Assessment.
Assessing English Language Learners.
3. Fostering Emergent/Early Literacy.
Understanding Emergent Literacy.
Fostering Emergent Literacy.
Making Reading and Writing a Part of Classroom Activities.
Core Activities for Building Emergent/Early Literacy.
Reading in Preschool.
Effective Preschool Programs.
Working with Parents.
Monitoring Emergent Literacy.
4. Teaching Phonics, High-Frequency Words, and Syllabic Analysis.
Rationale and Approaches for Phonics Instruction.
How Words Are Read.
Stages in Reading Words.
Basic Principles of Phonics Instruction.
Scope and Sequence.
Using Word Analysis References.
Using an Integrated Approach.
Teaching Phonics to English Language Learners.
Phonics and Spelling.
Adapting Basal Reader Instruction.
Teaching Phonics to English Language Learners.
5. Building Vocabulary.
The Need for Vocabulary Instruction.
Stages of Word Knowledge.
Seven Principles of Developing Vocabulary.
Techniques for Teaching Words.
Teaching Special Features of Words.
Learning How to Learn Words.
Supplying Corrective Feedback.
6. Comprehension: Theory and Strategies.
The Process of Comprehending.
Social-Constructivist Nature of Comprehension.
Integration of Strategies.
Importance of Affective Factors.
7. Comprehension: Text Structures and Teaching Procedures.
Nature of the Text.
The Role of Questions in Comprehension.
Frameworks for Fostering Comprehension.
Modified Cloze Procedure.
Applying Literacy Skills to the Content Areas.
Children’s Books in the Content Areas.
Chapter Organization and Text Structure.
KWL Plus: A Technique for Before, During, and After Reading.
Writing to Learn.
8. Reading Literature.
Types of Literature.
9. Approaches to Teaching Reading.
Changing Approaches to Teaching Reading.
Individualized Reading Workshop.
An Integrated Approach.
10. Writing and Reading.
The Roots of Writing.
The Process Approach to Writing.
Thinking and Reading Like a Writer.
Improving Expository Writing.
Guiding the Writing of Reports.
Assessing and Improving Writing: The Key Traits Approach.
Technology and Writing.
Reading Helps Writing.
A Full Menu.
11. Diversity in the Classroom.
Teaching All Students.
Making Use of Diverse Ways of Responding.
Accepting the Students Language.
Overview of Program for English Language Learners.
Using Technology to Assist English Language Learners.
Title 1 and Remedial Programs.
12. Creating and Managing a Literacy Program.
Constructing a Literacy Program.
Managing a Literacy Program.
Literacy and Technology.
Literacy in Today’s and Tomorrow’s World.
Appendix A: Graded Listing of 1000+ Children’s Books.
Appendix B: Informal Assessment of Key Skills and Strategies.