Creating Literacy Instruction for All Children in Grades Pre-K to 4 / Edition 1

Creating Literacy Instruction for All Children in Grades Pre-K to 4 / Edition 1

by Thomas G. Gunning

ISBN-10: 0205356834

ISBN-13: 9780205356836

Pub. Date: 08/01/2003

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

In response to today's needs to tailor instruction for the lower grades (pre-K-4), this new text features sample lessons for virtually every major literacy skill/strategy and offers numerous reinforcement suggestions and generous listings of materials appropriate for the lower grades. The methods emphasized are those that have been validated by research and/or

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In response to today's needs to tailor instruction for the lower grades (pre-K-4), this new text features sample lessons for virtually every major literacy skill/strategy and offers numerous reinforcement suggestions and generous listings of materials appropriate for the lower grades. The methods emphasized are those that have been validated by research and/or practice. Extensive coverage is provided for areas of instruction mandated by federal programs such as Reading First: phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. However, the text also presents the theories behind the methods, so readers will be free to choose, adapt, and/or construct their own approaches as they create a balanced program of literacy instruction.


  • “Lessons” appear throughout the text and provide step-by-step lesson plans for nearly every area of literacy instruction. All lessons include suggestions for assessment.
  • Emphasis on English language learners within regular classrooms, including coverage of Sheltered English, of assessment for ELLs throughout the text, and more children's books for both struggling readers and ELLs, and marginal annotations on Adapting Instruction for English Language Learners.
  • “Help for Struggling Readers and Writers” section concludes Chapters 3-13 and provides practical, specialized suggestions for helping students become stronger readers and writers and for ways in which teachers can adapt instruction or assessment to meet the needs of underachieving readers and writers.
  • To make the text as practical as possible, each chapter concludes with an “Action Plan” that provides specific suggestions for applying each of the key concepts and assessment and teaching suggestions discussed in the chapter.
  • “Children's Reading List” appears in every chapter, providing lists of appropriate titles for skill reinforcement.
  • “Exemplary Teaching” boxes throughout the text bring teaching techniques to life with real-life experiences of gifted teachers and the author's own experiences.
  • An “Essential Standards” section lists specific literacy curriculum goals so students and professors can focus on key objectives, and “Assessment” sections provide specific focus on evaluation issues and ideas for individual chapters (Chs. 3-13).
  • Emphasis on guided reading and matching readers with appropriate texts for grades Pre-K-4.
  • Unique “Leveling Books System,” enables students to better understand what makes a book difficult to read and provides an easy-to-use system so that they can level books on their own. Widely used leveling systems are explained and compared. Sources of extensive lists of leveled books are provided (Ch. 2).
  • Unique Appendix A includes a graded listing of 1,000 books where suggestions are made for easy, average, and challenging fiction and informational books at each grade level (Pre-K to 4). Students will have ready access to the readabiltiy levels of the most popular books in grades Pre-K to 4.
  • The use of technology has also been highlighted. Going beyond simply listing interesting Websites, the text has specific age-appropriate suggestions for teaching students how to use the Internet as a learning tool in grades Pre-K to 4.

THOMAS G. GUNNING has taught courses in methods of teaching reading and writing for 20 years and was the director of the Reading Clinic at Southern Connecticut State University. Before that, as a secondary English teacher, secondary reading specialist, and an elementary school reading consultant, he worked extensively with achieving and struggling readers. He now teaches a variety of reading methods courses at central Connecticut State University.

Dr. Gunning is a well-known and highly regarded textbook author, having written and revised such titles as Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties (2002) and Creating Literacy Instruction for All Children (2003). He also wrote Best Books for Beginning Readers (1997), Best Books for Building Literacy for Elementary School Children (1999), Building Words: A Resource Manual for Teaching Word Analysis and Spelling Skills and Strategies (2001), and Phonological Awareness and Primary Phonics (2000). All are Allyn & Bacon books.

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Product Details

Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
Pearson at School Ser.
Edition description:
New Edition
Product dimensions:
7.40(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.30(d)
Age Range:
18 Years

Table of Contents

Each chapter begins with “Anticipation Guide,” and “Using What You Know. ”Most chapters conclude with “Help for Struggling Readers and Writers,” “Essential Standards,” “Assessment,” “Summary,” “Extending and Applying,” “Developing a Professional Portfolio,” and “Developing a Resource File.”

Special Features.


1. The Nature of Literacy and Today’s Children.

The Nature of Reading.

The Readers Role in the Reading Process.

Approaches to Reading Instruction: Whole versus Part Learning.

Stages of Reading Development.

No Child Left Behind.

Scientifically Based Reading Instruction.

A Reading and Writing Program for Today’s Students.

2. Evaluation.

The Nature of Evaluation.

Placement Information.

Norm-Referenced versus Criterion-Referenced Tests.

Judging Assessment Measures.

Reporting Performance.

Functional Level Assessment.

Other Methods of Assessment.


Evaluating Writing.


Basal Reader Assessment.

Screening and Diagnostic Instruments and Classroom-Based Assessment.

Assessing English Language Learners.

Assessing Materials.

3. Fostering Emergent/Early Literacy.

Understanding Emergent Literacy.

Fostering Emergent Literacy.

Making Reading and Writing a Part of Classroom Activities.

Core Activities for Building Emergent/Early Literacy.

Reading in Preschool.

Federal Initiatives.

Effective Preschool Programs.

Working with Parents.

Monitoring Emergent Literacy.

4. Teaching Phonics, High-Frequency Words, and Syllabic Analysis.

Rationale and Approaches for Phonics Instruction.

How Words Are Read.

Stages in Reading Words.

Basic Principles of Phonics Instruction.

Phonics Elements.

Scope and Sequence.

Using Word Analysis References.

Using an Integrated Approach.

Teaching Phonics to English Language Learners.

Phonics and Spelling.

Strategy Instruction.

Adapting Basal Reader Instruction.

Decodable Texts.

Teaching Phonics to English Language Learners.

High-Frequency Words.

Building Fluency.

Syllabic Analysis.

5. Building Vocabulary.

The Need for Vocabulary Instruction.

Stages of Word Knowledge.

Seven Principles of Developing Vocabulary.

Techniques for Teaching Words.

Teaching Special Features of Words.

Learning How to Learn Words.

Supplying Corrective Feedback.

6. Comprehension: Theory and Strategies.

The Process of Comprehending.

Comprehension Strategies.

Social-Constructivist Nature of Comprehension.

Learning Environment.

Integration of Strategies.

Importance of Affective Factors.

7. Comprehension: Text Structures and Teaching Procedures.

Nature of the Text.

The Role of Questions in Comprehension.

Frameworks for Fostering Comprehension.

Modified Cloze Procedure.

Critical Reading.

Applying Literacy Skills to the Content Areas.

Children’s Books in the Content Areas.

Chapter Organization and Text Structure.

KWL Plus: A Technique for Before, During, and After Reading.

Writing to Learn.

Sheltered English.

8. Reading Literature.

Experiencing Literature.

Types of Literature.

Voluntary Reading.

9. Approaches to Teaching Reading.

Changing Approaches to Teaching Reading.

Basal Approach.

Literature-Based Approach.

Individualized Reading Workshop.

Language-Experience Approach.

Whole Language.

Guided Reading.

Four Blocks.

An Integrated Approach.

10. Writing and Reading.

The Roots of Writing.

Guided Writing.

The Process Approach to Writing.

Writing Workshop.

Thinking and Reading Like a Writer.

Interpersonal Writing.

Improving Expository Writing.

Guiding the Writing of Reports.

Assessing and Improving Writing: The Key Traits Approach.

Technology and Writing.

Reading Helps Writing.

A Full Menu.

11. Diversity in the Classroom.

Teaching All Students.

Making Use of Diverse Ways of Responding.

Accepting the Students Language.

Overview of Program for English Language Learners.

Using Technology to Assist English Language Learners.


Title 1 and Remedial Programs.

Intervention Programs.

12. Creating and Managing a Literacy Program.

Constructing a Literacy Program.

Managing a Literacy Program.

Literacy and Technology.

Literacy in Today’s and Tomorrow’s World.

Professional Development.

Appendix A: Graded Listing of 1000+ Children’s Books.

Appendix B: Informal Assessment of Key Skills and Strategies.



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