Creative 3-D Display and Interaction Interfaces: A Trans-Disciplinary Approach / Edition 1by Barry G. Blundell, Adam J. Schwarz
Pub. Date: 12/23/2005
This authoritative book provides a groundbreaking, trans-disciplinary approach to the creation of computer interface technologies that more naturally matches the complex needs of human sensory and motor systems. The conventional interface, though useful in the past, has started to inhibit human
A single source for key information on 3-D display and interaction
This authoritative book provides a groundbreaking, trans-disciplinary approach to the creation of computer interface technologies that more naturally matches the complex needs of human sensory and motor systems. The conventional interface, though useful in the past, has started to inhibit human creativity in key areas such as creative 3-D design, medical diagnostics, and the visualization of complex structures. With the aim of effectively advancing the human-computer interaction experience, this book takes a refreshing approach by bringing together a range of important disciplines within a common framework.
The coverage includes:
* A well-referenced review of aspects of the human sensory systems
* Detailed discussion of the evolution and development of 3-D display technologies, haptic interfaces, and interaction tools
* Discussion of bi-manual interaction and interaction synergy
* Descriptions of state-of-the-art display and interaction technologies
* A review of relevant historic milestones, including key developments in image depiction before and during the Renaissance--and linkage of these to current aspirations
* An extensive and wide-ranging bibliography
The authors have adopted an approach that makes the material accessible, interesting, and relevant to readers in both the sciences and humanities. Creative 3-D Display and Interaction Interfaces represents an important work for those researching new ways of interacting with the digital world, as well as end-users who want to knowledgeably ascertain the possibilities for advancing their computer interaction experience.
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Table of Contents
Glossary of Abbreviations.
1 The Nature of the Quest.
1.2 Creative Display and Interaction Paradigms.
1.3 A Little History.
1.4 The Conventional Interface: Working in Flatlands.
1.5 Inhibiting the Human–Computer Interaction Process.
1.5.1 Augmented Realism: Suspension of Disbelief.
1.5.2 Augmented Information Content.
1.5.3 Creative Design.
1.6 Graphics Issues.
1.6.1 Projection Geometry for a Single View.
1.6.2 Surface Rendering.
1.6.3 Working with Volumetric Data.
1.7 Display Sub-Systems.
1.8 From the Laboratory to the Application.
1.8.1 Development Strategies.
1.8.2 Generality of Purpose.
2 The Perception of Our Space: Vision.
2.2 Some Facets of Light.
2.2.2 Light Energy.
2.2.3 Diffraction in Optical Systems.
2.3 The Visual System.
2.3.1 The Eye as an Optical Instrument.
2.3.2 The Retina.
2.3.3 Eye Movements and Saccades.
2.3.4 The Detection of Color.
2.4 Beyond the Eye.
2.4.1 The Lateral Geniculate Nucleus.
2.4.2 Reflex Feedback.
2.4.3 The Primary Visual Cortex (V1).
2.4.4 The Dorsal and Ventral Pathways.
2.4.5 The M and P Pathways.
2.4.6 Detection of Binocular Disparity.
2.5 Some Visual Characteristics.
2.5.1 The Visual Field.
2.5.2 Spatial Resolution.
2.5.3 Sensitivity and the Impact of Spatial Frequency.
2.6 Perception of Space and Form.
2.6.1 Pictorial Depth Cues.
2.6.2 Oculomotor and Parallax Cues.
2.6.3 Absolute and Relative Depth Perception.
2.6.4 Consistency and Conflict Between Depth Cues.
2.6.5 The Perception of Form.
2.6.6 The Gestalt Theory of Visual Perception.
2.6.7 The Pulfrich Effect.
2.7 Temporal Resolution: Fusion and Motion.
3 The Perception of Our Space: Haptics.
3.2 Somatosensory Receptors.
3.3 Cutaneous Sensitivity.
3.5 Somatosensory and Motor Pathways.
4 A Backward Glance.
4.2 The Development of Perspective Techniques.
4.3 The Transition to Perspective in Painting.
4.4 Mathematical Schemes for Linear Perspective.
4.5 Evolving Ideas of Vision and Perception.
4.6 The Cameras Obscura and Lucida.
5 Traditional Interaction Mechanisms.
5.2 An Early Evaluation of Some Interaction Tools.
5.2.1 Interaction Space and a Tool Set.
5.2.2 Interaction Tool Evaluation.
5.2.3 Interaction Issues.
5.3 Fitts’ Model and Its Application.
5.3.1 An Application of Fitts’ Model.
5.3.2 Further Aspects of Fitts’ Model.
5.4 Interaction Paradigms.
5.4.1 Transferred Interaction.
5.4.2 Direct Interaction.
5.4.3 Pointer-Based Interaction.
6 Depiction and Interaction Opportunities.
6.2 A Traditional Classification of Creative 3-D Displays.
6.3 Enhancing the Monocular Display.
6.3.1 Creating a Stereoscopic Display.
6.3.2 Creating an Autostereoscopic Display.
6.4 The Geometry of Stereopsis.
6.4.1 Stereoscopic Fixation and the Horopter.
6.4.2 Horizontal Disparity.
6.4.3 Accommodation and Convergence.
6.4.4 Vertical Disparity.
6.5 Some Classes of Autostereoscopic Display.
6.5.1 Virtual Reality Systems.
6.5.2 Multi-view Systems: The Lenticular Sheet.
6.5.3 AutoQ Systems.
6.6 Interaction Paradigms in 3-D Space.
6.6.1 Transferred Interaction.
6.6.2 Direct Interaction.
6.6.3 Pointer-Based Interaction.
6.7 Working in a 3-D Space.
6.7.1 The Application of the Direct Interaction Technique.
6.7.2 Assisted Interaction Within a 3-D Space.
6.7.3 User Mobility Issues.
6.8 The “Free-Space” Image.
6.8.1 A Theatrical Illusion.
6.8.2 Volumetric Image Projection.
6.9 Revisiting the Traditional Classification Scheme.
6.9.1 A Multifaceted Approach.
7 The Haptic Channel.
7.2 Physical Contact With Virtual Objects.
7.2.1 Some Example Applications of Haptic Interaction.
7.2.2 Some Examples of Haptic Interaction Devices.
7.3 The Haptic Channel in Multisensory Visualization.
7.3.1 The Haptic Interaction Loop.
7.3.2 Force Feedback Refresh Requirements.
7.4 Single-Point Haptic Interaction.
7.4.1 Collision Detection.
7.4.2 The Computation of Reaction Forces.
7.4.3 The Virtual Proxy.
7.5 Increasing the Realism of Force Feedback.
7.5.1 Adding Frictional Forces.
7.5.2 Incorporating Haptic Texture.
7.5.3 Smoothing Polygon Edges by Force Shading.
7.5.4 Intermediate Representations.
7.5.5 More Complex Models, Torque, and Deformable Objects.
7.6 Haptic Interaction With Volumetric Data.
7.6.1 Exploration of Volumetric Data.
7.6.2 Smoother Force Feedback.
7.6.3 Additional Forces.
7.6.4 The Impression of Surfaces Within Volumetric Images.
7.6.5 Modification of Volumetric Data.
7.7 Multichannel Software Architectures.
7.8 Discussion 252
8 The Visual Channel.
8.2 Stereoscopic Display Techniques.
8.2.1 Temporally Coded Systems.
8.2.2 Chromatically Coded Systems.
8.2.3 Spatially Coded Systems.
8.2.4 Computation for Stereoscopic Views.
8.3 Multi-View Systems and Electroholography.
8.3.1 Lenticular and Parallax Barrier Techniques.
8.3.2 Dynamic Multi-view Systems.
8.4 Virtual Reality Systems.
8.4.1 Immersive Virtual Reality.
8.4.2 The CAVE and Cybersphere.
8.4.3 Mixed Reality Techniques.
8.4.4 Pepper’s Ghost Revisited.
8.5 The Volumetric Approach.
8.5.1 Swept Volume Systems.
8.5.2 Static Volume Systems.
8.5.3 Varifocal Mirror Systems.
9 Adopting a Creative Approach.
9.2 Two-Handed Interaction.
9.2.1 Bi-manual Task Performance.
9.2.2 The Potential Benefits of Bi-manual Interaction.
9.3 Augmenting the Desktop Interface.
9.4 Readings on Implementations and Applications.
Appendix A: The Chimenti Drawings.
Appendix B: Holographic Images.
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