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Overview

This popular book provides novice and experienced early childhood teachers and caregivers with the roles, responsibilities, and strategies that lead to a more child-centered, play-based curriculum—to nurture children's creative expression in all of its forms. It shows how to foster learning and growth by integrating children's creativity and play into the curriculum. The authors treat play and creative expression as the cornerstones of a child-centered classroom through foundational chapters on creativity, play, and the arts. The book also contains three unique chapters on the traditional treatment of creativity and play—assessment, guidance, and families. For teachers, parents, and any other adults involved in the early development of children.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130873088
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 8/9/2000
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 510
  • Product dimensions: 7.53 (w) x 9.15 (h) x 0.95 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

As everyone knows, young children have active imaginations and are naturally playful. Ideally, all of the programs that are designed for young children, infancy through age eight, would capitalize on these remarkable assets of the early childhood years. The early childhood educator's knowledge of child development; repertoire of instructional strategies; and personal/professional beliefs, values, and attitudes have major ramifications for young children's creative expression and play If adults who work with young children are too controlling, creativity is undermined and play virtually disappears from early childhood settings. If the adults are too laissez-faire, play behaviors and modes of creative expression get stalled at less mature levels. In the third edition of Creative Expression and Play in Early Childhood, we try to show novice and experienced early childhood teachers and caregivers the roles, responsibilities, and strategies that lead to a more child-centered, play-based curriculum—one that nurtures children's creative expression in all of its forms.

Background

This book is an outgrowth of our combined nearly 50 years of teaching college courses on children's creativity and play to early childhood and elementary students at various stages in their careers—students seeking initial licensure or certification, whether they are enrolled in a community college, four-year teacher-preparation program, or fifth-year Professional Development School (PDS)—as well as practitioners who are seeking continuing certification or a master's degree in the field of early childhood. As is the case with manytextbooks, we wrote this book because it was the one we wished we had when we first began teaching an early childhood course on children's play and creativity. We discovered that we were both searching for a text that would integrate creative expression and play into the total preschool-primary grades curriculum, a text that would treat play and creativity as fundamental to developmentally appropriate practice.

Our overarching goal in writing this book is to further the professional development of preservice and inservice teachers. We seek to prepare professionals who not only know about children's play and creative expression, but who also know how to provide these experiences and know why children's creative expression and play are so important. With the third edition, our goal remains the same. It has been gratifying to see the book that we conceptualized received enthusiastically by our colleagues in the early childhood profession and to see the book endure for a third rebirth. It has been a privilege as well as a labor of love to be able to revisit our work, to linger over its language, and to craft it into an even better book.

We must confess to some reluctance when our editor, Ann Davis, first suggested that it was time to begin thinking about a third edition. The first edition was published in 1993, and the ink seemed barely dry when we began discussions for the second edition in 1994. Likewise, the second edition was published in 1997, and beginning the work of revising it in 1998 seemed premature, at best. Yet, as we began to draft the revision plan, we were reminded of what a dynamic field early childhood education is. So much had happened that there really was more to say, and we felt that we could say it better and more clearly than previously. We now appreciate Ann's wisdom in nudging us into the second, and now the third, edition of Creative Expression-and Play in Early Childhood.

Need

We are aware that many publications exist that use the word creative or play in their titles. It distresses us that some of these "creative activities" books make minimal contributions to teachers' creative growth, much less children's. Instead, they are compilations of "cute" ideas designed to "keep little hands busy." We respect young children's ability to construct their own understandings about their world and to express their ideas in original, inventive ways. We resent the condescending message of materials that presume to give young children patterns to copy, lines to color inside, and activities that are completely initiated and directed by adults. That is why we decided to write a book that would challenge popular misconceptions about creative expression, play, and the arts in early childhood, thereby doing a better job of enabling teachers and caregivers to articulate their child-centered philosophy to families, colleagues, and administrative personnel.

Purpose

Above all, in this third edition—as in the previous two—we want to orient both preservice and inservice teachers and caregivers to the delightful world of children's play and creativity so that they can develop a fuller understanding and richer appreciation for these traits that are so much a part of the young child's life. Glir4psing that world is the surest way that we have found to convince early childhood caregivers and teachers of play's rightful place in the curriculum and the enduring significance of creative expression. In teacher preparation, as the old proverb goes, you can give a person a fish and he will eat for a day, or teach that person to fish and he will eat for a lifetime. The first condition leads to dependence, the second to self-sufficiency. Our goal was to produce a textbook that would not stop at "giving" early childhood practitioners ideas, but rather move forward to suggest strategies and activities that would stimulate teachers' original thinking. That way, early childhood educators could learn to play with ideas and see themselves as creative individuals. Even more important, early childhood educators could model these traits for children and learn to facilitate the natural playfulness and creativity that exists in abundance among the very young. Both of us believe that it is crucial to the future of education to prepare prospective and practicing early childhood practitioners to exercise sound professional judgment based on theory, research, and exemplary practice. As a reader, you will be the judge of how close we have come to realizing these aims.

Audience

The book is intended as a primary text for early childhood educators who are seeking teacher certification in a four-year college program or for advanced students in a two-year associate's degree program. The book is ideally suited for a course on young children's play and/or creativity. Due to the book's emphasis on the teacher as researcher, Creative Expression and Play in Early Childhood is equally appropriate for practicing caregivers and teachers who are enrolled in a Professional Development School, seeking professional development, participating in an inservice education program, or beginning graduate study. In our travels, we have also found that the message of Creative Expression and Play in Early Childhood is a universal one that communicates well to international groups of professionals who work with young children.

Instructors will find that this is an exceptionally versatile book because it includes an array of text features that can be emphasized for different audiences. Those working with more advanced students may want to stress the theoretical framework and the research articles that are part of every chapter. Those working with early childhood educators who are at the beginning of their careers may want to place greater emphasis on the case study, the interview, and the observation in each chapter in order to build students' storehouse of professional experiences. By offering instructors various features that they can use as assignments and as in-class activities, Creative Expression and Play in Early Childhood lends extensive support to instructors who are themselves at different levels of experience in working with early childhood practitioners.

Description of the Book's Contents

The book begins with two chapters that form the foundation for the remaining chapters. Chapter One discusses creativity in young children: how it is defined, how it develops, and what adults can do to foster its growth. Chapter Two examines the crucial role of play in early childhood education: why it is important, how it develops, and what teachers can do to defend the child's right to play.

After establishing this base, the book covers the topics that are traditionally associated with the arts (art, music and movement, creative drama) and topics that are typically covered in a textbook on play (planning and arranging the environment, materials for creative expression and play). We also add two topics that are not typically included in books about creative expression and/or play. The first is a chapter on assessment. It is often the case that "you get what you measure" in educational settings, and early childhood is no exception. We address assessment issues directly because we know that an understanding of performance assessment is essential to the survival of play and creativity in diverse early childhood settings. The second topic that is often ignored in texts dealing with creative expression and play is guiding children's behavior. We include it because it is an understandable concern of early childhood educators at all levels, particularly novices. Chapter Ten, the final chapter, revisits the topics of the first two chapters, creativity and play, this time from the perspective of their potential for the future.

In addition, Creative Expression and Play in Early Childhood contains several text features emerging from our understandings about how teachers move from novice to expert practice (Jalongo & Isenberg, 1995). We begin each chapter with reflections from new and experienced teachers on the chapter content. These reflections come from journals maintained by our students in classes at George Mason University and Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Following these thoughtful remarks from our students are questions to stimulate the thinking of other students who are reading the book. The body of each chapter begins with a case study gleaned from observations in classrooms. It can serve as the basis for a class discussion. Next, there is a theoretical framework that forms the foundation for the chapter content and, new to this edition, a list of research articles on the topic as well as carefully selected websites. Each chapter also suggests ways to integrate creative, play-based activities into all subject areas; discusses inclusive and diverse early childhood settings; and concludes with a chapter summary. A set of three activities designed to expand students' understanding of the chapter content follows the body of the chapter. These activities include Discuss, a series of thought-provoking questions; Write to Learn, an issue to write about in a reflective journal; and Interview, an opportunity for students to collect firsthand information on a topic related to the chapter content. All of these materials are designed to help readers reflect upon, synthesize, apply, and solidify their knowledge.

New to the Third Edition

With the third edition comes a stronger emphasis on technology, including recommended websites in the chapters as well as a website designed specifically to accompany the text (www.prenhall.com/isenberg0. This website is also noted on the back cover of the text. It includes practice test questions for students in a study guide, in a self-correcting format, as well as a list of suggested outstanding children's literature to accompany the content area chapter. Another technology-based support for the instructor is access to PowerPoint transparencies that highlight key concepts from the chapters. The website contains a complete set of PowerPoint slides for each chapter. Selected PowerPoint transparencies appear in the Instructor's Manual as black-and-white handouts so that students can use them for note taking. Samples are included in the Instructor's Manual to give faculty an idea of their quality. Faculty can then go to the website and download full-color copies of the main points for each chapter, then make them into overhead transparencies or use them as a PowerPoint on-screen show using a computer and projector.

Other significant changes include greater emphasis on special needs, more thorough treatment of health and safety issues, lists of outstanding children's books to accompany the chapters, and updated information on multiple intelligences.

Acknowledgments

We are deeply indebted to the many people who contributed to the development of this book. We wish to acknowledge the graduate and undergraduate students at George Mason University and Indiana University of Pennsylvania for their cooperation in field-testing this book and for providing us with many of the rich classroom examples that appear throughout these chapters. Natalie Conrad and Norah Hooper, our former graduate assistants, merit special recognition for their work on the Instructor's Manual that accompanies the third edition of the text. Natalie Conrad and Marjorie Stanek were responsible for compiling much of the material on the website.

We are also grateful to the many teachers, parents, and children whose photographs, art material, and stories are an integral part of this text. Thanks, too, to our many colleagues who helped us to further clarify our thinking about creative expression and play.

We want to thank our editor for this edition, Ann Davis, who urged us to consider the revision and then gave us the guidance and support to do so. We are also grateful to the rest of the staff at Merrill/ Prentice Hall who made the publication of this book possible. They are a fine group of professionals and have been a pleasure to work with throughout the book's production. In addition, we appreciate the valuable input from those who reviewed the book: Pamela O. Fleege, University of South Florida; Pat Hofbauer, Northwest State Community College (Ohio); Nancy W. Wiltz, University of Maryland, College Park; and Stanley W. Wollock, William Paterson University.

Finally, we wish to acknowledge the continuous and unwavering support of our families and close friends. We are especially grateful for their encouragement, understanding, and willingness to listen through each phase of the development of the book from first to third edition.

A Final Word

In education, there are three common misconceptions about teaching and learning—that it is all content, that it is all process, or that there is one best curriculum for all children (Eisner, 1998, 1990). Fortunately, any instructor who would choose our book for a course would also be apt to avoid these three errors. When it is approached with an open mind, the study of children's creative expression and play is a powerful reminder that coverage is not the answer, that aimlessness is not the answer, and that, clearly, there are no panaceas. Rather, the teacher must create a classroom learning community that emphasizes quality over quantity of materials, that balances freedom with control, and that respects children as individuals while socializing them into an increasingly diverse society and global village. By bringing these perspectives to teaching, early childhood faculty and their students not only avoid the pervasive pitfalls of which Eisner speaks, but also become more effective, reflective, and child-centered practitioners.

Joan Packer Isenberg
Fairfax, Virginia

Mary Renck Jalongo
Indiana, Pennsylvania

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Ch. 1 Creativity and the Young Child 2
Ch. 2 Play and the Young Child 38
Ch. 3 Art in the Early Childhood Curriculum 80
Ch. 4 Music and Movement in the Early Childhood Curriculum 126
Ch. 5 Creative Drama in the Early Childhood Curriculum 168
Ch. 6 Planning, Arranging, and Managing the Creative Environment 210
Ch. 7 Materials and Resources for Creative Expression and Play 254
Ch. 8 Guiding Young Children's Creative Growth and Communicating with Families 302
Ch. 9 Assessing Creative Expression and Play 344
Ch. 10 Creative Expression and Play in the Third Millennium 386
Appendix A Dance Prop Box 423
Appendix B Published Rating Scales to Evaluate Preschool Activities 427
Appendix C Noncompetitive Games for Children 429
Appendix D Observations of Medical Play 435
Appendix E Case Study: Dittos and Elegant Costumes 441
Glossary 445
Index 449
Read More Show Less

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

As everyone knows, young children have active imaginations and are naturally playful. Ideally, all of the programs that are designed for young children, infancy through age eight, would capitalize on these remarkable assets of the early childhood years. The early childhood educator's knowledge of child development; repertoire of instructional strategies; and personal/professional beliefs, values, and attitudes have major ramifications for young children's creative expression and play If adults who work with young children are too controlling, creativity is undermined and play virtually disappears from early childhood settings. If the adults are too laissez-faire, play behaviors and modes of creative expression get stalled at less mature levels. In the third edition of Creative Expression and Play in Early Childhood, we try to show novice and experienced early childhood teachers and caregivers the roles, responsibilities, and strategies that lead to a more child-centered, play-based curriculum—one that nurtures children's creative expression in all of its forms.

Background

This book is an outgrowth of our combined nearly 50 years of teaching college courses on children's creativity and play to early childhood and elementary students at various stages in their careers—students seeking initial licensure or certification, whether they are enrolled in a community college, four-year teacher-preparation program, or fifth-year Professional Development School (PDS)—as well as practitioners who are seeking continuing certification or a master's degree in the field of early childhood. As is the case withmanytextbooks, we wrote this book because it was the one we wished we had when we first began teaching an early childhood course on children's play and creativity. We discovered that we were both searching for a text that would integrate creative expression and play into the total preschool-primary grades curriculum, a text that would treat play and creativity as fundamental to developmentally appropriate practice.

Our overarching goal in writing this book is to further the professional development of preservice and inservice teachers. We seek to prepare professionals who not only know about children's play and creative expression, but who also know how to provide these experiences and know why children's creative expression and play are so important. With the third edition, our goal remains the same. It has been gratifying to see the book that we conceptualized received enthusiastically by our colleagues in the early childhood profession and to see the book endure for a third rebirth. It has been a privilege as well as a labor of love to be able to revisit our work, to linger over its language, and to craft it into an even better book.

We must confess to some reluctance when our editor, Ann Davis, first suggested that it was time to begin thinking about a third edition. The first edition was published in 1993, and the ink seemed barely dry when we began discussions for the second edition in 1994. Likewise, the second edition was published in 1997, and beginning the work of revising it in 1998 seemed premature, at best. Yet, as we began to draft the revision plan, we were reminded of what a dynamic field early childhood education is. So much had happened that there really was more to say, and we felt that we could say it better and more clearly than previously. We now appreciate Ann's wisdom in nudging us into the second, and now the third, edition of Creative Expression-and Play in Early Childhood.

Need

We are aware that many publications exist that use the word creative or play in their titles. It distresses us that some of these "creative activities" books make minimal contributions to teachers' creative growth, much less children's. Instead, they are compilations of "cute" ideas designed to "keep little hands busy." We respect young children's ability to construct their own understandings about their world and to express their ideas in original, inventive ways. We resent the condescending message of materials that presume to give young children patterns to copy, lines to color inside, and activities that are completely initiated and directed by adults. That is why we decided to write a book that would challenge popular misconceptions about creative expression, play, and the arts in early childhood, thereby doing a better job of enabling teachers and caregivers to articulate their child-centered philosophy to families, colleagues, and administrative personnel.

Purpose

Above all, in this third edition—as in the previous two—we want to orient both preservice and inservice teachers and caregivers to the delightful world of children's play and creativity so that they can develop a fuller understanding and richer appreciation for these traits that are so much a part of the young child's life. Glir4psing that world is the surest way that we have found to convince early childhood caregivers and teachers of play's rightful place in the curriculum and the enduring significance of creative expression. In teacher preparation, as the old proverb goes, you can give a person a fish and he will eat for a day, or teach that person to fish and he will eat for a lifetime. The first condition leads to dependence, the second to self-sufficiency. Our goal was to produce a textbook that would not stop at "giving" early childhood practitioners ideas, but rather move forward to suggest strategies and activities that would stimulate teachers' original thinking. That way, early childhood educators could learn to play with ideas and see themselves as creative individuals. Even more important, early childhood educators could model these traits for children and learn to facilitate the natural playfulness and creativity that exists in abundance among the very young. Both of us believe that it is crucial to the future of education to prepare prospective and practicing early childhood practitioners to exercise sound professional judgment based on theory, research, and exemplary practice. As a reader, you will be the judge of how close we have come to realizing these aims.

Audience

The book is intended as a primary text for early childhood educators who are seeking teacher certification in a four-year college program or for advanced students in a two-year associate's degree program. The book is ideally suited for a course on young children's play and/or creativity. Due to the book's emphasis on the teacher as researcher, Creative Expression and Play in Early Childhood is equally appropriate for practicing caregivers and teachers who are enrolled in a Professional Development School, seeking professional development, participating in an inservice education program, or beginning graduate study. In our travels, we have also found that the message of Creative Expression and Play in Early Childhood is a universal one that communicates well to international groups of professionals who work with young children.

Instructors will find that this is an exceptionally versatile book because it includes an array of text features that can be emphasized for different audiences. Those working with more advanced students may want to stress the theoretical framework and the research articles that are part of every chapter. Those working with early childhood educators who are at the beginning of their careers may want to place greater emphasis on the case study, the interview, and the observation in each chapter in order to build students' storehouse of professional experiences. By offering instructors various features that they can use as assignments and as in-class activities, Creative Expression and Play in Early Childhood lends extensive support to instructors who are themselves at different levels of experience in working with early childhood practitioners.

Description of the Book's Contents

The book begins with two chapters that form the foundation for the remaining chapters. Chapter One discusses creativity in young children: how it is defined, how it develops, and what adults can do to foster its growth. Chapter Two examines the crucial role of play in early childhood education: why it is important, how it develops, and what teachers can do to defend the child's right to play.

After establishing this base, the book covers the topics that are traditionally associated with the arts (art, music and movement, creative drama) and topics that are typically covered in a textbook on play (planning and arranging the environment, materials for creative expression and play). We also add two topics that are not typically included in books about creative expression and/or play. The first is a chapter on assessment. It is often the case that "you get what you measure" in educational settings, and early childhood is no exception. We address assessment issues directly because we know that an understanding of performance assessment is essential to the survival of play and creativity in diverse early childhood settings. The second topic that is often ignored in texts dealing with creative expression and play is guiding children's behavior. We include it because it is an understandable concern of early childhood educators at all levels, particularly novices. Chapter Ten, the final chapter, revisits the topics of the first two chapters, creativity and play, this time from the perspective of their potential for the future.

In addition, Creative Expression and Play in Early Childhood contains several text features emerging from our understandings about how teachers move from novice to expert practice (Jalongo & Isenberg, 1995). We begin each chapter with reflections from new and experienced teachers on the chapter content. These reflections come from journals maintained by our students in classes at George Mason University and Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Following these thoughtful remarks from our students are questions to stimulate the thinking of other students who are reading the book. The body of each chapter begins with a case study gleaned from observations in classrooms. It can serve as the basis for a class discussion. Next, there is a theoretical framework that forms the foundation for the chapter content and, new to this edition, a list of research articles on the topic as well as carefully selected websites. Each chapter also suggests ways to integrate creative, play-based activities into all subject areas; discusses inclusive and diverse early childhood settings; and concludes with a chapter summary. A set of three activities designed to expand students' understanding of the chapter content follows the body of the chapter. These activities include Discuss, a series of thought-provoking questions; Write to Learn, an issue to write about in a reflective journal; and Interview, an opportunity for students to collect firsthand information on a topic related to the chapter content. All of these materials are designed to help readers reflect upon, synthesize, apply, and solidify their knowledge.

New to the Third Edition

With the third edition comes a stronger emphasis on technology, including recommended websites in the chapters as well as a website designed specifically to accompany the text (www.prenhall.com/isenberg0. This website is also noted on the back cover of the text. It includes practice test questions for students in a study guide, in a self-correcting format, as well as a list of suggested outstanding children's literature to accompany the content area chapter. Another technology-based support for the instructor is access to PowerPoint transparencies that highlight key concepts from the chapters. The website contains a complete set of PowerPoint slides for each chapter. Selected PowerPoint transparencies appear in the Instructor's Manual as black-and-white handouts so that students can use them for note taking. Samples are included in the Instructor's Manual to give faculty an idea of their quality. Faculty can then go to the website and download full-color copies of the main points for each chapter, then make them into overhead transparencies or use them as a PowerPoint on-screen show using a computer and projector.

Other significant changes include greater emphasis on special needs, more thorough treatment of health and safety issues, lists of outstanding children's books to accompany the chapters, and updated information on multiple intelligences.

Acknowledgments

We are deeply indebted to the many people who contributed to the development of this book. We wish to acknowledge the graduate and undergraduate students at George Mason University and Indiana University of Pennsylvania for their cooperation in field-testing this book and for providing us with many of the rich classroom examples that appear throughout these chapters. Natalie Conrad and Norah Hooper, our former graduate assistants, merit special recognition for their work on the Instructor's Manual that accompanies the third edition of the text. Natalie Conrad and Marjorie Stanek were responsible for compiling much of the material on the website.

We are also grateful to the many teachers, parents, and children whose photographs, art material, and stories are an integral part of this text. Thanks, too, to our many colleagues who helped us to further clarify our thinking about creative expression and play.

We want to thank our editor for this edition, Ann Davis, who urged us to consider the revision and then gave us the guidance and support to do so. We are also grateful to the rest of the staff at Merrill/ Prentice Hall who made the publication of this book possible. They are a fine group of professionals and have been a pleasure to work with throughout the book's production. In addition, we appreciate the valuable input from those who reviewed the book: Pamela O. Fleege, University of South Florida; Pat Hofbauer, Northwest State Community College (Ohio); Nancy W. Wiltz, University of Maryland, College Park; and Stanley W. Wollock, William Paterson University.

Finally, we wish to acknowledge the continuous and unwavering support of our families and close friends. We are especially grateful for their encouragement, understanding, and willingness to listen through each phase of the development of the book from first to third edition.

A Final Word

In education, there are three common misconceptions about teaching and learning—that it is all content, that it is all process, or that there is one best curriculum for all children (Eisner, 1998, 1990). Fortunately, any instructor who would choose our book for a course would also be apt to avoid these three errors. When it is approached with an open mind, the study of children's creative expression and play is a powerful reminder that coverage is not the answer, that aimlessness is not the answer, and that, clearly, there are no panaceas. Rather, the teacher must create a classroom learning community that emphasizes quality over quantity of materials, that balances freedom with control, and that respects children as individuals while socializing them into an increasingly diverse society and global village. By bringing these perspectives to teaching, early childhood faculty and their students not only avoid the pervasive pitfalls of which Eisner speaks, but also become more effective, reflective, and child-centered practitioners.

Joan Packer Isenberg
Fairfax, Virginia

Mary Renck Jalongo
Indiana, Pennsylvania

Read More Show Less

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