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Crime Control in America introduces readers to the many methods of crime control and reviews the research concerning their effectiveness.
The text covers policing, prosecution and courts, and legislative methods of crime control. It also moves beyond the justice system and examines the effectiveness of crime control at the individual, family, school, and community levels. Finally, it covers environmental criminology, juvenile crime control, and explanations of large-scale crime trends, particularly the reductions witnessed during the 1990s.
1. Identifying and Evaluating Crime Control.
The Crime Problem in America.
Approaches, Not Just Policies.
On the Importance of Definitions.
Evaluating Success: An Impossible Task?
Displacement and Diffusion.
The Tentative Nature of Scientific Knowledge.
How Resources Dictate Public Policy and Guide Research.
Academic Crusaders and Bandwagon Science.
How Crime Control is Accomplished: A Preview of What’s to Come.
Does it Work?
2. Crime Control Perspectives.
Goals of Crime Control.
II. LAW ENFORCEMENT APPROACHES.
3. Traditional Policing.
The Theory of Traditional Policing.
Does Hiring More Cops Reduce Crime?
Freeing Up Resources.
Removing Supposed Procedural Restraints.
The Problem With Being Reactive and Random.
Bring in the Detectives.
Other Traditional Approaches to Policing.
4. Proactive, Directed, and “Creative” Policing.
Interrogations and Enhanced Supervision.
The Broken Windows Law Enforcement Approach.
More Partnering: Multijurisdictional Drug Task Forces.
5. Community Involvement in Policing.
Community Policing: Some History.
Community Policing: What is It?
Community Policing: IsIt Really Happening?
The Definition Problem Rears Its Head.
Research on Community Policing’s Effectiveness.
6. Prosecutors and Crime Control.
The Harder Side of Prosecution.
The Softer Side of Prosecution.
A Plea Bargaining Pandemic?
III. COURTS, CORRECTIONS, AND LEGISLATIVE APPROACHES.
7. Incapacitation and Legislative Approaches.
Fines, Fees, and Forfeiture.
Restrictions, Regulations, and Buy-Backs.
8. Tough Sentencing and Deterrence.
Types of Sentences.
Does Sentence Length Matter?
Deterring Sex Offenders.
Deterring Gang Violence With Injunctions.
9. Probation, Parole, and Intermediate Sanctions.
The Organization and Administration of Probation and Parole.
Probation and Parole Issues.
10. Rehabilitation, Treatment, and Job Training.
Criminals Are Not Created Equal.
More Lessons From Meta Analysis.
11. Crime Control in the Courts and Beyond.
IV. APPROACHES BEYOND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM.
12. Individual, Family, and Household Crime Control.
Individual Crime Control.
Household and Family Crime Control.
13. Crime Control in the Community and in Schools.
Community Crime Control.
School-Based Crime Control.
14. Reducing Criminal Opportunities Through Environmental Manipulation.
A Quick Return to Theory.
How Environmental Manipulation Occurs.
The Effectiveness of Environmental Manipulations.
V. JUVENILE CRIME CONTROL.
15. Juvenile Crime Control.
Differences Between the Adult and Juvenile Justice Systems.
Recent Reforms in Juvenile Justice.
Making Sense of Juvenile Crime Control.
Juvenile Crime Prevention.
Juvenile Crime Control.
16. Putting It All Together, Explaining Crime Trends.
A Quick Review.
Three Important Themes.
Explaining Crime Trends.
Appendix: An Ultra-Brief Introduction to Criminal Justice in the United States.