Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices and Evaluations

Overview

This book examines several types of crime prevention approaches and their goals, including those that are designed to prevent conditions that foster deviance, those directed toward persons or conditions with a high potential for deviance, and those for persons who have already committed crimes. This edition provides research and information on all aspects of crime prevention, including the physical environment and crime, neighborhood crime prevention, the mass media and crime prevention, crime displacement and ...

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Overview

This book examines several types of crime prevention approaches and their goals, including those that are designed to prevent conditions that foster deviance, those directed toward persons or conditions with a high potential for deviance, and those for persons who have already committed crimes. This edition provides research and information on all aspects of crime prevention, including the physical environment and crime, neighborhood crime prevention, the mass media and crime prevention, crime displacement and diffusion, prediction, community policing, drugs, schools, and electronic monitoring and home confinement.

  • Key terms and learning objectives supplement each chapter.
  • A glossary defines terms from the text.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780870845130
  • Publisher: Anderson Publishing Company OH
  • Publication date: 1/1/1997
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 328

Meet the Author

Steven P. Lab is Professor and Director of the Criminal Justice Program and Chair of the Department of Human Services at Bowling Green State University. His research interests include victims of crime, crime prevention, juvenile delinquency, and school crime. Lab received his Ph.D. in Criminology from Florida State University in 1982. He has been a faculty member at Bowling Green since 1987. His primary research interests are in crime prevention and juvenile justice; he is the author of three textbooks and two edited works, and has published more than 30 articles on various topics.
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Crime and the Fear of Crime 1
The Problem of Crime in Society 1
Official Measures of Crime 2
Measuring Victimization 4
The Fear of Crime 7
Defining and Measuring Fear 7
Fear and Victimization 10
Fear and Demographics 10
Explaining the Divergent Findings 11
Fear Summary 14
Summary 14
Chapter 2 A Crime Prevention Model 15
Crime Prevention Through the Ages 15
Summary 18
Defining Crime Prevention 19
The Crime Prevention Model 19
Primary Crime Prevention 20
Secondary Crime Prevention 20
Tertiary Crime Prevention 22
Alternate Models 22
An Overview of the Book 23
Section I Primary Prevention 25
Chapter 3 The Physical Environment and Crime 27
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design 27
Physical Design Features in Crime Prevention 28
Access Control 29
Surveillance 30
Activity Support and Motivation Reinforcement 30
The Impact of Physical Design 31
The Effects of Individual Factors 32
Residential Crime Prevention Programs--Physical Design 39
Cpted in a Commercial Area 41
Summary 42
Incivility, Disorder, and Crime 42
Summary 44
Chapter 4 Neighborhood Crime Prevention 47
Types of Neighborhood Crime Prevention Approaches 49
Neighborhood/Block Watch 49
Community Anti-Drug Programs 52
Citizen Patrols 52
Police-Community Involvement 53
Evaluation of Neighborhood Crime Prevention 53
Effects on Community Cohesion 54
Effects on Crime 55
Community Anti-Drug Programs 59
Citizen Patrols 61
Neighborhood Crime Prevention and Fear of Crime 62
Additional Evaluation Issues 63
Citizen Participation and Support 65
Who Participates? 65
Organizing Neighborhood Crime Prevention 67
Summary 70
Chapter Summary 70
Chapter 5 Displacement and Diffusion 73
Crime Displacement 73
Types of Displacement 74
Assumptions 75
Displacement: Benign or Malign? 76
Diffusion 76
Offender Choice and Mobility 77
Routine Activities 78
Rational Choice 79
Crime Pattern Theory 82
Summary 84
Evidence of Displacement and Diffusion 85
Displacement Effects 85
Diffusion Effects 89
Implications of Displacement and Diffusion 90
Chapter 6 The Mass Media and Crime Prevention 91
The Media and Crime 91
The Level of Reported Crime 92
Media Accounts and Actual Crime 92
Does the Media Cause Crime and Fear? 93
Mass Media Crime Prevention Activities 97
"Taking A Bite Out of Crime" 97
Other Campaigns 100
Crime Newsletters 101
Information Lines 103
Crime-Time Television 105
The Media's Responsibility for Crime Prevention 106
Summary 107
Chapter 7 General Deterrence 109
Deterrence 109
General and Specific Deterrence 109
Requirements for Deterrence 111
The Deterrent Effect of Legal Sanctions 112
Cross-Sectional Analyses 112
Longitudinal Research 115
Summary 118
Perceptions and Deterrence 119
Perceived Certainty 119
Perceived Severity 121
Combined Deterrence Factors 122
Summary 123
Section II Secondary Prevention 125
Chapter 8 Prediction for Secondary Prevention 127
Predicting Future Offending 127
Types of Prediction 128
Risk Factors and Prediction 134
Family Factors 135
Peer Factors 136
Community Influences on Behavior 136
Psychological/Personality Factors 137
Biological Risk Factors 137
Using Risk Factors as Predictors 137
Predicting Places and Events 139
Hot Spots for Crime 139
Repeat Victimization 141
Summary 143
Implications for Crime Prevention 144
Chapter 9 Situational Crime Prevention 145
The Growth of Situational Prevention 145
The Theoretical Basis 146
The Process of Situational Prevention 148
Clarke's Initial Situational Typology 148
An Expanded Typology 150
Unresolved Issues 153
Situational Prevention Studies 155
Studies of Transit System Fare Avoidance 155
Vandalism and Crime on Public Transport 156
Motor Vehicle Theft 157
Other Theft Offenses 158
Targeting Revictimization 159
Summary 159
Chapter 10 Community Policing 161
What is Community Policing? 161
Precursors to Community Policing 162
Community Policing 163
Problem Identification 167
Community Policing Programs 168
Civil Abatement 169
"Weed and Seed" Programs 170
Chicago's Alternative Police Strategy 172
"Innovative Neighborhood-Oriented Policing" 172
A Child Development-Community Policing Program 173
Problems and Concerns 174
Summary 175
Chapter 11 Drugs, Crime, and Crime Prevention 177
The Scope of Drug Use 178
Self-Reported Drug Use 178
Drug Use Among Offending Populations 183
Summary 185
The Drugs-Crime Connection 185
Interventions and Prevention 188
Law Enforcement Efforts 189
Treatment of Drug Users 190
Prevention Programs 193
Drugs and Crime Prevention 196
Chapter 12 The School and Crime Prevention 197
Theoretical Views 197
Educational Factors and Delinquency 199
IQ and Delinquency 199
School Practices and Delinquency 200
Victimization and Fear in School 201
Summary 203
School Programs for Delinquency Prevention 203
Preschool Programs 204
Elementary and High School Programs 206
Alternative Schools 210
Academic, Vocational, and Employment Programs 211
The Future of School/Educational Programs in Crime Prevention 213
Section III Tertiary Prevention 215
Chapter 13 Specific Deterrence and Incapacitation 217
The Specific Deterrent Effect of Criminal Sanctions 218
Studies of Imprisonment 218
Alternate Studies of Specific Deterrence 220
Summary 223
Incapacitation 223
Assumptions 224
Collective Incapacitation 224
The Costs of Collective Incapacitation 226
Selective Incapacitation 227
Future Implications 229
Chapter 14 Electronic Monitoring and Home Confinement 231
The Growth of Home Confinement 231
The Beginnings of Electronic Monitoring 233
EMS Systems 233
Expectations for EMS 235
EMS Programs and Evaluation 235
The Use of EMS 236
Eligibility Criteria 236
Offender Success on EMS 237
EMS and Institutional Overcrowding 239
Costs of Electronic Monitoring 240
Other Client Impacts 241
Problems and Concerns 241
Operational Problems 242
Net-Widening 242
Legal Considerations 243
Other Concerns 244
The Future of Electronic Monitoring 245
Chapter 15 Rehabilitation 247
The "What Works?" Argument 247
Subsequent Analyses 248
Alternative Outcome Measures 249
Levels of Evaluation 250
Summary 251
Evaluations of Recent Rehabilitation Programs 251
Intensive Supervision 251
Restitution 254
Boot Camps 255
Privatization in Corrections 257
Assessing Rehabilitation and Crime Prevention 259
Chapter 16 Some Closing Thoughts on Crime Prevention and the Future 261
The State of the Evidence 261
Improving Our Knowledge 263
Recognizing the Diversity in Crime Prevention 265
Summary 266
References 267
Name Index 315
Subject Index 323
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