Overview

Criminal Behavior explores crime as a developmental process from birth through early adulthood. It further examines the role that legal, political, and criminal justice systems play in the development of criminal behavior. Criminal Behavior:

  • takes into account biological, genetic, developmental, familial, social, educational, cultural, political, and economic factors correlated with crime;
  • references actual ...
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Criminal Behavior

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Overview

Criminal Behavior explores crime as a developmental process from birth through early adulthood. It further examines the role that legal, political, and criminal justice systems play in the development of criminal behavior. Criminal Behavior:

  • takes into account biological, genetic, developmental, familial, social, educational, cultural, political, and economic factors correlated with crime;
  • references actual cases and events to serve as examples of the principles introduced;
  • critically examines the roles of the criminal and juvenile justice systems and methods of punishment in the development of and response to criminal behavior;
  • explores the effects of crime on victims and looks at correlations between crimes and victim characteristics and behaviors;
  • examines the role of childhood and adolescent behavioral and mental health disorders in the development of criminal behavior; and
  • investigates the differences between criminals and the rest of society, and the differences and similarities between and among criminals.

Chock-full of personal anecdotes, this engaging text is unique in that it combines the experience of Doug Bernstein, a clinical psychologist and a successful textbook author, and Elaine Cassel, a practicing attorney who regularly teaches psychology and law. Organized around five dimensions related to the causes, characteristics, and consequences of crime, the book summarizes the programs that research suggest offer the best hope for doing a better job of dealing with crime in the 21st century. The authors argue that prevention is the key to dealing with crime, and present comprehensive suggestions for crime prevention.

The new edition features the latest criminal statistics available, as well as the most current research on the causes and correlations of crime and violence. Other highlights include: discussion of the latest brain-imaging research in psychopathy - how psychopaths' brains are different from "normal" brains; the latest on gang activities and how their venues have migrated to suburban and rural areas; terrorism and its roots; Internet crimes, especially sexual predator crimes; the latest research on how media violence, especially violent interactive video games, contributes to criminal behavior; the examination of drug and mental health courts as alternatives to punishment; and recent Supreme Court rulings eliminating the death penalty for juveniles and the mentally retarded.

Intended as a textbook for upper-level courses on criminal behavior, psychology and law, and developmental psychopathology taught in departments of psychology, criminology, criminal justice, law, and sociology and/or criminal justice training academies.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Cassel (attorney and instructor, Marymount U.) and Bernstein (clinical psychologist and emeritus, U. of Illinois) present the phenomenon of crime as a developmental process occurring in social, political, and individual contexts. The text is organized around these contexts, examining the criminal and juvenile justice systems; the biological, psychological, social, and environmental roots of crime; the nature of the crimes themselves; the victims of crime; and the punishment of crime. Criminal justice students will find this a readable, compelling text, where current events are interspersed frequently as examples, making the material very real and encouraging thought about the many issues that lie behind the widespread phenomenon of crime in America. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781135614751
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 7/4/2013
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 400
  • Sales rank: 1,311,876
  • File size: 6 MB

Table of Contents

Preface xi
1 What Is Crime? 1
Crime as a Legal Concept 2
Legal Definitions of Crime 3
Who Defines Crime? 4
Criminal versus Civil Trials 5
The Sociology of Crime 5
The Politics of Crime 7
The Morality of Crime 9
The Classification of Crimes 10
The Statistics of Crime 11
Methods for Studying Criminal Behavior 14
Criminals and Criminal Behavior 16
2 The Criminal Justice System 18
Overview of the Criminal Justice System 19
Arrest 19
State Courts 19
Federal Courts 20
Felony Trials 21
New Trials and Appeals 22
Results of Appeals 23
Dealing with Special Defendants 23
Incompetent Defendants 24
Insane Defendants 27
Dangerous Defendants 31
Law Enforcement Officers 32
Effectiveness of Policing 33
Police Behavior and Crime 33
Prosecutors 35
Prosecutorial Discretion 36
Defense Attorneys 36
The Role of the Defense Attorney 37
Juries 37
Jury Composition 38
Selecting a Jury 38
The Impact of Juror Characteristics 39
Jury Instructions and Admonishments 41
Reaching a Verdict 41
Jury Nullification 43
Some Conclusions about Juries 44
Judges 45
The Judge's Duties 45
3 The Juvenile Justice System 47
Juvenile Justice Processes 49
Juvenile Court Procedures 50
Trying Juveniles as Adults 51
The Impact of Trying Juveniles as Adults 52
The Psycholegal Status of Juvenile Offenders 53
Criminal Intent in Juveniles 53
Juvenile Competence 53
Juvenile Justice Applied: The Case of Ronald 55
The Future of Juvenile Justice 58
Conclusions 64
4 Biological Roots of Crime 66
Physical Appearance and Crime 66
Evolution and Crime 68
Genes and Crime 69
What Are Genes and What Do They Do? 70
Genes, Crime, and Politics 71
Methods for Studying Genetic Influences on Behavior 72
Research on the Genetics of Crime 72
How Might Genes Influence Criminal Behavior? 73
Some Conclusions about Genes and Crime 75
Crime and the Brain 75
Brain Structures and Functions 75
Neuropsychological Dysfunctions 78
Functional Abnormalities 79
Neurotransmitter Systems 79
Structural Anomalies 82
Hormones and Crime 82
Alcohol, Drugs, and Crime 84
Alcohol 84
Illicit Drugs 86
Conclusions 89
5 Psychological Roots of Crime 90
Personality and Crime 90
Traits and Crime 91
Eysenck's Trait Theory of Personality 92
Psychodynamics and Crime 94
Freud's Psychoanalysis 94
Psychodynamic Theory and Criminal Behavior 97
Modern Variants on Psychodynamic Theory 99
Learning and Crime 100
Classical Conditioning 100
Operant Conditioning 102
Social Learning 103
Learning Theories and Criminal Behavior 103
Cognition and Crime 104
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development 104
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development 106
Information-Processing Theories 107
Cognitive Theories and Criminal Behavior 107
Personality Disorders and Crime 110
The Nature of Personality Disorders 110
Antisocial Personality Disorder 111
Psychological Theories of Antisocial Personality Disorder 112
6 Social and Environmental Roots of Crime 115
Social Origins of Human Aggression and Violence 117
Social Learning and Crime 117
Social Cognition, Social Behavior, and Crime 122
Attribution and Attributional Biases 123
Social Behavior and Social Influences 124
The Environmental Roots of Crime 129
Environmental Contributions to Criminal Behavior 129
Criminal Places 130
Heat and Crime 131
Noise and Crime 132
Pollution and Crime 132
Natural Disasters and Crime 132
Personal Space and Crime 133
Geography and Crime 135
The Ecology of Crime 136
A Culture of Violence 137
Ecological Niches for Crime 138
Ecology, Race, and Crime 141
Conclusions 144
7 The Development of Crime from Early Childhood to Adolescence 145
Pathways to Crime 147
Biological Influences on the Development of Criminal Behavior 148
Neurological Disorders 149
Neurotransmitters and Hormones 149
Temperament 150
Developmental Disorders and Crime 155
Reactive Attachment Disorder 155
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 156
Oppositional Defiant Disorder 158
Conduct Disorder 159
Multiple Developmental Disoders 161
Learning to Be--or Not to Be--a Criminal 161
Moral Development 162
Information Processing 163
Family Influences on Criminal Behavior 163
Family Influences on Personality Development 164
Family Influences on Emotional Expression and Self-Control 166
Parenting Style, Aggression, and Crime 167
Other Family Risk Factors for Crime 169
Conclusions 171
8 The Development of Crime from Adolescence to Adulthood 173
Adolescence: Challenges and Risks 174
Choosing Crime: Moral Development and Social Influence 175
Gender Differences in the Development of Criminal Behavior 177
Girls' Pathways to Crime 179
Conduct Disorder and the Development of Criminal Behavior 179
Substance Abuse and the Development of Criminal Behavior 181
Alcohol Abuse 182
Gangs, Guns, and the Development of Criminal Behavior 184
What Is a Gang? 185
A Brief History of Gangs 185
The Gang-Crime Connection 186
Who Joins Gangs? 188
Why Do Adolescents Join Gangs? 189
The Role of Guns in Juvenile Crime 191
Declining Family Influence and Criminal Behavior 191
School Failure and the Development of Criminal Behavior 192
Pathways to Adult Crime 193
Conclusions 196
9 Mental Disorders and Crime 198
What Is Mental Disorder? 199
The Link between Crime and Mental Disorders 200
Specific Mental Disorders and Crime 200
Schizophrenia 201
Mood Disorders 203
Substance-Related Disorders 204
Cognitive Disorders 206
Diagnostic Foundations for an Insanity Plea 208
Assessing Sanity 208
Faking Insanity 212
Factors Contributing to Criminal Behavior among the Mentally Ill 212
Deinstitutionalization and Homelessness 213
Lack of Mental Health Services in Jails 214
Lack of Mental Health Services in Prisons 215
Lack of Services for Mentally Ill Delinquents 216
Conclusions 216
10 Violent Crimes 217
Robbery 217
Types of Robbers 218
Motivations for Robbery 219
Robbery Victims 219
Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter 220
Single-Victim Murderers 222
Multiple-Victim Murderers 222
Profiling Murderers 227
Aggravated Assault and Domestic Violence 229
Domestic Violence 229
The Roots of Domestic Violence 230
Stalking 232
Physical and Sexual Abuse of Children 223
Hate Crimes 234
Characteristics of Hate Crime Offenders 236
What Causes Hate Crimes? 236
The Politics of Hate Crimes 238
Sex Crimes 239
Forcible Rape 239
Child Molestation 243
Dealing with Repeat and Dangerous Sexual Offenders 245
Conclusions 247
11 Economic and Property Crimes 248
Arson 248
Motives for Arson 249
Characteristics of Arsonists 249
Burglary, Larceny, and Auto Theft 252
Burglary 252
Larceny-Theft 253
Auto Theft 254
Shoplifting 255
Fraud 256
Welfare Fraud 257
Fraud Close to Home 257
Occupational Crime 258
The Cost of Occupational Crime 259
Individual Occupational Crime: Embezzlement 260
Individual Occupational Crime: Securities Violations 261
Professional Occupational Crime 262
Organized Occupational Crime: Legitimate Businesses 262
Organized Occupational Crime: Fraudulent Businesses 264
Government Authority Crime 265
Causes of Individual Occupational Crime 265
The Criminal Corporation 267
Syndicated Crime 269
Fighting Syndicated Crime 271
Conclusions 273
12 Victims of Crime 274
Who Are Crime Victims? 274
The Costs of Victimization 275
Victim Statistics 275
The Legal Status of Victims 276
Victim Organizations 278
Laws Pertaining to Victims in General 278
Laws Pertaining to Specific Victim Categories 280
The Role of Victims in the Criminal Justice System 282
Victim Impact Statements 283
Victim Allocution 283
The Future of Victims' Rights 284
Victimology 284
Characteristics of Victims 285
The Role of Victims in Crime 287
The Role of Places in Crime Victimization 291
Society as a Victim of Crime 294
Conclusions 295
13 The Punishment of Crime, and the Crime of Punishment 296
The Goals of Punishment 298
Sentencing Procedures and Options 299
Bifurcated Trials 299
Variations in Sentencing 300
Sentencing Guidelines 301
Mandatory Sentences 301
Alternatives to Incarceration 302
Imprisonment 304
The Prisonization of America 305
The Effects of Imprisonment on Criminals 307
Women in Prison 313
Mentally Ill Prisoners 315
The Death Penalty 316
A Brief History of the Death Penalty in the United States 317
Controversy over the Death Penalty 319
Conclusions 320
14 The Future of Crime 322
A Review of Risk Factors for Criminal Behavior 322
Individual and Peer-Group Risk Factors 323
Family Risk Factors 324
School Risk Factors 325
Community Risk Factors 325
Risk Factors and Crime Prevention 326
Protective Factors 326
Preventing Crime 327
Primary versus Secondary Prevention 327
Prevention through Punishment 328
Prevention through Policing 330
Prevention through Community Action 330
School-Based Prevention 331
Prevention through Individual and Family Intervention
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