Criminal Justice: An Introduction / Edition 3

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This full color, paperback text offers a current, lively and thorough introduction to criminal justice covering past developments, contemporary issues, and tomorrow's challenges, and drawing students into the intriguing world of criminal justice. Manageable in terms of size and price, Criminal Justice: An Introduction holds a unique place in the market, offering a portable and affordable alternative to encyclopedic texts, and more complete coverage than brief core texts.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780072485936
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
  • Publication date: 12/30/2002
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 544
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.70 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. Freda Adler is a Distinguished Professor of Criminal Justice. She is the Director of the Master of Science Program in Criminology and a Visiting Professor in the Department of Criminology at the University of Pennsylvania. She received her BA in sociology, her MA in criminology, and her Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Adler began her career in criminal justice as an evaluator of drug and alcohol treatment programs for federal and state governments. Since 1968, she has taught subjects such as criminal justice, criminology, comparative criminal justice systems, statistics, and research methods. She has served as criminal justice advisor to the United Nations, as well as to federal, state, and foreign governments. Dr. Adler's published works include 13 books as author or coauthor, 9 books as editor or coeditor, and over 90 journal articles. She has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Criminal Justice, Criminology, and the Journal of Research on Crime and Delinquency. Dr. Adler serves as editorial consultant to the Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology and is coeditor of Advances in Criminological Theory. She also has served as president as the American Society of Criminology (1994-1995).

Dr. Gerhard O. W. Mueller was Distinguished Professor of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University, School of Criminal Justice. Between 1974 and 1982, he served as Chief of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch. As such, he was responsible for all of the United Nations’ programs dealing with problems of crime and justice worldwide. He was a faculty member of universities and colleges across the country and around the world.

Dr. William S. Laufer is Associate Professor of Legal Studies at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Teaching since 1987, his subjects include criminological theory, corporate and white collar crime, and business ethics. Dr. Laufer’s research has appeared in a wide range of journals.

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Table of Contents

PART 1. The Universe of Crime and Justice 1

Chapter 1. Criminal Justice: Introduction and Overview

Criminal Justice: The Origins of a Young DisciplineCreating a Criminal Justice System

Criminal Justice as a System

Models of the Criminal Justice System

The Goals

The Means

Stages of the Criminal Justice Process

Entry into the System

Decisions by Victims

Decisions by the Police

Legal Standards

The Right to Counsel

Prosecution and Pretrial Services

The Judicial Decision to Release

The Preliminary Hearing

The Decision to Charge and to Indict

Plea Bargaining

Adjudication and Sentencing


Community Decisions

Institutional Decisions

Release and Parole Decisions


Looking Ahead: A Preview of This Book


Thinking, Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection


Chapter 2. Crime and Criminals

Transnational Crime


Illegal Drug Trafficking

Money Laundering

Infiltration of Legal Business

Computer Crime

Illicit Arms Trafficking

Traffic in Persons

Destruction of Cultural Property

Types of Crime

Violent Crime



Rape and Sexual Assault


Property Crimes


High-tech Crimes



White-Collar Crime

Corporate Crime

Organized Crime

Crimes against Public Morality: Drugs, Alcohol, and Vice

Counting Crime

Sources of Information

The Amount of Crime



Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection


Chapter 3 Explaining Criminal Behavior

Biology and Crime

Psychology and Criminality

Biological and Psychological Explanations: Practical Applications

Sociology and Criminality

Strain Theory

Cultural Deviance Theories

Social Control

Recent Explanations of Criminality

Alternative Explanations for Crime

Labeling Theory

Conflict Theory

Labeling and Conflict: Practical Application

Sociological Explanations: Practical Applications

Situational Crime Prevention


Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice


Chapter 4. The Criminal Law

The Criminal Law and Its Seven Basic Principles

1. Legality: Is There a Law That Makes Something Criminal?

2. Conduct: Only the Acts of Persons Can Be Covered by Criminal Law

3. Harm: Protecting a Legally Recognized Value

4. Causation: Bringing about the Harm

5. Mens Rea (Guilty Mind): Criminal Intent

6. The Concurrence Requirement

7. The Punishment Requirement

The Principles Applied: Defenses



The Arithmetic of Crime


Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection

PART 2. The Police

Chapter 5. History and Organization of the Police

The History of American Police

The Expanding West

The East: Urban Riots

The Problem of Political Control

Early Reformers: Vollmer

The Wickersham Report

The New Wave of Reform: Crime Fighters

Post-9/11: Exploring a New Role for Police as First Responders

Police Systems in the United States

Chain of Command

Division of Labor

The Eight-hour Shift

Rules and Regulations

The Federal System

The Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Drug Enforcement Administration

Questions and Criticisms

The Drug Enforcement Administration

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives

Other Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

The Department of Homeland Security

State and Local Systems

State Police

County Police

Municipal Police Forces

Special Purpose Police

Private Police


Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection

Chapter 6. Police Functions

Managing Police Functions

Management Styles

Alternatives to Traditional Management Styles

Community Policing

Police-Community Relations Programs

Citizen Involvement

The Service Function

Coping with Injury and illness

Coping with the Mentally III

Order Maintenance

Patrol: The Basic Technique

Types of Patrol

Evaluating Traditional Techniques

New Policing Strategies

The Law Enforcement Function

Criminal Investigation

Law Enforcement Priorities Today

New Challenges: Post 9/11

Controversial Law Enforcement Techniques

Changing Composition of the Police Force

Minority Groups in Policing

Women in Policing

The Police Subculture

Socialization of New Recruits

The Police Personality

Styles of Policing


Behind the Blue Curtain


The Range of Corrupt Activities

Controlling Corruption


Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection

Chapter 7. The Rule of Law in Law Enforcement

Criminal Justice Under the Constitution

Federal Criminal Justice: The Bill of Rights

State Criminal Justice: Selective Incorporation of the Bill of Rights

Fourth Amendment: Unreasonable Searches and Seizures

Search and Seizure

Warrantless Searches


The Right to Privacy Post 9/11

Fifth Amendment: Self-incrimination

The Self-incrimination Privilege

The Miranda Warnings

Enforcing Constitutional Rights: The Exclusionary Rule

Mapp v. Ohio (1961)

Exceptions to the Rule

The Demise of Mapp v. Ohio?

Alternatives to the Rule

Illegally Seized Persons

The Use and Abuse of Force

The Ultimate Seizure of the Person: Deadly Force

Abuse of Force


Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection

PART 3. The Courts

Chapter 8. The Origin and Role of the Courts

Origin of America's Courts

Colonial Courts

Courts for a New Nation

State Courts: Organization and Role

Courts of Limited or Special Jurisdiction

Courts of General Jurisdiction

Appellate Courts

Intermediate Appellate Courts and Supreme Courts

Federal Courts: Organization and Role

Federal Magistrates

United States District Courts

United States Circuit Courts of Appeal

The Supreme Court of the United States

Interaction between State Courts and Federal Courts

Appeal and the Writ of Certiorari

Habeas Corpus

The Future of the Courts: Issues

Federal Issues

State Issues


Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection


Chapter 9. Lawyers and Judges


Roles and Duties

Federal Prosecutors

State Prosecutors

Politics and Policy


Defense Counsel

Roles and Duties

Private Defense Counsel

Public Defenders

Ethical Issues


Roles and Duties

Types of Judges

Qualifications and Background


Other Court Personnel


Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection


Chapter 10. Criminal Prosecution and Adjudication

No Trial


Evaluation of Diversion Programs


Pretrial Release

Pretrial Detention

The Plea

Plea Bargaining


Voir Dire

Opening Statements

The Prosecution's Case

The Defense's Case

Closing Arguments and Instructions

Jury Deliberations



Rights to Appeal

Appellate Review

Appellate Process


Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection

Chapter 11. Sentencing

Purposes and Goals of the Criminal Sanction


Just Desserts




Mixed Goals

The Choice of a Sanction

Structuring Sentences

Indeterminate Sentences

Determinate Sentences

Mandatory Sentences

Sentencing Guidelines

Capital Punishment

The Deterrence Argument

The Discrimination Argument

Other Arguments

The Future of the Death Penalty


Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection

PART 4. Corrections

Chapter 12. Corrections: Yesterday and Today

The History of Institutional Corrections

The Workhouse Movement

The Penitentiary Movement

The Reformatory Movement

The Rehabilitation Model

Major Developments in American Corrections

The Prisoners' Rights Movement

The Impact of the Prisoners' Rights Movement

The Rebirth of Retribution Philosophy

Institutional Corrections Today



Federal Prison System

State Prison Systems

Institutions for Women

Co-correctional Facilities

The Size and Cost of the Corrections Enterprise

The Size of the System

The Cost of the System

Privatization of Corrections

Effectiveness of Privatization

Trends in Privatization


Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection


Chapter 13. Institutional Corrections


Rules and Regulations


Corrections Officers

Living with Convicts

Who Are the Inmates?

The Deprivation Model

The Importation Model

A New Prison Society

Prison Violence and Overcrowding

Life in a Women's Prison

Beyond Custody and Control: Old and New Goals

The Rehabilitation Approach

Vocational Training and Prison Industries

Educational Programs


Health Problems

Mental Health

Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Religion in Prison



Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection


Chapter 14. Alternatives: Community Corrections


The Benefits of Probation

Revocation of Probation

Probation Officers

Effectiveness of Probation


Origins of Parole

The Decision to Parole

Revocation of Parole

Parole Officers

Effectiveness of Parole

Intermediate Sanctions

Pardons and Monetary Sanctions

Restitution to Victims

Intensive Supervision Programs

Restitution to Victims

Intensive Supervision Programs

Shock Programs

Residential Programs

Home Confinement and Electronic Monitoring

Community Service

Evaluation of Alternative Programs


Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection

PART 5. Challenges for the Twenty-first Century

Chapter 15. Justice for Juveniles, Victims, and the

Global Village

The Challenge of Juvenile Justice

Approaches to Juvenile Delinquency

In re Gault: A Landmark Case

Treating Juveniles as Adults

Changing the Juvenile Justice Process

The Challenge of Victimology: Toward Restorative Justice

The Rediscovery of the Victim

Compensation for Victims of Crime

The Promise of Restorative Justice

Case Study: A New Approach to Juvenile Offending


Thinking Critically about Criminal Justice

Internet Connection

APPENDIX The Constitution of the United States of America
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