Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents / Edition 2

Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents / Edition 2

by John Randolph Fuller
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0135042623

ISBN-13: 9780135042625

Pub. Date: 02/16/2009

Publisher: Prentice Hall

Now in its second edition, Criminal Justice: Mainstream & Crosscurrents offers a contemporary textbook option for your Introduction to Criminal Justice course. Building upon John Fuller’s experience as a criminal justice practitioner, scholar and teacher, the book asks students to think about the goals and processes of the criminal

Overview

Now in its second edition, Criminal Justice: Mainstream & Crosscurrents offers a contemporary textbook option for your Introduction to Criminal Justice course. Building upon John Fuller’s experience as a criminal justice practitioner, scholar and teacher, the book asks students to think about the goals and processes of the criminal justice system and introduces them to important ethical dilemmas faced by criminal justice professionals. Using an enhanced crosscurrents theme, it shows the complexities of the criminal justice discipline and encourages students to think critically about alternative ways of enforcing law and determining justice in the United States. For courses in Introduction to Criminal Justice.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780135042625
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
02/16/2009
Series:
MyCrimeKit Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
608
Product dimensions:
8.20(w) x 10.70(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

**Each chapter begins with Learning Objectives; Chapters 3-16 conclude with a summary, "Focus on Ethics" sections, review questions, and key terms.**
PART I: CRIME: PROBLEMS, MEASUREMENT, THEORIES, AND LAW
CHAPTER 1: CRIME AND THE PROBLEM OF SOCIAL CONTROL
Crime, Social Control, and Social Justice
What Is Crime?
Levels of Government
Local-level Criminal Justice
State-level Criminal Justice
Federal-level Criminal Justice
The Criminal Justice Process
Crime as a Social Responsibility
The Family
Religion
Schools
The Media
The Institution of Last Resort
Individual vs. Societal Responsibility for Crime
The Approach of this Text
CHAPTER 2: THE NATURE AND MEASUREMENT OF CRIME
The Nature and Measurement of Crime
Types of Crime
Street Crime
Corporate Crime and White-collar Crime
Offenses and Offenders
Violent Crime
Property Crime
Public-order Crime
Measurement of Crime
Uniform Crime Reports
National Incident-based Reporting System
National Crime Victimization Survey
Self-report Studies
Perception of Crime
CHAPTER 3: THEORIES OF CRIME
Demonology
The Classical School of Criminology
Cesare Beccaria
Jeremy Bentham
The Positivist School of Criminology
Biological Theories of Crime
Phrenology and Other Outdated Ideas
Biochemistry
Biosocial Criminology
Psychological Theories of Crime
Psychoanalytic Theory
Behaviorism
Observational Learning
Cognitive Psychological Theory
Psychopathy
Sociological Theories of Crime
The Chicago School
Differential Association Theory
Strain Theory
Social Control Theory
Neutralization Theory
Labeling Theory
Critical Sociological Theories of Crime
Marxism
Gender and Justice
Critical Race Theory
Integrated Theories of Crime
Integrated Theory of Delinquent Behavior
Interactional Theory of Delinquency
Control Balance Theory
Life-course and Developmental Theories
Moffitt's Pathway Theory
Laub and Sampson's Persistent-Offending and Desistance-from-Crime Theory
CHAPTER 4: CRIMINAL LAW
The Development of Criminal Law
Early Legal Codes
The Magna Carta
Common Law
Sources of Law
Constitutions
Statutes
Case Law
Administrative Rules and Executive Orders
Types of Law
Criminal Law
Civil Law
Substantive Law
Procedural Law
Types of Crime
Felonies
Misdemeanors
Inchoate Offenses
Features of Crime
Actus Reus
Mens Rea
Concurrence
Strict Liability
Criminal Responsibility and Criminal Defense
My Client Did Not Do It
My Client Did It, but My Client Is Not Responsible
My Client Did It but Has a Good Excuse
My Client Did It but Should Be Acquitted Because the Police or the Prosecutor Cheated
My Client Did It but Was Influence by Outside Forces
PART II: ENFORCING THE LAW
CHAPTER 5: THE HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION OF LAW ENFORCEMENT
A Brief History of the Police
Police in Ancient Times
Policing in Early England
The Gin Effect
Rise of Organized Policing
Policing in the United States
The 19th Century
The New York City Influence
London and New York
The Chicago Influence
Vigilante Policing
Introduction of Police Professionalism
The Wickersham Commission and August Vollmer
Other Reformers
The End of the 20th Century
Modern Police Organization
Levels of Law Enforcement
Federal Level
The Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Secret Service
State Level
Local Level
Sheriff's Offices
Requirements to Become a Police Officer
Innovations in Policing
Innovations from Social and Technological Changes
Homeland Security
Technological Change: Less-Than-Lethal Weapons
Technological Change: Information Technology
Innovations from Research
Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment
RAND Study of Detectives
Innovations from New Ideas
DARE
Project Ceasefire
CHAPTER 6: POLICING AND THE LAW
Policing and the Law
What We Expect of the Police
How the Police Work
Watchman Style
Legalistic Style
Service Style
The Quasi-Military Nature of Police Organizations
What the Police Do
Patrol
Investigation
Traffic Enforcement
Peacemaking and Order Maintenance
The Rules the Police Follow
Patrol
Investigation
Traffic Enforcement
Peacemaking and Order Maintenance
Police Discretion
The Fourth Amendment
Search
Special-needs Searches
Seizures
Stop-and-frisk
Arrests
Interrogations and Confessions
CHAPTER 7: ISSUES IN POLICING
Challenges to Traditional Policing
Community Policing
Problem-oriented Policing
Zero-tolerance policing
Sex and Race
Women as Police Officers
Minorities as Police
Use of Force
SWAT Teams
Ruby Ridge, Idaho
Waco, Texas
Plainfield, New Hampshire
Proactive Policing and Force
Stress and Burnout
Police and Alcohol
Family Problems and the Police
Police and Suicide
Dealing with the Stress of Policing
Police Subculture and Corruption
PART III: THE ROLE OF THE COURTS
CHAPTER 8: THE HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION OF COURTS
Courts in History
Before Courts: The Blood Feud
Courts in England
Trial by Compurgation
Trial by Ordeal
Trial by Battle
Development of the Jury
Grand Jury
The Jury Trial
The Magna Carta
Court of the Star Chamber
Courts in Colonial North America
The Changing Nature of the Court
Organization of Modern U.S. Courts
Nature of Jurisdiction
Subject-Matter Jurisdiction
Geographic Jurisdiction
Hierarchical Jurisdiction
The Structure of the Federal Courts
U.S. Magistrate Courts
U.S. District Courts
U.S. Court of Appeals
U.S. Supreme Court
Specialized Federal Courts
The Structure of State Courts
Juvenile Courts
State Trial Courts
State Intermediate Courts of Appeals
State Supreme Courts
Local Courts and Community Courts
CHAPTER 9: WORKING IN THE COURTROOM
The Courtroom Work Group
The Participants
Law Enforcement
Court Support Staff
Corrections
The Public
The Prosecutor
The Prosecutor at Work
Prosecution at the Federal Level
Prosecution in State Courts
The Defense Attorney
The Defense Attorney and the Courtroom Work Group
The Best Defense: Private Attorney or Public Defender?
The Judge
Judicial Selection: Executive Appointments
Judicial Selection: Election of Judges
Judicial Selection: Merit Selection
Defendants, Victims, and Witnesses
Defendants
Victims
Witnesses
Victim-witnesses Programs
Pretrial Release Decisions
CHAPTER 10: THE DISPOSITION: PLEA BARGAINING, TRIAL, AND SENTENCING
Plea Bargaining
Other Benefits of Plea Bargaining
Should Plea Bargaining Be Abolished?
The Trial
The Pre-trial Phase
Opening Arguments
Presentation of Witnesses and Evidence
The Case Goes to the Jury
The Defense Doesn't Rest
Appeal
Rights and Wrongs in the Courthouse
"I Know My Rights"
Victims' Rights
Sentencing the Offender
Indeterminate Sentencing
Determinate Sentencing
Mandatory Minimum Sentences
PART IV: FROM PENOLOGY TO CORRECTIONS AND BACK
CHAPTER 11: THE HISTORY OF CONTROL AND PUNISHMENT
Before There Were Prisons
Corporal Punishment
Torture
Flogging
Branding
Mutilation
Humiliation
Shock Death
Economic Punishment
The Galley
Workhouses
Exile and Transportation
Prisons in America
Control in the Colonies
Development of the Penitentiary: 1780-1860
The Pennsylvania System
The Auburn System
Age of Reform: 1860-1900
Alexander Maconochie
Sir Walter Crofton
Zebulon Brockway
Prison Labor and Public Works: 1900-1930
Age of Rehabilitation: 1930-1970
Retributive Era: 1970s to the Present
Capital Punishment
Capital Punishment in Historical Perspective
Arguments Supporting Capital Punishment
Arguments against Capital Punishment
Is the Death Penalty Dead?
CHAPTER 12: CONTEMPORARY PRISON LIFE
Inmate Subculture
Prison Gangs
Supermax Prisons
Prison Riots and Violence
Attica Prison Riot
New Mexico State Penitentiary Riot
Women in Prison
A Short History of Women's Prisons
Life in Women's Prisons
Courts and the Prison
Eighth Amendment
Fourteenth Amendment: Due Process
Fourteenth Amendment: Equal Protection
Working in the Prison
Private Prisons
CHAPTER 13: CORRECTIONS IN THE COMMUNITY
Community Corrections in Context
Diversion
Probation
Probation Officers at Work
Investigation
Supervision
Service
Private Probation
Advantages
Disadvantages
Intermediate Sanctions
Intensive-supervision Probation
Drug Testing
House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring
Fines
Boot-camp Prisons
Shock Probation
Parole
When to Parole
Re-entry and "Making It"
Jails
PART V: PROBLEMS IN THE CROSSCURRENTS
CHAPTER 14: JUVENILE JUSTICE
Childhood and the Law
Youths in the Early United States
Houses of Refuge
The Juvenile Court
The Modern Juvenile Justice System
Who Enters the Juvenile Justice System?
Entering the Juvenile Justice System
Pre-hearing Detention
Intake
Diversion
Determining Jurisdiction
Adjudicatory Hearing
Disposition
Aftercare
Issues in Juvenile Justice
Chronic Offenders
Gangs
Conditions of Youth Confinement
Juvenile Waiver: Treating Children as Adults
Zero Tolerance
The Future of Juvenile Justice
CHAPTER 15: VICTIMS OF CRIME AND VICTIMLESS CRIMES
Victims of Crime
Typologies of Crime Victims
Modern Theories of Victimization
Cultural Trappings
Victim-precipitation Theory
Victims in the Criminal Justice System
Types of Victims
Victims' Rights and Assistance
Victimless Crimes
Drug Use and Abuse
A Short History of Drug Use and Drug Laws in the United States
The War on Drugs
Law Enforcement and Drugs
Drug Treatment, Decriminalization, and Legalization
Sex Work
Prostitution
Pornography
CHAPTER 16: PRESENT AND EMERGING TRENDS: THE FUTURE OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE
War and Peace in the Criminal Justice System
The Wars on Crime and Drugs
The War on Terrorism
September 11, 2001
The USA Patriot Act
How Terrorism Is Changing the Criminal Justice System
Peacemaking Criminology and Restorative Justice
Religious and Humanist Tradition
Feminist Tradition
Critical Traditions
The Peacemaking Pyramid
Nonviolence
Social Justice
Inclusion
Correct Means
Ascertainable Criteria
Categorical Imperative
Restorative Justice

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