Criminal Justice Management: Theory and Practice in Justice-Centered Organizations / Edition 1

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Criminal justice students and practitioners in criminal justice agencies know firsthand the value of effective management; they understand the vital need to develop organizations that meet the expectations of their community members as well as those of their workers. With an innovative, student-friendly approach, Criminal Justice Management: Theory and Practice in Justice-Centered Organizations examines the complex subject of justice-centered agencies.

Authors Mary K. Stohr and Peter A. Collins interweave their comprehensive research with humor and personal anecdotes to make the study of criminal justice management accessible--and interesting--to students. Chapter exercises and study questions provide a springboard for lively class discussion, encouraging students to discover relevant applications for these provocative topics. Through its dedicated pedagogy, this text challenges readers to:

* Initiate human relations management practices
* Provide support for the professional development of staff
* Use proactive, collaborative, and shared responsibility forms of leadership
* Develop and maintain strong ethical practices
* Implement evidence-based best practices in agency programming
* Build strong bridges within an engaged and informed community

With an emphasis on putting theory into practice, Criminal Justice Management is an invaluable resource for the development of efficient, dynamic, and resourceful justice-centered agencies.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195337617
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • Publication date: 3/19/2008
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 352
  • Product dimensions: 9.10 (w) x 6.10 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Mary K. Stohr is Professor and former Chair of the Department of Criminal Justice at Boise State University, where she has worked for fourteen years. She currently serves as the Treasurer of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences and previously worked as a correctional officer and counselor in an adult male prison in Washington state. Dr. Stohr actively participates in research projects on criminal justice management, and she has published numerous articles on the subject. She is coeditor, with Craig Hemmens, of The Prison Experience (2004).

Peter A. Collins is a Ph.D. student in the Criminal Justice Program at Washington State University. He holds an M.A. in Criminal Justice Administration from Boise State University. His research currently centers on management issues in criminal justice, outcomes associated with substance abuse treatment, legal issues in criminal justice, correctional systems, and criminological theory.

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Table of Contents

Foreword     xi
Preface     xiii
Criminal Justice Management: The Big, the Bad, and the Beautiful     1
Introduction: Scope and Purpose of the Book     1
Some Defining Issues in Criminal Justice: Law Enforcement, Courts, and Corrections     3
Police and Sheriff's Departments     3
Duties, Mission, and Roles of Law Enforcement     3
Organizational Structure     5
Clientele     5
Staff Characteristics     5
Location/Jurisdiction     5
Public Institutions     6
Adult and Juvenile Courts     6
Organizational Structure, the Work Group and Clientele     6
Courtroom Work Group     7
Clientele     8
The Law, Levels     8
Staffing     9
Location     10
Jails/Detention and Prisons/Juvenile Facilities: How They Differ     10
Conviction and Sentence Status     11
Time Incarcerated     11
Local vs. State Operation     11
Size of the Facility     11
Security Level of the Facility     11
Age and Gender Separation     11
Location     12
Jails and Prisons: HowThey Are Alike     12
Community Corrections or Probation and Parole: How They Are Different and Similar     14
Time Sequencing     15
Types of Offenders     15
Rules     15
Similar Characteristics of Staff and Organizational Structure     15
Conclusions: The Unique Management Milieu of Criminal Justice Agencies     15
Discussion Questions     16
Web Link     16
References     16
Surveying the Landscape of Criminal Justice Management     18
Introduction: The Ties That Bind     18
Common Terms Defined     18
Organization, Justice, Bureaucracy, Management, and Formal and Informal Goals and Organizations     18
Street-Level Bureaucrats and Discretion     22
Ethics     23
No Organization is an Island: Open and Closed Organizations     23
Democratic Accountability and Neutral Competence: The Value-Added Difference in Governmental Operation     25
Democratic Accountability     26
Neutral Competency     28
Reconciling Democratic Accountability and Neutral Competence in Government Service     30
Government Service is Different     30
Conclusions: Why It Is Important Not to Tell Jokes About Bureaucrats     32
Discussion Questions     33
Key Terms     34
Web Links     35
References     35
Managing Trouble-Deviance, Abuse of Force and Sexual/Gender Harassment-Using Ethics     38
Introduction     38
Public Distrust     42
Deviance Explained     43
Corruption for Individual Gain     43
Official Deviance     46
Noble Cause     47
Two Insidious Types of Abuse     49
Excessive Use of Force     49
Sexual and Gender Harassment     50
Ethics Defined and Discussed     54
The Origin of Ethics     55
A Warning Sign: Too Much Focus on Ends Over Means     59
The War on Terror Presents the Perfect Conditions for Ethical Abuse     60
The Ethical Remedy to Alleviate the Degree of Abuse, Deviance, Corruption, and Harassment     63
Conclusions     67
Exercise: Student's Ethics Quiz     68
Discussion Questions     68
Key Terms     69
Notes     70
References     70
The Ethics Instrument Version for Jails     74
Service Values, the Administrative State, and Management Theory in Perspective     76
Introduction: A Bit of Background     76
The Administrative State     77
Management Theories     79
Traditional Theories of Management     80
Criticisms of the Traditional Theory of Management     84
Systems Theory     84
Human Relations or Human Resource Theories     86
The Hawthorne Experiments     86
The Hierarchy of Needs     88
Theories X and Y     90
Other Human Relations-Related Theories     91
Criticisms of Early Human Relations Theories of Management     92
Modern Human Relations Theories and Techniques: Theory Z, TQM, MBO and Learning Organizations     93
Conclusions: The Application of Management Theories to Criminal Justice Agencies     95
Exercise: Taylor's Pig Iron Story     96
Discussion Questions     98
Key Terms     98
Note     99
References     99
Communications: What You Say and Do is What They Think You Mean     101
Introduction: The Message and the Medium     101
The Purpose of Communication     102
Communication Within and Across Organizational Boundaries, and Complaints      104
Communication Within and Between Groups     104
Communication Across Organizational Boundaries     105
Barriers to Effective Communication     108
Improving Communications     111
An Additional Prescription for Communication Enhancement     112
Training     113
Teaming     113
Listening     113
Newsletters     113
Grievance Procedures and Whistleblowing Programs     115
Technology     115
Inside and Outside Research     115
Organizational Change     117
Conclusions     117
Exercise: The Space Invader     118
Discussion Questions     119
Key Terms     119
Web Link     119
References     120
Socialization, Roles, and Power Issues     123
Introduction: What is My Job and How Do I Do It?     123
Socialization     124
Anticipatory Socialization     124
Formal Socialization     126
Informal Socialization     128
The Criminal Justice Role     131
Role Conflict: The Service vs. Security/Serve vs. Protect Dichotomies     131
Power      138
Conclusions     141
Exercise: The Role-Ordering People About     141
Discussion Questions     142
Key Terms     142
References     143
The Correctional Role Instrument     147
Leadership and Criminal Justice Organizations     150
Introduction: After You've Worked for "Bad" Leaders, You Begin to Appreciate the Importance of "Good" Leadership     150
Leadership Defined     151
Are Leaders Born and/or Made?     153
Leadership Theories     154
Change and Maintenance Leadership to Fit the Situation     155
Leadership Styles vs. Techniques     162
The Responsibilities of Leadership     162
Teaming as a Means of Sharing Leadership Responsibilities     165
The Relative Satisfaction and Status of Criminal Justice Leaders/Managers and Supervisors     168
Criminal Justice Leaders: Success, Failure, and the Dangers of Groupthink     169
Organizational and Leader Success and Measurement     169
Two Leadership Pitfalls: Organizational Decline and Failure and Groupthink     170
Organizational Decline and Failure     170
Groupthink     171
Conclusions     173
Exercise: The American (Leadership) Idols     174
Discussion Questions     175
Key Terms     175
Note     176
References     176
Personnel Processes and Practices     179
Introduction: You've Got to Protect Your Investment!     179
Selection     180
Job-Valid Qualifications     180
Legal Disqualifiers     182
Cost     182
Typical Selection Practices     182
The Application Form     183
The Written Test     184
Medical Exam     184
Physical Ability/Agility Tests     186
Background Investigation     186
Psychological Test     186
Polygraph Testing     187
Oral Interviews     187
Selection from the Applicant's Perspective     188
On the Job, the Selection Process Continues     189
Training     190
Academy Training     192
Ongoing Training     194
Common Deficiencies in Training     194
Performance Appraisals     195
Best Practices in Performance Appraisal     199
A Final Problem in Appraisals     200
Retention Strategies      201
Pay Isn't Everything, But It Is Something     201
Career Path     203
Job Design: Criminal Justice Work for the 21st Century     203
Conclusions     204
Exercise: Job Design     205
Discussion Questions     205
Key Terms     206
Notes     206
References     206
Selection Issues: Workforce 2000, Diversity, and Affirmative Action     209
Introduction: The 21st-Century Workforce     209
Workforce 2000     210
Dealing with Diversity     210
Selection Processes: Who Wants to Work in Criminal Justice?     211
Entry-Level Corrections and Police Work in Illinois and North Carolina     215
Illinois     215
North Carolina     216
Two-State Comparison     217
Qualifications     217
Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action     218
Civil Rights Legislation     220
Intentional Discrimination     225
Reverse Discrimination     226
Food for Thought     228
Conclusions     229
Exercise: Tracking Criminal Justice Employment     230
Discussion Questions      230
Key Terms     231
Note     231
References     231
Reaching Beyond the Expected: Managing Treatment, Force, Standards, and Accreditation     234
Introduction: Discipline and Decency     234
Treatment     235
The False Dichotomy: Treatment or Security?     235
Mature Coping and Finding a Niche     237
Treatment Programming     239
Death to All Programs (!), or the Nothing Works Mantra     239
Drug Courts     241
What Works, or Using Science to Separate the Wheat from the Chaff in Programming     242
The Challenges of Managing Treatment Programming     244
Use of Force     246
Standards and Accreditation     250
Courts     251
Police     252
Corrections     253
Conclusions     255
Exercise: Take an Informal Poll     255
Discussion Questions     256
Key Terms     257
Note     257
References     257
Strategic Planning and Budgeting     263
Introduction: Strategic Planning and Budgeting Are at the Very Center of All Things Organizational     263
Strategic Planning: Definition, Benefits, and the Difficulties of Implementation     264
Implementing the Plan     265
Failure of Execution     266
What Is a Budget?     267
The Four Stages of the Budget Process     268
Some Things to Remember About Public Sector Budgeting     272
Recent History of Budgeting and Planning     274
Budget Strategies     279
Cultivating Client Support     279
Gaining the Trust of Others and Documenting a Need     280
Looking for Sympathetic Decision Makers     280
Coping with Painful Actions and Minimizing the Risk of Future Cuts     280
The Camel's Nose     280
Making the Program Appear to be Self-Supporting     281
Capitalizing on Temporary Circumstances     281
Deception and Confusion     281
Conclusions     281
Exercise: Develop a Criminal Justice Budget     282
Discussion Questions     283
Key Terms     283
References     284
Decision Making and Prediction     286
Introduction     286
Decisions, Decisions, Decisions: What They are and Who Makes Them (the Decision Makers)     287
Effective Decision Making      287
To Act or Not to Act: That Is But One of the Questions!     288
Obstacles to Good Decision Making: Let Us Count the Ways     289
Logical Fallacies     291
Biology and Cognition (Social Intelligence): A Possible Undue Influence     294
Prediction     295
Ways to Improve Decision Making     296
Conclusions     297
Exercise: The False Argument     297
Discussion Questions     298
Key Terms     298
References     299
Model Management Practices     300
Introduction: Criminal Justice Agencies in a Continuing Crisis in Need of a Solution     300
Salvation Through Consilience     301
Communication, Leadership, and Culture Change     302
Human Relations Management Practices     305
It is the People and Their Goals That Matter     307
A Consilience of Topics Too: The Unity of Knowledge in Criminal Justice Management Practice     308
Conclusions     312
Discussion Questions     312
Key Term     312
References     312
Index     315
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