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This book explains the criminal justice system and how criminal cases are processed via the police, the court, and the correctional system. To give readers a better understanding of how the criminal justice systems works the author follows one case throughout the book to demonstrate how it is processed step-by-step through the justice system. It uses critical thinking exercises and Point/Counterpoint debate sections to explore hot issues from different points of view including parole, prisoners with HIV, crime reporting practices’ impact on minority groups, and inmates with mental illness. Detailed discussions i.e., who gets arrested and why and what role a defendant’s appearance plays are among the many topics addressed, which makes this a compelling text. Covers the steps of the criminal justice system including entry into the system; processing and pretrial procedures; trials, sentencing and appeals; and corrections. Includes information on how we address crime in society. Explores important issues within the system such as victim impact statements, who reports crime?; the investigative process; factors influencing arrest; case processing & the grand jury; the arraignment process; jury trials & sentencing; and the appeals process.
Appropriate for introductory criminal justice courses and for those seeking to better understand the criminal justice system.
(NOTE: Each chapter contains a “Wrap-Up.”)
SECTION I. ENTRY INTO THE SYSTEM.
1. Reported and Observed Crime.
Measured, Observed, and Reported Crime.
Who Reports Crime?
Point-Counterpoint: “Do current practices of identifying crime disproportionately affect minority groups?”
Deciding to Investigate.
Who Investigates Crime?
What’s Involved in Criminal Investigation?
Point-Counterpoint: “Is detective work necessary?”
Who Gets Arrested and Why.
Definition/Legal Requirements of Arrest.
Arrest and Discretion.
Point-Counterpoint: “Should we abolish the Miranda Warning?”
4. Booking and Charging.
Point-Counterpoint: “Should prosecutors overcharge suspects?”
SECTION II. PROSECUTION AND PRETRIAL PROCEDURES.
5. Initial Appearance.
Case Processing and the Initial Appearance.
Notice of Charges and Advising Defendants of Their Rights.
Counsel and the Initial Appearance.
Point-Counterpoint: “Should defendants be permitted to use private bonding agencies?”
6. Preliminary Hearing/Grand Jury.
Case Processing and the Preliminary Hearing.
Case Processing and the Grand Jury.
Point-Counterpoint: “Should we abolish the use of grand juries?”
Case Processing and the Arraignment.
Point-Counterpoint: “Should mentally ill offenders be sentenced to prison?”
SECTION III. TRIALS, SENTENCING, AND APPEALS. 8. Trials.
Presentation of Evidence.
Judge’s Charge to the Jury.
Jury Deliberations and Verdict.
Point-Counterpoint: “Should cameras be permitted in the courtroom?”
Factors Influencing Sentencing Decisions.
Purposes of Criminal Sanctions.
Types of Sentences.
Point-Counterpoint: “Should victim impact statements be permitted at sentencing hearings?”
Appeals and Appellate Courts.
Point-Counterpoint: “Should we provide fewer avenues of appeal for offenders?”
SECTION IV. CORRECTIONS.
Functions of Probation.
Conditions of Probation.
Effectiveness of Probation.
Point-Counterpoint: “Should we eliminate probation?”
12. Intermediate Sanctions.
Day Reporting Centers.
Shock Probation and Shock Parole.
Intensive Supervision Probation.
Home Confinement and Electronic Monitoring.
Point-Counterpoint: “Should sentencing bodies consider intermediate sanctions?”
13. Incarceration and Capital Punishment.
Point-Counterpoint: “Should prisons test and segregate those testing positive for HIV/AIDS?”
14. Release and Reentry.
The Use and Administration of Parole.
Being Released on Parole.
Success and Failure on Parole.
Other Forms of Release.
Point-Counterpoint: “Should we abolish parole?”
Court Cases Cited.