Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century / Edition 6

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Overview

  • WebExtras! These hyperlinks, build right into the text, take students to crime and justice-related Web sites. Interspersed throughout every chapter, WebExtras! Include the FBI's home page, a virtual tour of the U.S. Supreme Court, an in-depth history of the Columbine High School shooting, and much more!
  • Library Extras! These end-of-chapter Web-based "additional readings" lead students to 100 Web-documents that expand on materials and concepts found in the text.
  • Web Quests! Found at the end of each chapter, these fascinating Web-based assignments are designed to teach students how to use the Internet to research topics and to find information in the criminal justice area.
  • Author Audio Introductions These chapter-specific audio introductions have been recorded by the author to provide additional insight into the workings of the justice system.

In the sixth edition, Criminal Justice Today's rock-solid academic foundation has been combined with the latest in innovative instructional technology to create a learning package that fulfills the promise of making this book "The Introductory Textbook for the Twenty First Century."

Available supplements include:

  • Student Study Guide
  • WebCT and Blackboard courses
  • State specific supplements for New York, California, Texas, Illinois, and Florida
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Themes underlying this book/CD-ROM text for beginning students in criminal justice include the contrast between the rights of individuals versus the need for public order, the role of technology in fighting crime and in crime itself, and the challenges of multiculturalism and diversity. A variety of boxed readings give insight on professional issues, news stories, and the future of criminal justice. The included CD-ROM contains interactive scenarios based on real cases, key term review, games, quizzes, a glossary, and Web links. The author is professor emeritus at the University of North Carolina-Pembroke, where he chaired the Department of Sociology, Social Work, and Criminal Justice. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130851482
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 6/16/2000
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 749
  • Product dimensions: 8.69 (w) x 11.21 (h) x 1.43 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

The first edition of this textbook appeared in print a little over ten years ago. At that time, I chose what seemed to be a rather unique subtitle: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century. The subtitle was unusual not only because the new century was still a decade away, but because other introductory criminal justice authors seemed to be writing about the past and not the future. I wanted my subtitle to speak to students and professors. I wanted it to say, "This is a book that, while it owes a legacy to the past, is not bound by it. This is a book that will prepare students of justice for the world of the future—a soon-to-be vital and real world with almost limitless possibilities in which they will live and work."

Since then, of course, much has changed. Criminal Justice Today is now in its sixth edition. The long-awaited new century is here, and the future is on almost everyone's mind.

As I write this preface to the sixth edition, I think of how the first edition of this text was a standard ink-on-paper hardcover book with sparsely placed black-and-white photographs. I reflect on how it has evolved into a multimedia-rich, information-filled, experiential package that brings up-to-the-minute learning opportunities to today's students in printed form, on the Web, via CD-ROM, and through other digital formats. I think of how it makes extensive use of technologically enhanced learning environments, and I hope that it has contributed, at least in some small way, to the growth and continuing maturation of those environments.

The sixth edition of this learning package (for it is no longermerely a book) has become an integral part of our "wired" world—in the best sense of that term. Criminal Justice Today has evolved into a multifaceted learning experience that, I believe, sets the standard far a new generation of educational tools that sweepingly integrate text-based information and electronic media in ways not possible only a short while ago.

Although you can still hold this book in your hands, the printed pages are but a representation of the multitude of learning possibilities that accompany it. The Criminal Justice Today companion web site (...

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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter begins with an Introduction and concludes with a Summary, Discussion Questions, Web Quests, and Library Extras.)

I. CRIME IN AMERICA.

1. What Is Criminal Justice?
Crime in the Last Half Century. The Themes of This Book. Social Justice. American Criminal Justice: The System. American Criminal Justice: The Process. Due Process and Individual Rights. Criminal Justice and Criminology. Technology Center. Multiculturalism and Diversity in Criminal Justice. Justice System. Things to Come: An Overview of this Book.

2. The Crime Picture.
The Uniform Crime Reports. The National Crime Victimization Survey. Guns, Crime, and Gun Control. Emerging Patterns of Criminal Activity. The Economic Cost of Crime.

3. The Search for Causes.
Criminological Theory. The Classical School. Biological Theories. Psychobiological Theories. Psychological Theories. Sociological Theories. Social-Psychological Theories. Conflict Theories. The Phenomenological School. Emergent Theories.

4. Criminal Law.
The Development of Law. The Rule of Law. Purposes of the Law. Types of Law. General Categories of Crime. General Features of Crime. Elements of a Specific Criminal Offense. Types of Defenses to a Criminal Charge.

II. POLICING.

5. Policing: History and Structure.
HistoricalDevelopment of the Police. American Law Enforcement Today: From the Federal to the Local Level. Private Protective Services.

6. Police Management.
Police Administration. Discretion and the Individual Officer. Issues and Challenges in Contemporary Policing. Ethics and Gender Diversity in Policing.

7. Policing Legal Aspects.
The Abuse of Police Power. Individual Rights. Search and Seizure. Arrest. Offenses. The Intelligence Function. Gathering Special Kinds of Non-testimonial Evidence.

III. ADJUDICATION.

8. The Courts.
American Court History. Pretrial Activities. CJ Today Exhibit 8-1: Non-judicial Pretrial Release Decisions.

9. The Courtroom Work Group and the Criminal Trial.
The Courtroom Work Group: Professional Courtroom Actors. Outsiders: Nonprofessional Courtroom Participants. The Criminal Trial. Improving the Adjudication Process.

10. Sentencing.
The Philosophy and Goals of Criminal Sentencing. Indeterminate Sentencing. Structured Sentencing. Mandatory Sentencing. Truth in Sentencing. Federal Sentencing Guidelines. Innovations in Sentencing. The Sentencing Environment. The Presentence Investigation Report. The Victim—Forgotten No Longer. Traditional Sentencing Options.

IV. CORRECTIONS.

11. Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections.
What Is Probation? What Is Parole? Probation and Parole: The Pluses and Minuses. The Legal Environment. The Federal Probation System. The Job of Probation and Parole Officers. Intermediate Sanctions. The Future of Probation and Parole. CJ Today Exhibit Futures: Probation Kiosks: High-tech Supervision.

12. Prisons and Jails.
Early Punishments. The Emergence of Prisons. Prisons Today. Jails. Private Prisons.

13. Prison Life.
Research on Prison Life-Total Institutions. The Male Inmate's World. The Female Inmate's World. The Staff World. Prison Riots. Prisoners' Rights. Issues Facing Prisons Today.

V. SPECIAL ISSUES.

14. Juvenile Justice.
Juvenile Justice throughout History. The Problems of Children Today. The Legal Environment. The Juvenile Justice Process Today. What Would You Do? The Post-Juvenile Court Era.

15. Drugs and Crime.
Drug Abuse: More Than an Individual Choice. What Is a Drug? A History of Drug Abuse in America. Anti-drug Legislation. The Most Common Drugs...and Who Is Using them. Drugs, Crime, and Social Problems. Narco-terrorism. Solving the Drug Problem.

16. Multinational Criminal Justice.
The International Perspective. The Chinese Justice System. Islamic Criminal Justice. Criminal Justice in England and Wales. International Criminal Justice Organizations.

17. The Future of Criminal Justice.
Technology and Criminal Justice. Terrorism. Controlling Terrorism. Technology and Individual Rights.

Bill of Rights.
List of Acronyms.
Glossary.
Case Index.
Name Index.
Subject Index.
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Preface

The first edition of this textbook appeared in print a little over ten years ago. At that time, I chose what seemed to be a rather unique subtitle: An Introductory Text for the Twenty-First Century. The subtitle was unusual not only because the new century was still a decade away, but because other introductory criminal justice authors seemed to be writing about the past and not the future. I wanted my subtitle to speak to students and professors. I wanted it to say, "This is a book that, while it owes a legacy to the past, is not bound by it. This is a book that will prepare students of justice for the world of the future—a soon-to-be vital and real world with almost limitless possibilities in which they will live and work."

Since then, of course, much has changed. Criminal Justice Today is now in its sixth edition. The long-awaited new century is here, and the future is on almost everyone's mind.

As I write this preface to the sixth edition, I think of how the first edition of this text was a standard ink-on-paper hardcover book with sparsely placed black-and-white photographs. I reflect on how it has evolved into a multimedia-rich, information-filled, experiential package that brings up-to-the-minute learning opportunities to today's students in printed form, on the Web, via CD-ROM, and through other digital formats. I think of how it makes extensive use of technologically enhanced learning environments, and I hope that it has contributed, at least in some small way, to the growth and continuing maturation of those environments.

The sixth edition of this learning package (for it is no longer merely a book) has become an integral part ofour "wired" world—in the best sense of that term. Criminal Justice Today has evolved into a multifaceted learning experience that, I believe, sets the standard far a new generation of educational tools that sweepingly integrate text-based information and electronic media in ways not possible only a short while ago.

Although you can still hold this book in your hands, the printed pages are but a representation of the multitude of learning possibilities that accompany it. The Criminal Justice Today companion web site and the cjtoday.com home page, for example, add a wealth of constantly updated news, statistics, legal information, and diverse opinions to the core text. The Criminal Justice Today e-mail discussion groups, message boards, and Talk Justice facility make it possible for students and professors to interact with one another—and with others across the nation and around the world who share an interest in criminal justice and in crime prevention. Our criminal justice Cybrary provides a fully searchable gold mine of thousands of up-to-the-minute justice-specific Web sites to facilitate to research, writing, and learning. WebCT templates for this textbook, as well as the online teaching possibilities provided by the Criminal Justice Today companion website, allow classes to be taught entirely online, so students can study criminal justice subject matter from virtually anywhere.

While much has changed over six editions, this text remains true to its original purpose. In the preface to the first edition I wrote that the purpose of this book is "to teach criminal justice stunts the fundamental tried-and-true concepts of an evolving discipline, to give them the critical-thinking skills necessary to effectively apply those concepts to the real world, and to apply those concepts and skills to today's problems and to the emerging issues of tomorrow." In Chapter 1 I promised that this book would "describe in detail the criminal justice system, while helping students develop an appreciation for the delicacy of the balancing act now facing it." I pointed out that the fundamental question for the future will be "how to ensure the existence of, and effectively manage, a justice system which is as fair to the individual as it is supportive of the needs of society." Finally, I asked, "Is justice for all a reasonable expectation of today's system of criminal justice?" The sixth edition remains true to these roots, yet has blossomed in ways unanticipated a mere decade earlier.

As it was from the start, Criminal Justice Today is intended for use by students everywhere who are beginning the study of criminal justice. The sixth edition incorporates and supports the best and most contemporary principles guiding the study of our discipline. The educational principles underlying the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences' recent explorations into the accreditation arena (via the ACJS Ad Hoc Committee on Minimum Standards for Criminal Justice Education), for example, are incorporated into this text, as are some of the more prominent state-specific guidelines for criminal justice education. Criminal Justice Today and its various supplements are also written to be consistent with and supportive of the California POST College Transition Program. The College Transition Program allows students to earn basic law enforcement course certification credits during their college studies—reducing the academy training time needed for students seeking law enforcement careers. POST standards, even when not state-specific, add a pragmatic dimension to the study of criminal justice, stressing as they do the development of useful employment-related abilities and critical-thinking skills.

In summary, Criminal Justice Today is intended not as a simple description of what has already taken place in the field (although it contains plenty of descriptions and lots of historical information), but as a visual and thoughtful guide to the study and practice of criminal justice today, a road map through the criminal justice system of the twenty-first century, and a bridge between past and future.

FRANK SCHMALLEGER, PH.D.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 14, 2012

    Outstanding Source of Factual Information

    This was a book I had to use for a criminal justice course I was taking. Any more you can ask someone a question about a trail going on in their town or nationally and all of a sudden you have a 30 minute conversation about what should happen to the individual and also what the defense position should be and how the prosecutor should approach the trial. There are also all types of shows on television that give individuals a perception of how the legal system works. Sadly this is television where shows are made for entertainment and not how the legal system really works. With the ever changing legal system and challenges to law enforcement officials this book definitely helps understand the legal system, and challenges in and outside the legal system. It also helps you understand that the criminal justice system and ways to fight crime is not a science and there is not necessarily a formula that will work in all parts of the country. What may work in inner cities may not work in rural areas. The foundations are the same however the structure built on the foundation will differ.
    This book starts out by providing the reader with Crime in America. It explores a brief history of crime in America and then takes a look at criminal justice system and its functions. Understanding how the system works and is structured will give an individual more insight as to why things happen during trials. It will open your eyes as to what is reality versus what we perceive. You will also look at the various theories associated with criminal behavior and help you understand what agencies are doing to face and fight criminal behavior.
    Part two looks at policing, its history and structure, purpose and organization, legal aspects and the issues and challenges of policing. Part three takes one through adjudication. It looks atthe courts; structure and participants, pretrial activities and the criminal trial, and sentencing. Part four looks at corrections dealing with probation, parole, and community corrections. It provides information on prisons, jails and looks at prison life for those incarcerated. Part five looks at special issues. It covers juvenile justice and most find this area very interesting because juvenile crimes continue to grow especially those involving violent crimes. The chapter also covers drugs and crime, terrorism and multinational criminal justice, and the future of criminal justice.
    This book was full of helpful information. It dispels a lot of myths about what one thinks they know about the legal system and shows them what it is really like. Television provides one with what is called “The CSI Effect.” The CSI effect, also known as the CSI syndrome and the CSI infection, is any of several ways in which the exaggerated portrayal of forensic science on crime television shows such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation influences public perception. The term most often refers to the belief that jurors have come to demand more forensic evidence in criminal trials, thereby raising the effective standard of proof for prosecutors. While this belief is widely held among American legal professionals, some studies have suggested that crime shows are unlikely to cause such an effect, although frequent CSI viewers may place a lower value on circumstantial evidence. As technology improves and becomes more prevalent throughout society, people may also develop higher expectations for the capab

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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