Criminal Procedure / Edition 7

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This book will help you not simply memorize but understand criminal procedure and its important legal underpinnings. Best-selling author Joel Samaha includes carefully edited cases that illustrate how the principles of criminal procedure apply throughout the criminal justice process. The author guides you through the entire process-from encounters between individuals and police on the street and at the police station, to in-trial court proceedings before and during conviction and sentencing, to final review by appellate courts. This is a book you will want to keep as a valuable reference even after you graduate and begin your career in criminal justice and/or law. In this Seventh Edition, you'll find: Many fascinating case excerpts that reflect recent court decisions in such areas as search and seizure, interrogation, the right to a lawyer, and others. Information on how the "war on terror" affects criminal procedure, including coverage of the USA Patriot Act, surveillance, detention (Guantanamo Bay), interrogation and torture, and military tribunals. Study tools in every chapter that help you review and retain the laws of criminal procedure. Step-by-step guidance for reading and analyzing cases so you can get the most out of your reading.
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Editorial Reviews

In this new edition of a standard text, Samaha (U. of Minnesota) discusses the structure, process, and constitutional provisions governing both the law and practice of criminal proceedings; the steps in formal criminal process; constitutional provisions of criminal procedure as they occur in real life; searches and seizures; police interrogation, confessions, and procedures; remedies against the government when constitutional rights are violated; court proceedings before, during, and after trial; and sentencing guidelines and post-conviction review. Extended excerpts of actual court opinions are presented. The included CD-ROM explores careers in criminal justice. The publisher has packaged this text in two ways: ISBN 0-534-55010-X includes a four-month subscription to Infotrac, while ISBN 0-534-55014-2 does include Infotrac. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780495095460
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 7/20/2007
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 592
  • Product dimensions: 8.20 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Joel Samaha is Professor of History and Sociology at the University of Minnesota, where he teaches Introduction to Criminal Justice, Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure, The Supreme Court and the Constitution, and a special joint Sociology/History Department course entitled Is There a Wartime Exception to the Bill of Rights? He received his B.A., J.D., and Ph.D. from Northwestern University and studied under the late Sir Geoffrey Elton at Cambridge University, England. Professor Samaha was admitted to the Illinois Bar, briefly practiced law in Chicago, and then taught at UCLA. In 1971, he joined the University of Minnesota, where he served as Chair of the Department of Criminal Justice Studies for four years, taught television and radio courses in criminal justice, co-taught a National Endowment for the Humanities seminar in legal and constitutional history, and was named Distinguished Teacher in 1974. Professor Samaha's works have appeared in Historical Journal, American Journal of Legal History, Minnesota Law Review, William Mitchell Law Review, and Journal of Social History.

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Table of Contents

Preface     xiii
Crime Control in a Constitutional Democracy     2
Balancing Values in Criminal Procedure     5
Community Security and Individual Autonomy     5
Ends and Means     7
The History of Balancing Values     8
Balancing Values in Emergencies     9
Equality     9
Discretion     10
The Objective Basis Requirement     10
"Good" Evidence and "Bad" Methods     11
The Text-Case Method     11
The Parts of Case Excerpts     12
Precedent and Stare Decisis     14
Appellate Cases     15
Briefing the Cases     16
Criminal Procedure and the Constitution     20
The U.S. Constitution and the Courts     23
State Constitutions and State Courts     24
Due Process of Law     25
The Meaning of Due Process     25
Hurtado and Charging by Information     26
The "Scottsboro Boys" and Due Process of Law     27
Brown v. Mississippi and Coerced Confessions     28
The Fundamental Fairness Doctrine     30
The Incorporation Doctrine     31
Case: Rochin v. California     33
Equal Protection of the Law     36
Case: U.S. v. Armstrong     37
The Definition of Searches and Seizures     46
The History and the Purposes of the Fourth Amendment     49
Searches     51
The Privacy Doctrine     51
Case: Katz v. U.S.     53
Electronic Surveillance     59
Case: U.S. v. White     59
Case: Kyllo v. U.S.     62
The Plain View Doctrine     65
Case: Illinois v. Caballes     66
The Open Fields Doctrine     68
Abandoned Property     68
Seizures     69
Empirical Findings     71
Fleeing Suspects     72
Case: California v. Hodari D.     72
Stop and Frisk     80
Stop-and-Frisk Law     84
Two Approaches to Fourth Amendment Analyses     84
Terry v. Ohio and Stop and Frisk     87
Case: Terry v. Ohio     88
Stop and Frisk after Terry     93
Case: Adams v. Williams     94
Stops and the Fourth Amendment     97
Reasonable Suspicion to Back Up Stops     98
Case: U.S. v. Cortex     99
Case: Florida v. J. L.      102
Case: Illinois v. Wardlow     106
Case: U.S. v. Brignoni-Ponce     111
Case: U.S. v. Sokolow     115
The Scope of Reasonable Stops     118
Case: U.S. v. Sharpe and Savage     119
Case: People v. Courtney     122
Frisks and the Fourth Amendment     123
Case: U.S. v. McCargo     124
Reasonable Suspicion to Back Up Frisks     127
The Scope of Reasonable Frisks     128
Case: Minnesota v. Dickerson     129
Special Situation Stops and Frisks     131
Removing Passengers from Stopped Vehicles     131
Case: Maryland v. Wilson     132
Detentions at International Borders     135
Case: U.S. v. Montoya de Hernandez     135
Checkpoints and Roadblocks     139
Case: Michigan v. Sitz     139
Seizure of Persons: Arrest     148
The Definition of Arrest     150
A Reasonable Arrest     151
Probable Cause     152
Direct Information     152
Hearsay     153
Case: Draper v. U.S.     154
The Manner of Arrest     158
The Warrant Requirement     158
Case: U.S. v. Watson     159
Case: Payton v. New York     162
Arrest by Force     169
Case: Tennessee v. Garner     170
Case: Graham v. Connor     173
Case: Kuha v. City of Minnetonka     176
After Arrest     178
Case: Atwater v. City of Lago Vista     179
Searches for Evidence     188
Searches with Warrants     191
The Particularity Requirement     191
The Probable Cause Affidavit     192
The "Knock-and-Announce" Rule     192
Case: Wilson v. Arkansas     192
Case: U.S. v. Banks     196
Searches without Warrants     199
Searches Incident to (at the Time of) Arrest     200
Case: Chimel v. California     201
Case: New York v. Belton     203
Case: Knowles v. Iowa     209
Case: Whren v. U.S.     211
Consent Searches     214
Case: Schneckloth v. Bustamonte     216
Case: U.S. v. Rodney     222
Case: U.S. v. Gray     225
Case: Illinois v. Rodriguez     226
Vehicle Searches     231
Case: Wyoming v. Houghton     233
Emergency Searches      236
Special-Needs Searches     242
Inventory Searches     245
Balancing Interests     245
Objective Basis     245
Case: Colorado v. Bertine     246
International Border Searches     248
Airport Searches     249
Custody-Related Searches     249
Prisoners     250
Strip and Body-Cavity Searches     251
Case: Mary Beth G. v. City of Chicago     251
Testing and Storing DNA     253
Probationers and Parolees     254
Case: Samson v. California     255
Employee Drug Searches     259
Student Searches     261
Drug Testing of High-School Students     261
Case: Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls     262
Searches of College Students     265
Case: Commonwealth v. Neilson     265
Self-Incrimination     272
The Nature and the Role of Confessions     274
The Self-incrimination Setting     275
The Importance of Confessions and Interrogation     276
False Confessions and Videotaping Interrogations     277
The Constitution and Self-Incrimination      279
The Due Process Approach     280
The Right-to-Counsel Approach     282
The Self-Incrimination Approach     283
Case: Schmerber v. California     284
Miranda v. Arizona     286
Case: Miranda v. Arizona     286
The Miranda "Bright-Line" Rules     289
The Meaning of "Custody"     291
Case: Berkemer, Sheriff of Franklin County, v. McCarty     292
The Public Safety Exception     293
The Meaning of "Interrogation"     294
Case: Brewer v. Williams     296
The Waiver of the Right to Remain Silent     300
Case: Moran, Superintendent, Rhode Island Department of Corrections, v. Burbine     302
Voluntary Self-Incrimination     304
Case: Colorado v. Connelly     306
Identification Procedures     316
Mistaken Eyewitness Identification     318
Memory and Mistaken Identification of Strangers     319
The Power of Suggestion     320
Identification Procedures     321
Lineups     321
Show-Ups     323
"Mug Shot" (Photo) Identification     324
The Constitution and Identification Procedures     324
Reliability Is the Linchpin     325
"Very Substantial Likelihood of Misidentification"     325
Case: Manson v. Brathwaite     325
DNA Profile Identification     330
The Reliability of DNA Testing     331
Legal Standards for Admitting DNA Profile Evidence     331
Remedies for Constitutional Violations I: The Exclusionary Rule and Entrapment     338
The Exclusionary Rule     341
History     341
Case: Mapp v. Ohio     343
Justifications     345
Scope     347
Persons Seized Illegally     350
The Reasonable, Good-Faith Exception     350
Case: U.S. v. Leon     350
"Bad Methods" by Non-Law Enforcement Government Officials     354
Case: Arizona v. Evans     355
Social Costs and Deterrence     359
The Defense of Entrapment     361
The Subjective Test     363
Case: Jacobson v. U.S.     364
The Objective Test     368
Constitutional Violations II: Other Remedies Against Official Misconduct     372
Criminal Actions     374
Civil Actions     374
Suing U.S. Officers and the U.S. Government     375
Case: Anderson v. Creighton     376
Suing State Officers     379
Suing State and Local Governments     380
Law Enforcement Failure to Protect     381
Case: Finder v. Johnson     382
Suing Judges and Prosecutors     386
Hurdles to Suing Officers and Governments     389
Administrative Remedies     389
Internal Review     390
External Review     392
Court Proceedings I: Before Trial     400
The Decision to Charge     402
Probable Cause to Detain Suspects     404
Case: County of Riverside v. McLaughlin     405
The First Appearance     408
Bail and Pretrial Detention     409
Bail and the Constitution     410
Preventive Detention     411
Case: U.S. v. Salerno     412
Conditions of Pretrial Confinement     414
Case: Bell v. Wolfish     414
The Right to Counsel     417
Case: Gideon v. Wainwright     419
When the Right to Counsel Attaches     420
The Meaning of "All Criminal Prosecutions"     421
The Standard of Indigence     423
The Right to "Effective" Counsel      424
Testing the Government's Case     425
The Preliminary Hearing     427
Grand Jury Review     428
Arraignment     430
Pretrial Motions     431
Double Jeopardy     431
A Speedy Trial     434
A Change of Venue     435
The Suppression of Evidence     437
Court Proceedings II: Trial and Conviction     444
Trial by Jury     446
The Moral Seriousness Standard     447
The 12-Member Jury Requirement     447
Case: Ballew v. Georgia     448
Jury Selection     450
Case: Lockhart v. McCree     451
The Right to a Public Trial     453
The Stages and Rules of Jury Trials     454
Opening Statements     455
Presenting Evidence     455
Closing Arguments     457
Jury Instructions     459
Jury Deliberations     459
The "Unanimous Verdict" Requirement     459
Jury Nullification     460
Conviction by Guilty Plea     461
The Debate over Conviction by Guilty Plea     461
The Constitution and Guilty Pleas     462
Case: North Carolina v. Alford      463
After Conviction     468
Sentencing     471
The History of Sentencing     471
The Division of Sentencing Authority     473
Sentencing Guidelines and Mandatory Minimum Sentences     473
The Constitution and Sentencing     477
Case: Ewing v. California     478
Case: Blakely v. Washington     484
Appeals     488
Habeas Corpus (Collateral Attack)     490
Criminal Procedure in Crisis Times     498
The History of Criminal Procedure in Wartime     500
Surveillance and Terrorism     502
"Real Time" Electronic Surveillance     503
Surveiliing Stored Electronic Communications     504
Secret "Caller ID"     504
Controversial Government Surveillance     505
"Sneak and Peek" Searches     507
Detaining Terrorist Suspects     508
The Sources Authorizing Terrorist Suspect Detention     509
Conditions of Detention     512
Torture during Detention     512
Trials of Suspected Terrorists     513
The Sources of Military Commission Authority     514
The Jurisdiction of Military Commissions     514
Trial Proceedings of Military Commissions     515
Case: Hamdan v. Rumsfeld     515
Selected Amendments of the Constitution of the United States     527
Glossary     529
Bibliography     541
Case Index     549
Index     555
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