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On September 11, 2001, AT&T's traffic was 40 percent greater than its previous busiest day. Wireless calls were made from the besieged airplanes and buildings, with the human voice having a calming influence. E-mail was used to overcome distance and time zones. And storytelling played an important role both in conveying information and in coping with the disaster. Building on such events and lessons, Crisis Communications features an international cast of top contributors exploring emergency communications during crisis. Together, they evaluate the use, performance, and effects of traditional mass media (radio, TV, print), newer media (Internet, email), conventional telecommunications (telephones, cell phones), and interpersonal communication in emergency situations. Applying what has been learned from the behavior of the mass media in past crises, the authors clearly show the central role of communications on September 11. They establish how people learned of the tragedy and how they responded; examine the effects of media globalization on terrorism; and, in many cases, give specific advice for the future.
Chapter 1 Foreword Chapter 2 Preface Chapter 3 Introduction Chapter 4 The Functions and Uses of Media during the September 11 Crisis and Its Aftermath Chapter 5 Diffusion of News of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks Chapter 6 Civic Actions after September 11: A Communication Infrastructure Perspective Chapter 7 Communication during the World Trade Center Disaster: Causes of Failure, Lessons, Recommendations Chapter 8 Response, Restoration, and Recovery: September 11 and New York City's Digital Networks Chapter 9 The Social Dynamics of Wireless on September 11: Reconfiguring Access Chapter 10 The Telephone as a Medium of Faith, Hope, Terror, and Redemption: America, September 11 Chapter 11 A Content Analysis of American Network Newscasts before 9/11 Chapter 12 Something's Happened: Fictional Media as a Recovery Mechanism Chapter 13 September 11 in Germany and the United States: Reporting, Reception, and Interpretation Chapter 14 The Internet as a News Medium for the Crisis News of Terrorist Attacks in the United States Chapter 15 The Internet and the Demand for News: Macro- and Microevidence Chapter 16 History and September 11: A Comparison of Online and Network TV Discourses Chapter 17 From Disaster Marathon to Media Event: Live Television's Performance on September 11, 2001 and September 11, 2002 Chapter 18 Globalization Isn't New, and Antiglobalization Isn't Either: September 11 and the History of Nations Chapter 19 Is There a bin Laden in the Audience? Considering the Events of September 11 as a Possible Boomerang Effect of the Globalization of U.S. Mass Communication