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Critical Situations encourages the reader to identify “critical situations” in their communities, to develop rhetorical strategies for taking action in those situations, and to produce community-based writing projects.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321246530
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 11/8/2007
  • Series: Pearson English Value Textbook Series Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface: Using Critical Situations

Part I. Motivated Rhetorical Choices

Chapter 1: Context is Critical: Situations of Rhetoric

On the Bus

Key Concepts and Procedures

Communication and Commitment


Critical Situation

Talk / Read / Write

Rhetorical Invention

Talk / Read / Write

Introduction to the Invention Journal

About the Workshops

Introduction to the Case Studies

The Abolitionist Era

September 11, 2001

Student Projects

Talk / Read / Write

List of Works Cited

Workshops Recommended in this Chapter

Collaborating on Guidelines for the Project Workshop

Different Values and Respectful Conflict.

Chapter 2: Choosing an Issue

Commitment in Social Context

Commitment in Historical Context:

Trouble in Transit

Talk / Read / Write

Commitments Generated by September 11

Talk / Read / Write

From Commitment to Action: Mapping Community

Invention Journal: Your Community Map

Talk / Read / Write

Invention Journal: Further Mapping

Assessing Social and Rhetorical Conflict

Invention Journal: Finding Other Stakeholders on Your Map

No Perfect Maps: Dealing with Assumptions About Community

Talk / Read / Write

List of Works Cited

Workshops Recommended in this Chapter

Readers Responding

Summarizing Arguments, Ideas and Texts

What do You Want to Learn?

Different Values and Respectful Conflict

Reflecting on Your Own Commitments

Following a Thread: A Metaphor for Reading and Research

Working With the Writing Program Administrators Outcomes for First-Year Writing

Part II. Critical Questions: Reading, Research and Invention

Chapter 3: Asking the Right Questions

Finding the Point of Stasis

Talk / Read / Write

Invention Journal: Exploring Your Situation

Invention Journal: Finding Stasis in Your Critical Situation

Invention Journal:Working Through the Stasis Questions

An Abolitionist Example: Frederick Douglass on the Fourth of July

An Analysis of Douglass’s Use of the Four Questions

Invention Journal: Working Through the Questions

An Example from the Context of 9-11: Flight 77

Invention Journal: Composing a Proposal

List of Works Cited

Workshops Recommended in this Chapter

Chapter 4: Navigating Rhetorical Time

Student example of Rhetorical Timing

Ancient Thinking about Rhetorical Time

Invention and Rhetorical Time

Case Study Philadelphia’s “Late Awful Calamity” in 1793

Talk / Read / Write

Finding the Right Words at the Right Time

Stakeholder Arguments: Mapping the Rhetorical Moment

Invention Journal: Mapping Stakeholder Positions

Opportunities for Engagement

Invention Journal: Keeping a Rhetorical Calendar

Rhetorical Time as a Guide to Thinking about Audience

Invention Journal: The Right Audience at the Right Time

Framing with Related Issues

Invention Journal: Connecting to a Broader Sense of the Current Moment

Providing Your Audience with a Historical Frame of Reference

Invention Journal: Writing the History of a Critical Situation

List of Works Cited

Workshops Recommended in this Chapter

Different Values and Respectful Conflict

Readers Responding

Following a Thread–A Metaphor for Reading and Research

Finding Access: Publishing Your Work

Chapter 5: Exploring the Common Sense of the Community

Introduction to the Commonplaces with Contemporary Examples

Talk / Read / Write

Commonplaces and Ideology

Talk / Read / Write

Case Study: Is There an American Ideology

Talk / Read / Write

Claiming Contested Commonplaces

Talk / Read / Write

Arguing Through the Commonplaces

Invention Journal: Mapping Ideological Conflict

Commonplaces, Ideology, and Audience

Invention Journal: Judging the Common Sense of Your Audience

Invention Journal: Adapting Contesting Commonplaces

Commonplaces and the Voice of Historical Authority

Invention Journal: Arguing Using Historical Commonplaces

The Power of Images in Commonplace Arguments

Invention Journal: Seeing and Believing

List of Works Cited

Workshops Recommended in this Chapter

Different Values and Respectful Conflict

Following a Thread: A Metaphor for Research and Writing

Gathering Information through Interviews

Chapter 6: Establishing Credibility: Inventing Ethos

Introduction to Ethos Through the Example of Sojourner Truth

Talk / Read / Write

Situated and Invented Ethos

Situated Ethos

Invention Journal: Starting Where You Are

Invented Ethos

Demonstrating Intelligence by Doing the Homework

Invention Journal

Establishing Good Character

Invention Journal: The Right Character

Achieving Good Will

Invention Journal: Inventing Good Will

Talk / Read / Write

Voice and Rhetorical Distance

Talk / Read / Write

Invention Journal: Establishing an Ethical Relationship to Audience

List of Works Cited

Workshops Recommended in this Chapter

Finding Knowledgeable Readers Outside of Class

Chapter 7: Reason and Argument

Introduction to Types of Reasoning

Talk / Read / Write

Logic on the Ground Circa 1866

Getting Our Terms Straight: Conclusions, Claims and Thesis Statements

Enthymemes: Choosing the Right Premises

Defending Premises

Talk / Read / Write

Invention Journal: Enthymematic Connections to Audience

Deduction: Reasoning from the General to the Particular

Talk / Read / Write

Invention Journal: Crafting Deductive Lines of Reasoning

Induction: Reasoning from the Particular to the General

Invention Journal: Crafting Inductive Lines of Reasoning

Analogy: Reasoning by Means of Comparison

Invention Journal: Finding the Right Analogies

Rhetorical Examples: Make Your Reasoning Specific

Invention Journal: Examples that Persuade

Images and Reasoning

Invention Journal: Reasoning Through Images

List of Works Cited

Workshops Recommended in this Chapter

Different Values and Respectful Conflict

Readers Responding

Summarizing, Arguments, Ideas, and Texts

Chapter 8: In the Gut: Argument and Emotion

Introduction to Emotional Argument through the Example of 9-11

Emotions are Not Irrational

Talk / Read / Write

Case Study: In Defense of Abolitionist Passions

Talk / Read / Write

Development Emotional Arguments

Invention Journal: Words that Move Us

Invention Journal: Your Own Emotional Connections

Taking the Pulse of Stakeholders

Invention Journal: Mapping the Emotional Landscape of Your Critical Situation

Emphasizing and De-Emphasizing Emotional Connections

Invention Journal: Questions of Emphasis

Setting Emotional Tone

Invention Journal: Honorific and Disparaging Language

Visual Rhetoric and Emotional Appeal

Invention Journal: Cataloging Powerful Images

List of Works Cited

Workshops Recommended in this Chapter

Ethics of Using Emotional Appeals

Following a Thread–A Metaphor for Reading and Research

Chapter 9: Critical Information: Using Evidence

Introduction to Evidence Use

Case Study: Evidence of Terror

Talk / Read / Write

Case Study: Who Were The Hijackers?

Talk / Read / Write

Personal Observation and Experience

Invention Journal: When is your Own Perspective Persuasive?

Authoritative Testimony

Community Involvement

A Significant Stake in the Situation

Expert Status

Eyewitness Perspective

Talk / Read / Write

The Right Testimony at the Right Time

Invention Journal: Orchestrating Persuasive Voices

Using Statistics

Talk / Read / Write

The Right Statististics

Images as Evidence

Invention Journal: Choosing Images

Situating Evidence

Using a Variety of Evidence

Diversifying a Body of Evidence

Invention Journal: Evaluating Evidence

List of Works Cited

Workshops Recommended in this Chapter

Following a Thread: A Metaphor for Reading and Research

Gathering Evidence Through Interviews

Ethical Issues Using Evidence

Part III: Workshops

A. Agreeing on Workshop Guidelines

B. Arranging Your Argument

C. Different Values and Respectful Conflict

D. Ethics in Writing and Speaking Inventory

E. Ethics of Emotional Arguments

F. Ethics and the Use of Evidence

G. Finding Access: Publishing Your Work

H. Finding the Right Voice

I. Following a Thread: A Metaphor for Research

J. Gathering Information through Interviews

K. Organizing a Classroom Debate

L. Putting Together a Portfolio of your Invention Work

M. Readers Responding

N. Reflecting on Your Commitments

O. Revising for Clarity

P. Summarizing Arguments, Ideas and Texts

Q. What are your Collaborative Habits?

R. What Do You Want to Learn about Composition?


IV. Reading Room: A Collection of Works Referenced in Critical Situations

Richard Allen and Absalom Jones, “A Narrative of the Proceedings of the Black People During the Late Awful Calamity in Philadelphia”

President George Bush, State of Union, 2001

Frederick Douglass, “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?”

William Lloyd Garrison, “To the Public”

Norman Mailer, from Why We Are At War

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, “One Great Bundle of Humanity”

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, “Could We Trace the Record of Every Human Heart,”

Heather Johnson (student), Letter to the New York Times

Wendell Phillips, “The Philosophy of Abolitionism”

Sojourner Truth, “Aren’t I a Woman?”

Ida B. Wells from A Red Record

Howard Zinn, from Declarations of Independence

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