Critical Success Factors in Biomedical Research and Pharmaceutical Innovation: The joint impact of management control and contingencies on performance and effectiveness in research laboratories in medical faculties, health research institutes / Edition 1by S.W. Omta
Pub. Date: 05/31/1995
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Is talent the only key to scientific success? In fact, the answer is: 'No'. Management and organisation do make a real, significant difference between success and failure in science. This book presents a clear survey of the critical success factors in biomedical research laboratories. Based on an international, comparative study of 71 research laboratories in
Is talent the only key to scientific success? In fact, the answer is: 'No'. Management and organisation do make a real, significant difference between success and failure in science. This book presents a clear survey of the critical success factors in biomedical research laboratories. Based on an international, comparative study of 71 research laboratories in medical faculties, large health research institutes and innovative pharmaceutical companies, ready-to-use guidelines are offered to those who are responsible for the management of research groups.
Dr. Omta is biochemist and has played a key role in the development of the EU Biotechnology Network. He has performed the comparative study for this book in the position of Managing Director of the Institute for Research in Extramural Medicine in Amsterdam. The author has recently been appointed as Associate Professor at the Faculty of Management and Organisation at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
This work is a unique guide for heads, professors, or managers of (biomedical) research laboratories in universities, research institutes and innovative pharmaceutical companies, who are seeking rational tools for increasing the performance and effectiveness of their research groups.
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Table of Contents
Section 1 Theory.- 1 Research methodology and study domain.- 1.1 The methodology of the study of management and organization.- 1.1.1 The trajectories of theory construction and theory application.- 1.1.2 The TC/TA matrix.- 1.2 Research questions and main hypothesis.- 1.3 Overview of previous studies.- 1.4 Classification of research and development.- 1.5 Industrial innovation.- 1.6 Research and development in the Netherlands.- 1.7 Biomedical research and pharmaceutical innovation.- 1.7.1 Universities.- 1.7.2 Institutes.- 1.7.3 Companies.- 1.8 Concluding remarks.- 2 Structure, behaviour and control.- 2.1 Description of systems.- 2.1.1 Systems and their environment.- 2.1.2 Tight versus loose coupling.- 2.2 Contingencies.- 2.3 Mintzberg’s typology of organizations.- 2.4 The systems theory of control.- 2.4.1 The requirements for effective control.- 2.4.2 Feedback and feedforward control.- 2.5 Universities and institutes.- 2.5.1 Mintzberg’s typology.- 2.5.2 Environmental and organizational constraints.- 2.5.3 Management control.- 2.6 Companies.- 2.6.1 Mintzberg’s typology.- 2.6.2 Environmental and organizational constraints.- 2.6.3 Management control.- 2.7 Concluding remarks.- 3 Structure, behaviour and control in research units.- 3.1 Organizational learning.- 3.2 Research as a value adding learning loop.- 3.2.1 The empirical cycle.- 3.2.2 Management control in the different phases of the empirical cycle.- 3.2.3 The learning loop as a model for organizational change.- 3.2.4 Industrial innovation as a system of value adding learning loops.- 3.3 The double unity cell.- 3.3.1 Universities and institutes.- 3.3.2 Companies.- 3.4 Concluding remarks.- Section 2 Design.- 4 Theory construction.- 4.1 The structure of theory.- 4.2 Theoretical constructs and hypotheses.- 4.3 The defined and empirical concepts.- 4.3.1 Management control.- 4.3.2 Contingencies.- 4.3.3 Performance and effectiveness.- 4.4 Check on completeness.- 4.5 Concluding remarks.- 5 Hypotheses.- 5.1 Management control.- 5.1.1 The objectives and goals.- 5.1.2 Profit versus not-for profit.- 5.1.3 Environmental and task uncertainty.- 5.2 The contingencies.- 5.2.1 Size, economies of scale and threshold level.- 5.2.2 Project size, programmatic homogeneity.- 5.2.3 Time-allocation, research versus clinical practice.- 5.2.4 Age, the life cycle concept.- 5.2.5 Power, internal versus external orientation.- 5.3 Different cross-sections in industry.- 5.3.1 Radical versus incremental orientation.- 5.3.2 Pure play pharmaceuticals versus conglomerates.- 5.3.3 Anglo-American versus continental European companies.- 5.4 Concluding remarks.- 6 Methods of data collection and study methodology.- 6.1 Instruments of data collection.- 6.1.1 Structured interviews and research questionnaires.- 6.1.2 Operational measures for performance and effectiveness.- 6.2 Reliability of instruments.- 6.3 Methods of data analysis.- 6.4 Study population.- 6.4.1 Representativeness of the study sample.- 6.4.2 Approach of study population.- 6.5 Concluding remarks.- Section 3 Results.- 7 Data collection.- 7.1 Response rate.- 7.2 Analysis of non-response.- 7.3 Representativeness.- 7.3.1 Performance and Effectiveness.- 7.3.2 Respondents.- 7.3.3 Unit head versus senior scientific staff.- 7.4 Reliability of instruments.- 7.4.1 The contingencies, and performance and effectiveness.- 7.4.2 Management control.- 7.5 Concluding remarks.- 8 Universities and institutes.- 8.1 Contingencies.- 8.1.1 Staffing structure and age distribution.- 8.1.2 Staffing structure and size.- 8.2 Management control.- 8.3 Performance and effectiveness.- 8.3.1 Size and research performance.- 8.3.2 Annual growth rate.- 8.4 Bivariate associations.- 8.5 Multivariate associations.- 8.6 Organizational level.- 8.7 Concluding remarks.- 9 Companies.- 9.1 Size, performance and effectiveness.- 9.2 Management control.- 9.2.1 Bivariate associations.- 9.2.2 Multivariate associations.- 9.3 Different cross-sections of the study sample.- 9.4 Concluding remarks.- Section 4 Discussion and Conclusions.- 10 Universities and institutes.- 10.1 High and low performers.- 10.2 Organizational level.- 10.3 Differences between universities and institutes.- 10.3.1 Citation score.- 10.4 Economies of scale, threshold level and programme homogeneity.- 10.5 Research and clinical practice.- 10.6 The life cycle concept and age distribution.- 10.7 Internal and external orientation.- 10.8 Customer orientation.- 10.9 Concluding remarks.- 11 Industrial pharmaceutical innovation.- 11.1 High and low performers.- 11.2 Economies of scale.- 11.3 Threshold level.- 11.4 Discovery versus development.- 11.5 Radical versus incremental orientation.- 11.6 Pure play pharmaceuticals and conglomerates.- 11.7 Anglo-American and continental European companies.- 11.8 Concluding remarks.- 12 General conclusions.- 12.1 The research questions.- 12.1.1 High and low performers.- 12.1.2 Comparison of the strata.- 12.2 Study evaluation.- 12.2.1 Strengths and weaknesses of the study design.- 12.2.2 Theory modification.- 12.2.3 Suggestions for further research.- 12.2.4 Theory application.- 12.3 Concluding remarks.- References.- Appendices (A to J).- A Research Questionnaires.- B General questions about R&D management.- C Operationalizations.- D Factor structures.- E Comparison of research units in universities and institutes.- F Spearman rank correlations in universities and institutes.- G Qualitative comparison of universities and institutes.- H Different cross-sections of the industrial study sample.- I Base-line description of the industrial study sample.
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