Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life / Edition 2

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Overview

Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life, Second Edition, approaches critical thinking as a process for taking charge of and responsibility for one's thinking. Based in theory developed over the last 25 years, the book focuses on an integrated, universal concept of critical thinking that is both substansive and practical; it fosters the development of basic intellectual skills students need to think through content in any class, subject, or discipline, as well as through any problem or issue they face. Simply stated, this text offers students the intellectual tools they need for a lifelong learning and rational, conscientious living.

Written by two of the leading experts in critical thinking, this second edition has all the strengths of the original edition plus two new chapters: one focusing on fallacies in thinking, and the other dealing with the problem of propaganda and bias in the mainstream news media.

Content highlights include:

  • Think For Yourself activities
  • A concrete yet substantive approach to multidisciplinary learning
  • Practical ways to analyze and evaluate reasoning
  • Emphasis on fair-minded critical thinking and ethical reasoning
  • Egocentric and sociocentric thought as primary barriers to critical thinking
  • Keys to lifelong learning, decision making, and problem solving
  • A global approach to developing the mind-its thought, desires, and emotions
  • Using information critically and ethically
  • Thinking strategically through problems and issues in everyday life

The authors' website provides students with valuable resources to enhance their development as thinkers. Find this at www.criticalthinking.org.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131149625
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 7/28/2005
  • Edition description: 2ND
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 544
  • Product dimensions: 7.58 (w) x 9.05 (h) x 1.15 (d)

Meet the Author

DR. RICHARD W. PAUL is Director of Research and Professional Development at the Center for Critical Thinking and the Chair of the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking. He has authored eight books and more than 200 articles on critical thinking. In over 35 years of teaching experience, he has won numerous awards and honors, including Distinguished Perry Lecturer for the year 2000.

DR. LINDA ELDER is an educational psychologist, President for the Foundation for Critical Thinking, and Executive Director of the Center for Critical Thinking. She is highly published and has done original research into the relation of thought and emotion. She is a regular keynoter at the International Conference on Critical Thinking and is a recognized leader in the field.

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Read an Excerpt

Whatever you are doing right now is determined by the way you are thinking. Whatever you feel—-all your emotions—- are determined by your thinking. Whatever you want—-all your desires—- are determined by your thinking. If your thinking is unrealistic, it will lead you to many disappointments. If your thinking is overly pessimistic, it will deny you due recognition of the many things in which you should properly rejoice.

Test this idea for yourself. Identify some examples of your strongest feelings or emotions. Then identify the thinking that is correlated with those examples. For example, if you feel excited about college, it is because you think that good things will happen to you in college. If you dread going to class, it is probably because you think it will be boring or too difficult.

In a similar way, if the quality of your life is not what you would wish it to be, it is most likely because it is tied to the way you think about your life. If you think about it positively, you will feel positively about it. If you think about it negatively, you will feel negative about it.

For example, suppose you came to college with the view that college was going to be a lot of fun and you were going to form good friendships with fellow students who would respect and like you and, what is more, that your love life would become interesting and exciting. And let's suppose that hasn't happened. If this were the thrust of your thinking, you now would feel disappointed and maybe even frustrated (depending on how negatively you have interpreted your experience).

For most people, thinking is subconscious, never explicitly put into words. For example, most people who think negatively would not say of themselves, "I have chosen to think about myself and my experience in a negative way. I prefer to be as unhappy as I can make myself."

The problem is that when you are not aware of your thinking, you have no chance of correcting it if it is poor. When thinking is subconscious, you are in no position to see any problems in it. And, if you don't see any problems in it, you won't be motivated to change it.

Since few people realize the powerful role that thinking plays in their lives, few gain significant command of it. Most people are in many ways victims of their thinking, that is, hurt rather than helped by it. Most people are their own worst enemy. Their thinking is a continual source of problems, preventing them from recognizing opportunities, keeping them from exerting energy where it will do the most good, poisoning relationships, and leading them down blind alleys.

Or consider your success as a student in college. The single most significant variable in determining that success is the quality of your thinking. If you think well when you study, you will study well. If you think well when you read, you will read well. If you think well when you write, you will write well. And if you study well, read well, and write well, you will do well in college. Certainly your instructors will play a role in your learning. Some of them will do a better job than others of helping you learn. But even the best teachers cannot get into your head and learn for you. Even the best teachers cannot think for you, read for you, or write for you. If you lack the intellectual skills necessary for thinking well through course content, you will not be successful in college.

Here is the key question we are putting to you in this book. If the quality of a person's thinking is the single most significant determinant of both their happiness and their success—-as it is—-why not discover the tools that the best thinkers use and take the time to learn to use them yourself? Perhaps you will not become proficient in all of them, but for every tool you learn there will be a payoff.

This book will alert you to the tools the best thinkers use and will exemplify the activities and practice you can use to begin to emulate them. You will then have your destiny as a thinker in your own hands. The only thing that will stand in your way of becoming a better and better thinker, is your own willingness to practice. Here are some of the qualities of the best thinkers.

The best thinkers think about their thinking. They do not take thinking for granted. They do not trust to fate to make them good in thinking. They notice their thinking.

They reflect on their thinking. They act upon their thinking.

The best thinkers are highly purposeful. They do not simply act. They know why they act. They know what they are about. They have clear goals and clear priorities. They continually check their activities for alignment with their goals.

The best thinkers have intellectual "tools" which they use to raise the quality of their thinking. They know how to express their thinking clearly. They know how to check it for accuracy and precision. They know how to keep focused on a question and make sure that it is relevant to their goals and purposes. They know how to think beneath the surface and how to expand their thinking to include insights from multiple perspectives. They know how to think logically and significantly.

The best thinkers distinguish their thoughts from their feelings, and desires. They know that wanting something to be so does not make it so. They know that one can be unjustifiably angry, afraid, or insecure. They do not let unexamined emotions determine their decisions. They have "discovered" their minds and they examine the way their minds operate as a result. They take deliberate charge of those operations. (Chapter 1)

The best thinkers routinely take thinking apart. They "analyze" thinking. They do not trust the mind to analyze itself automatically. They realize that the art of analyzing thinking is an art one must consciously learn. They realize that it takes knowledge (of the parts of thinking) and practice (in exercising control over them). (Chapter 2)

The best thinkers routinely evaluate thinking—-determining its strengths and weaknesses. They do not trust the mind to evaluate itself automatically. They realize that the automatic ways that the mind evaluates itself are inherently flawed. They realize that the art of evaluating thinking is an art one must consciously learn. They realize that it takes knowledge (of the universal standards for thinking) and practice (in exercising control over them).

This book, as a whole, introduces you to the tools of mind that will help you reason well through the problems and issues you face, whether in the classroom, in your personal life, in your professional life. If you take these ideas seriously, and practice using them, you can take command of the thinking that ultimately will command the quality of your life.

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Table of Contents

Introduction

A Start-up Definition of Critical Thinking

How Skilled Are You as a Thinker?

Good Thinking Requires Hard Work

The Concept of Critical Thinking

Become a Critic of Your Thinking

Establish New Habits of Thought

Develop Confidence in Your Ability to Reason and Figure Things Out

1. Becoming a Fair-minded Thinker.

Weak vs. Strong Critical Thinking

What Does Fair-Mindedness Require?

Intellectual Humility: Strive to Discover the Extent of Their Ignorance

Intellectual Courage: Develop the Courage to Challenge Popular Beliefs

Intellectual Empathy: Learn to Empathically Enter Opposing Views

Intellectual Integrity: Hold Yourself to the Same Standards to Which They Hold Others

Intellectual Perseverance: Refuse to Give Up Easily, Work Your Way through Complexities and Frustration

Confidence in Reason: Respect Evidence and Reasoning and Value Them as Tools for Discovering the Truth

Intellectual Autonomy: Value Independence of Thought

Recognize the Interdependence of Intellectual Virtues

Conclusion

2. The First Four Stages of Development: At What Level Would You Place Yourself?

Stage One: The Unreflective Thinker

Stage Two: The Challenged Thinker

Stage Three: The Beginning Thinker

Stage Four: The Practicing Thinker

3. Self-Understanding.

Monitor the Egocentrism in Your Thought and Life

Make a Commitment to Fair-Mindedness

Recognize the Mind’s Three Distinctive Functions

Understand That You Have a Special Relationship to Your Mind

Connect Academic Subjects to Your Life and Problems

Learn Both Intellectually and Emotionally

4. The Parts of Thinking.

Reasoning Is Everywhere in Human Life

Reasoning Has Parts

A First Look at the Elements of Thought

An Everyday Example: Jack and Jill

Analysis of the Example

How the Parts of Thinking Fit Together

The Relationship between the Elements

The Best Thinkers Think to Some Purpose

The Best Thinkers Take Command of Concepts

The Best Thinkers Assess Information

Inert Information

Activated Ignorance

Activated Knowledge

The Best Thinkers Distinguish Between Inferences and Assumptions

The Best Thinkers Think through Implications

The Best Thinkers Think across Points of View

The Point of View of the Critical Thinker

Conclusion

5. The Standards for Thinking.

Taking a Deeper Look at Intellectual Standards

Clarity • Accuracy • Precision • Relevance • Depth • Breadth • Logicalness • Significance • Fairness

Bringing Together the Elements of Reasoning and the Intellectual Standards

Purpose, Goal, or End in View • Question at Issue or Problem to Be Solved • Point of View or Frame of Reference • Information, Data, Experiences • Concepts, Theories, Ideas • Assumptions • Implications and Consequences • Inferences

Brief Guidelines for Using Intellectual Standards

6. Asking Questions That Lead to Good Thinking.

The Importance of Questioning

Dead Questions Reflect Inert Minds

Three Categories of Questions

Become a Socratic Questioner

Focus Your Thinking on the Type of Question Being Asked • Focus Your Questions on Universal Intellectual Standards for Thought • Focus Your Questions on the Elements of Thought • Focus Your Questions on Prior Questions • Focus Your Questions on Domains of Thinking

Conclusion

7. Master the Thinking, Master the Content.

Go Beyond Superficial Memorization to Deep Learning

The Relation of Content to Thinking

Understand Content through Thinking and Thinking through Content

All Content is Organized by Concepts

All Content is Logically Interdependent

Think Through Your Classes Using Your Knowledge of Thinking

A Caution

8. Discover How the Best Thinkers Learn.

18 Ideas for Improving Your Studies

The Logic of a Typical College Class

Becoming a Skilled Thinker

The Design of a Typical College Class and the Typical College Student

Figure Out the Underlying Concept of Your Courses

Figure Out the Form of Thinking Essential to Courses or Subjects

Think Within the Logic of the Subject

A Case: The Logic of Biochemistry

Make the Design of the Course Work for You

Sample Course: American History, 1600—1800

Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening, and Thinking

Figure Out the Logic of an Article or Essay

Figure Out the Logic of a Textbook

Criteria for Evaluating an Author’s Reasoning

A Test to Repeat in Every Class & Subject

9. Redefining Grades as Levels of Thinking and Learning.

Develop Strategies for Assessing Your Learning

Use Student Profiles to Assess Your Performance

Exemplary Students (Grade of A)

High Performing Students (Grade of B)

Mixed-Quality Students (Grade of C)

Low-Performing Students (Grade of D or F)

Apply Student Profiles to Assess Your Performance Within Specific Disciplines

Exemplary Thinking as a Student of Psychology(Grade of A)

High-Performing Thinking as a Student of Psychology(Grade of B)

Mixed-Quality Thinking as a Student of Psychology(Grade of C)

Low-Performing Thinking as a Student of Psychology(Grade of D or F)

Conclusion

10. Making Decisions and Solving Problems.

PART I: MAKING DECISIONS

Evaluating Patterns in Decision-Making

“Big” Decisions

The Logic of Decision-Making

Recognizing the Need for an Important Decision • Accurately Recognizing the Alternatives • Putting More Time into Your Decision-Making • Being Systematic • Dealing with One Major Decision at a Time • Developing Knowledge of Your Ignorance

Dimensions of Decision-Making

The Early Decisions (2—11 Years of Age)

Adolescent Decisions (12—17 Years of Age)

Conclusion

PART II: SOLVING PROBLEMS

Becoming an Activist Problem-Solver

Evaluating Patterns in Your Problem-Solving

Dissolving Pseudo-Problems

False Needs and Irrational Ends

“Big” Problems

Dimensions of Problem-Solving

Avoiding the Pitfalls of Problem-Solving

Analyze Problems Using the Elements of Thought

The Art of Problem-Solving

11 Deal With Your Irrational Mind.

PART I: TAKE CHARGE OF YOUR EGOCENTRIC NATURE.

Understand Egocentric Thinking

Understand Egocentrism as a Mind within the Mind

Successful Egocentric Thinking

Unsuccessful Egocentric Thinking

Rational Thinking

Two Egocentric Functions

Egocentric Domination

Egocentric Submission

Pathological Tendencies of the Human Mind

Challenge the Pathological Tendencies of Your Minds

The Challenge of Rationality

PART II: TAKE CHARGE OF YOUR SOCIOCENTRIC THINKING.

The Nature of Sociocentrism

Social Stratification

Sociocentric Thinking Is Unconscious and Potentially Dangerous

Sociocentric Uses of Language

Disclose Sociocentric Thinking through Conceptual Analysis

Reveal Ideology at Work through Conceptual Analysis

Conclusion:

Work to Free Yourself from Egocentric and Sociocentric Thought

12. How to Detect Media Bias and Propaganda in National and World News.

Democracy and the News Media

Myths That Obscure the Logic of the News Media

Objectivity in the News Media

Point of View

Forms of Objectivity

The Perception of Bias in the Mainstream

Propaganda and News Story Writing

Protecting the Home Audience from Guilt Feelings

Fostering Sociocentric Thinking

Slanting Stories to Favor Privileged Views

How to Obtain Useful Information from Propaganda and Standard News Stories

Steps in Becoming a Critical Consumer of the “News”

Media Awareness of Media Bias

Sensitivity to Advertisers

Sensitivity to Government

Sensitivity to Powerful Interests

Sensitivity to Their Competitors

The Bias toward “Novelty” and “Sensationalism”

Critical Consumers of the News

Questions for the News Media

Is It Possible for the News Media to Reform?

Is the Emergence of a “Critical Society” Possible?

Finding Alternative Sources of Information

Becoming an Independent Thinker

Buried, Ignored, or Underreported Stories

Using the Internet

Additional Alternative News Sources

Conclusion

An Abbreviated Glossary

13. Fallacies: The Art of Mental Trickery & Manipulation.

Truth & Deception in the Human Mind

Three Types of Thinkers

Uncritical Persons (intellectually unskilled thinkers)

Skilled Manipulators (weak-sense critical thinkers)

Fair-minded Critical Persons (strong-sense critical thinkers)

The Concept of Fallacies of Thought

Naming Fallacies

Mistakes Versus Fallacies

There is No Exhaustive List of Fallacies

Faulty Generalizations

Analyzing Generalizations

Post Hoc Generalizations

Analogies and Metaphors

44 Foul Ways to Win an Argument

Accuse Your Opponent of Doing What He is Accusing You of or worse

Accuse Him of Sliding down A Slippery Slope (that leads to disaster)

Appeal to Authority

Appeal to Experience

Appeal to Fear

Appeal to Pity (or sympathy)

Appeal to Popular Passions

Appeal to Tradition or Faith (“the tried and true”)

Assume a Posture of Righteousness

Attack the person (and not the argument)

Beg the Question

Call for Perfection (Demand impossible conditions)

Create a False Dilemma (the Great Either/Or)

Devise Analogies (and Metaphors) That Support Your View (even if they are misleading or “false”).

Question Your Opponent’s Conclusions

Create Misgivings: Where There’s Smoke, There’s Fire

Create A Straw Man

Deny or Defend Your Inconsistencies

Demonize His Side Sanitize Yours

Evade Questions, Gracefully

Flatter Your Audience

Hedge What You Say

Ignore the Evidence

Ignore the Main Point

Attack Evidence (That Undermines Your Case)

Insist Loudly on a Minor Point Use the Hard-Cruel-World Argument (to justify doing what is usually considered unethical).

Make (Sweeping) Glittering Generalizations

Make Much of Any Inconsistencies in Your Opponent’s Position

Make Your Opponent Look Ridiculous (“Lost in the Laugh”)

Oversimplify the Issue

Raise Nothing But Objections

Rewrite History (Have It Your Way)

Seek Your Vested Interests

Shift the Ground.

Shift the Burden of Proof

Spin, Spin, Spin

Talk in Vague Generalities.

Talk Double Talk Tell Big Lies Treat Abstract Words and Symbols As If They Were Real Things

Throw In A Red Herring (or two)

Throw in Some Statistics

Use Double Standards (whenever you can)

Fallacy Detection: Analyzing a Speech from the Past

Fallacy Detection: Analyzing a Current Presidential Speech

Fallacy Detection: Analyzing a Speech from a Presidential Candidate

Avoid Two Extremes: 1) Finding Fallacies Only in the Thinking of Others (None in Yourself), and 2) Finding an Equal Number of Fallacies in Everything you Read. Conclusion: Fallacies in an Ideal (And in a Real) World

14. Developing as an Ethical Reasoner.

Why People Are Confused About Ethics

The Fundamentals of Ethical Reasoning

Ethical Concepts and Principles • The Universal Nature of Ethical Principles • Distinguishing Ethics from Other Domains of Thinking • Ethics and Religion • Ethics and Social Conventions • Ethics and the Law • Ethics and Sexual Taboos • Understanding Our Native Selfishness

Conclusion

15. Learning & Using Information Critically & Ethically, Part One: A Critique of Disciplines

The Ideal of Knowledge Acquisition

True Loyalty to a Discipline

The Gap between Fact and Ideal

The Ideal Compared to the Real

The Ideal of Mathematics: Abstract Quantification

The Ideal of Science: Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, Geology, Biology

The Ideal of Science: History, Sociology, Anthropology, Economics, Psychology

The Ideal of the Arts and Humanities: Music, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Dance, Literature, Philosophy

Conclusion

16. Learning & Using Information Critically & Ethically, Part Two: The Method & a Model Case

Realistic Understanding

Be a Critic, Not a Cynic

Recognize the Mental Nature of Knowledge

Develop Awareness of the Harm from Misuse of Information

Question Academic and “Expert” Information

Question the Status of Knowledge in a Field

A Model Case: Questioning Psychology and the Mental Health Professions

The Milligram Experiment

Scientific Studies in the Psychology

A Dark Side of the Mental Health Professions

Legitimizing Deeply Held Social Beliefs

Questioning “Psychotherapy”

Learning from Suspect Claims of Psychology and the Mental Health Professions

Thinking Psychologically: A Postscript

17. Strategic Thinking, Part One.

Understanding and Using Strategic Thinking

Components of Strategic Thinking

The Beginnings of Strategic Thinking

Key Idea 1 Thoughts, Feelings, and Desires are Interdependent

Key Idea 2 There Is a Logic to This, and You Can Figure It Out

Key Idea 3 For Thinking to Be of High Quality, We Must Routinely Assess It

18. Strategic Thinking, Part Two.

Key Idea 4 Understanding Our Native Egocentrism as a Default Mechanism

Key Idea 5 We Must Become Sensitive to the Egocentrism of Those around Us

Key Idea 6 The Mind Tends to Generalize Beyond the Original Experience

Key Idea 7 Egocentric Thinking Appears to the Mind as Rational

Key Idea 8 The Egocentric Mind Is Automatic in Nature

Key Idea 9 We Often Pursue Power Through Dominating or Submissive Behavior

Key Idea 10 Humans Are Naturally Sociocentric Animals

Key Idea 11 Developing Rationality Requires Work

Conclusion

19. Becoming an Advanced Thinker.

Practicing Skilled Thinking

Stage Five: Reaching the Advanced Stage of Development

Stage Six: Becoming a Master Thinker

Qualities of Mind of a Master Thinker

The Ideal Thinker

APPENDICES

A. Critical Questions About Critical Thinking

B. Sample Analyses of “The Logic of . . .”

C Article: “Iraq Is a Pediatrician’s Hell: No Way to Stop the Dying”

Glossary

References

Index

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Preface

Whatever you are doing right now is determined by the way you are thinking. Whatever you feel---all your emotions--- are determined by your thinking. Whatever you want---all your desires--- are determined by your thinking. If your thinking is unrealistic, it will lead you to many disappointments. If your thinking is overly pessimistic, it will deny you due recognition of the many things in which you should properly rejoice.

Test this idea for yourself. Identify some examples of your strongest feelings or emotions. Then identify the thinking that is correlated with those examples. For example, if you feel excited about college, it is because you think that good things will happen to you in college. If you dread going to class, it is probably because you think it will be boring or too difficult.

In a similar way, if the quality of your life is not what you would wish it to be, it is most likely because it is tied to the way you think about your life. If you think about it positively, you will feel positively about it. If you think about it negatively, you will feel negative about it.

For example, suppose you came to college with the view that college was going to be a lot of fun and you were going to form good friendships with fellow students who would respect and like you and, what is more, that your love life would become interesting and exciting. And let's suppose that hasn't happened. If this were the thrust of your thinking, you now would feel disappointed and maybe even frustrated (depending on how negatively you have interpreted your experience).

For most people, thinking is subconscious, never explicitly put into words. For example, most people who think negatively would not say of themselves, "I have chosen to think about myself and my experience in a negative way. I prefer to be as unhappy as I can make myself."

The problem is that when you are not aware of your thinking, you have no chance of correcting it if it is poor. When thinking is subconscious, you are in no position to see any problems in it. And, if you don't see any problems in it, you won't be motivated to change it.

Since few people realize the powerful role that thinking plays in their lives, few gain significant command of it. Most people are in many ways victims of their thinking, that is, hurt rather than helped by it. Most people are their own worst enemy. Their thinking is a continual source of problems, preventing them from recognizing opportunities, keeping them from exerting energy where it will do the most good, poisoning relationships, and leading them down blind alleys.

Or consider your success as a student in college. The single most significant variable in determining that success is the quality of your thinking. If you think well when you study, you will study well. If you think well when you read, you will read well. If you think well when you write, you will write well. And if you study well, read well, and write well, you will do well in college. Certainly your instructors will play a role in your learning. Some of them will do a better job than others of helping you learn. But even the best teachers cannot get into your head and learn for you. Even the best teachers cannot think for you, read for you, or write for you. If you lack the intellectual skills necessary for thinking well through course content, you will not be successful in college.

Here is the key question we are putting to you in this book. If the quality of a person's thinking is the single most significant determinant of both their happiness and their success---as it is---why not discover the tools that the best thinkers use and take the time to learn to use them yourself? Perhaps you will not become proficient in all of them, but for every tool you learn there will be a payoff.

This book will alert you to the tools the best thinkers use and will exemplify the activities and practice you can use to begin to emulate them. You will then have your destiny as a thinker in your own hands. The only thing that will stand in your way of becoming a better and better thinker, is your own willingness to practice. Here are some of the qualities of the best thinkers.

The best thinkers think about their thinking. They do not take thinking for granted. They do not trust to fate to make them good in thinking. They notice their thinking.

They reflect on their thinking. They act upon their thinking.

The best thinkers are highly purposeful. They do not simply act. They know why they act. They know what they are about. They have clear goals and clear priorities. They continually check their activities for alignment with their goals.

The best thinkers have intellectual "tools" which they use to raise the quality of their thinking. They know how to express their thinking clearly. They know how to check it for accuracy and precision. They know how to keep focused on a question and make sure that it is relevant to their goals and purposes. They know how to think beneath the surface and how to expand their thinking to include insights from multiple perspectives. They know how to think logically and significantly.

The best thinkers distinguish their thoughts from their feelings, and desires. They know that wanting something to be so does not make it so. They know that one can be unjustifiably angry, afraid, or insecure. They do not let unexamined emotions determine their decisions. They have "discovered" their minds and they examine the way their minds operate as a result. They take deliberate charge of those operations. (Chapter 1)

The best thinkers routinely take thinking apart. They "analyze" thinking. They do not trust the mind to analyze itself automatically. They realize that the art of analyzing thinking is an art one must consciously learn. They realize that it takes knowledge (of the parts of thinking) and practice (in exercising control over them). (Chapter 2)

The best thinkers routinely evaluate thinking---determining its strengths and weaknesses. They do not trust the mind to evaluate itself automatically. They realize that the automatic ways that the mind evaluates itself are inherently flawed. They realize that the art of evaluating thinking is an art one must consciously learn. They realize that it takes knowledge (of the universal standards for thinking) and practice (in exercising control over them).

This book, as a whole, introduces you to the tools of mind that will help you reason well through the problems and issues you face, whether in the classroom, in your personal life, in your professional life. If you take these ideas seriously, and practice using them, you can take command of the thinking that ultimately will command the quality of your life.

Read More Show Less

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 13, 2006

    Critical Failure

    This book doesn't teach Critical Thinking, unless to think critically means that you are willing to only think about things from an ultra left point of view. Chapter 12 has nothing but Anti-American propoganda, one of the things this book says it wants to do away with. Not a single point of view or listed 'outside the box' author is from a conservative, or even moderate background. I gave it a 1 star because they didn't offer me the choice of negative stars.

    30 out of 54 people found this review helpful.

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