Critical Thinking / Edition 9

Critical Thinking / Edition 9

by Brooke Noel Moore
     
 

This popular text integrates logic, both formal and informal, with useful skill and topics for making sound decisions about claims, actions, and practices.See more details below

Overview

This popular text integrates logic, both formal and informal, with useful skill and topics for making sound decisions about claims, actions, and practices.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780071280419
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Education
Publication date:
08/28/2008

Table of Contents

Preface

PART 1. INTRODUCTION

1. What Is Critical Thinking?
Claims and Critical Thinking
Issues and Arguments
Identifying the Issue
Settling an Issue Through Argument
Facts and Opinions
Objective and Subjective Claims
"Everyone's Entitled . . ."
Beliefs, Opinions, Views, Convictions, Prejudices
A Note About Feelings

2. Critical Thinking and Clear Writing
Organization and Focus
Principles of Organization
Good Writing Practices
Essay Types to Avoid
Clarity in Writing
Defining Terms
Ambiguous Claims
Vague Claims
Claims That Make Comparisons
Persuasive Writing
Writing in a Diverse Society

PART II. CLAIMS

3. Evaluating Informative Claims
Assessing the Content of the Claim
Does the Claim Conflict with Our Personal Observations?
Does the Claim Conflict with Our Background Information?
Assessing the Credibility of the Source
Experts
The News Media
Reporting the News
Who Listens to the News?
The Internet

4. Persuasion Through Rhetoric
Rhetorical Devices and Techniques (Starters)
Euphemisms and Dysphemisms
Persuasive Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations
Stereotypes
Innuendo
Loaded questions
Weaselers
Downplayers
Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm
Hyperbole
Proof Surrogates
Advertising
Primates of the Miocene

5. More Rhetorical Devices
Smokescreen/Red Herring
The Subjectivist Fallacy
Appeal to Popularity (ad populum)
Common Practice
Peer Pressure
Bandwagon
Wishful Thinking
Scare Tactics
Appeal to Pity
Apple Polishing
Appeal to Anger or Indignation
Two Wrongs Make a Right

6. More Pseudoreasoning and Other Rhetorical Plays
Ad Hominem
Personal Attack
Circumstantial Ad Hominem
Pseudorefutation
Poisoning the Well
Genetic Fallacy
Burden of Proof
Straw Man
False Dilemma
Perfectionist Fallacy
Line-Drawing Fallacy
Slippery Slope
Begging the Question

7. Explanations
Explanations and Arguments
Explanations and Justifications
Kinds of Explanations
Physical Explanations
Behavioral Explanations
Functional Explanations
Spotting Weak Explanations
Testability
Noncircularity
Relevance
Freedom from Excessive Vagueness
Reliability
Explanatory Power
Freedom from Unnecessary Assumptions
Consistency with Well-Established Theory
Absence of Alternative Explanations
Explanatory Comparisons (Analogies)

PART III. ARGUMENTS

8. Understanding and Evaluating Arguments
The Anatomy of Arguments
Good and Bad, Valid and Invalid, Strong and Weak
Deduction and Induction
Unstated Premises
Identifying Unstated Premises
Techniques for Understanding Arguments
Clarifying an Argument's Structure
Distinguishing Arguments from Window Dressing
Evaluating Arguments
Do the Premises Support the Conclusion?
Are the Premises Reasonable?

9. Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic
Categorical Claims
Venn Diagrams
Translation into Standard Form
The Square of Opposition
Three Categorical Operations
Conversion
Obversion
Contraposition
Categorical Syllogisms
The Venn Diagram Method of Testing for Validity
Categorical Syllogisms with Unstated Premises
Real-Life Syllogisms
The Rules Method of Testing for Validity

10. Deductive Arguments II: Truth-Functional Logic
Truth Tables and the Truth-Functional Symbols
Claim Variables
Truth Tables
Symbolizing Compound Claims
Truth-Functional Arguments
Deductions
Group I Rules: Elementary Valid Argument Patterns
Group II Rules: Truth-Functional Equivalences
Conditional Proof

11. Inductive Arguments
Inductive Generalizations
Representativeness and Bias
Random Variation
Everyday Inductive Generalizations
The Two Key Questions We Should Ask of Any Inductive
Generalization
Analogical Arguments
Fallacies
Untrustworthy Polls
Playing by the Numbers

12. Causal Arguments
Causation Among Specific Events
Only-Relevant-Difference Reasoning
Only-Relevant-Common-Thread Reasoning
Common Mistakes Found in Causal Reasoning
Possible Mistakes in Relevant-Difference Reasoning
Possible Mistakes in Common-Thread Reasoning
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
Overlooking the Possibility of Coincidence
Questions to Ask About Causal Reasoning
Causation in Populations
Controlled Cause-to-Effect Experiments
Nonexperimental Effect-to-Cause Studies
Appeal to Anecdotal Evidence

13. Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning
Moral Reasoning
Descriptive and Prescriptive Moral Claims
Consistency and Fairness
Major Perspectives in Moral Reasoning
Moral Deliberation
Legal Reasoning
Legal Reasoning and Moral Reasoning Compared
Two Types of Legal Studies: Justifying Laws and Interpreting Laws
The Role of Precedent in Legal Reasoning
Aesthetic Reasoning
Eight Aesthetic Principles
Using Aesthetic Principles to Judge Aesthetic Value
Evaluating Aesthetic Criticism: Relevance and Truth
Why Reason Aesthetically?

Appendix 1: Conflicting Claims
Appendix 2: Analytic Claims
Appendix 3: Some Common Patterns of Deductive

Arguments
Glossary
Answers, Suggestions, and Tips for Triangle Exercises

Essays for Analysis

Selection 1: Cynthia Tucker, Death Penalty Has No Place in U.S.
Selection 2: Richard Parker, Hetero by Choice?
Selection 3: Bonnie and Clyde
Selection 4: EDWARD C. KRUG, Will Ozone Blob Devour the Earth?
Selection 5a: USA TODAY, Equal Treatment Is Real Issue—Not Marriage
Selection 5b: THE REV. LOUIS P. SHELDON, Gay Marriage "Unnatural"
Selection 6a: USA Today, Latest Ruling Is Good Scout Model
Selection 6b: Larry P. Arnn, Decision Assaults Freedom
Selection 7: Enterprise Record, Is God Part of Integrity?
Selection 8: DON EDWARDS, Shorten Federal Jail Time
Selection 9a: USA TODAY, Clean Needles Benefit Society
Selection 9b: PETER B. GEMMA JR., Programs Don't Make Sense
Selection 10a: USA TODAY, Make Fast Food Smoke-Free
Selection 10b: BRENNAN M. DAWSON, Don't Overreact to Smoke
Selection 11a: USA TODAY, Buying Notes Makes Sense at Lost-in-Crowd Campuses
Selection 11b: Buying or Selling Notes Is Wrong
Selection 12a: USA TODAY, Next, Comprehensive Reform of Gun Laws
Selection 12b: ALAN M. GOTTLIEB, Gun Laws Are No Answer
Selection 13a: USA TODAY, How Can School Prayer Possibly Hurt? Here's How
Selection 13b: ARMSTRONG WILLIAMS, We Need More Prayer
Selection 14: BARBARA EHRENREICH, Planet of the White Guys
Selection 15: JOANNE JACOBS, Do Women Really Need Affirmative Action?
Selection 16: FOCUS ON THE FAMILY, In Defense of a Little Virginity

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