I. INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS AND CRITICAL THINKING.
1. Introduction to Moral Theory.
2. Critical Thinking Tools.
II. REPRODUCTIVE ISSUES.
3. Surrogacy Contracts.
Opinion in the Matter of Baby M., Robert N. Wilentz. The Strange Case of Baby M., Katha Pollitt. When is a Mother not a Mother?, Katha Pollitt. Paternalism, Gerald Dworkin. Licensing Parents, Hugh LaFollette. Surrogate Motherhood as Prenatal Adoption, B. Steinbock. Surrogate Mothering: Exploitation or Empowerment?, Laura M. Purdy. The Case Against Surrogate Parenting, Herbert T. Krimmel.
Roe v. Wade, United States Supreme Court Decision. Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, Governor of Pennsylvania, United States Supreme Court Opinion. An Almost Absolute Value in History, J. Noonan. Why Abortion is Immoral, Don Marquis. On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion, Mary Anne Warren. Infanticide and the Liberal View on Abortion, Robert Card. Abortion: A Feminist Perspective, Susan Sherwin. A Defense of Abortion, JJ. Thomson. Abortion and the Concept of Person, Jane English. Abortion: A Moderate View, L.W. Sumner. For and Against: Should Abortions Late in Pregnancy Be Banned?, Sprang and Neerhof/Grimes.
III. LIFE, DEATH, AND MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY.
5. Ethical Issues at the End of Life.
Cruzan V. Director, Missouri Department of Health, Majority Opinion. Active and Passive Euthanasia, James Rachels. Active and Passive Euthanasia: An Impertinent Distinction?, Thomas D. Sullivan. More Impertinent Distinctions and a Defense of Active Euthanasia, James Rachels. Voluntary Active Euthanasia, D. Brock. When Self-Determination Runs Amok, D. Callahan. Euthanasia: Normal Medical Practice?, Welie and Have. Must Patients Always be Given Food and Water?, J. Childress and J. Lynn. Assisted Suicide is Not Voluntary Euthanasia, T. Howell and D. Watts. For and Against: Should Physicians Be Allowed to Assist in Patient Suicide?, Quill/Hendin. For and Against: Are Some Advance Directives Too Risky for Patients?, Ryan/Luttrell and Sommerville. Why I don't Have a Living Will, J. Lynn. Medical Futility: A Conceptual and Ethical Analysis, M. Wicclair. For and Against: Should Doctors Be Able to Refuse Demands for “Futile” Treatment?, Miles/Ackerman.
6. Genetics and Morality.
Genetics and Reproductive Risk: Can Having Children Be Immoral?, L. Purdy. Genetic Links, Family Ties, and Social Bonds: Rights and Responsibilities in the Face of Genetic Knowledge, R. Rhodes. Implications of Prenatal Diagnosis for the Right to Life, Leon R. Kass. Fatal Knowledge: Prenatal Diagnosis and Sex Selection, John C. Fletcher and Dorothy Wertz. Genetics and Human Malleability, French W. Anderson. Germ-Line Gene Therapy and the Medical Imperative, L. Davis and R. Munson. For and Against: Should Insurance Companies Have Access to Information from Genetic Testing?, American Council/Murray. Genetic Testing, Health Insurance, and Rawlsian Justice, R. Card. Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues Pro and Con, D. Brock. For and Against: Should Genes for Human Diseases Be Patented?, McGee/Merz and Cho.
IV. HIV, AIDS, AND THE PROVIDER/PATIENT RELATIONSHIP.
7. Ethics and HIV/AIDS.
How Society Should Respond to AIDS, R. Mohr. Harming, Wronging, and AIDS, B. Steinbock. Altruism, Self-Interest, and Medical Ethics, E. Pellegrino. AIDS and the Duty to Treat, John D. Arras. Decision in the Tarasoff Case, California Supreme Court. AIDS, Confidentiality, and the Right to Know, Morton E. Winston. Please Don't Tell!: A Case About HIV and Confidentiality, With Commentaries by L. Fleck and M. Angell. HIV Infections, Pregnant Women and Newborns: A Policy Proposal for Information and Testing, Working Group on HIV Testing of Pregnant Women and Newborns. Ethical Challenges Posed by Zidovudine Treatment to Reduce Vertical Transmission of HIV, R. Bayer.
8. The Relationship Between Medical Professionals and Patients.
Consent, Coercion, and Conflicts of Rights, R. Macklin. For and Against: Do Parents Harm Their Children When They Refuse Medical Treatment on Religious Grounds?, AAP/Sheldon. Opinion in Canterbury v. Spence, S.W.R. Robinson. Transparency: Informed Consent in Primary Care, Howard Brody, Standards of Competence, D. Brock and A. Buchanan. Who Decides, and What?, Tom Tomlinson. On Telling Patients the Truth, Roger Higgs. Hope, Howard Brody.
V. MEDICAL RESEARCH, ALLOCATION, AND JUSTICE.
9. Research on Human and Non-Human Subjects.
The Nuremberg Code. Declaration Helsinki, World Medical Association. Belmont Report. When Evil Intrudes (Legacy of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study), A. Caplan. Judgment on Willowbrook, P. Ramsey. Of Mice But Not Men: Problems of the Randomized Clinical Trial, D. Hellman and S. Hellman. A Response to a Purported Ethical Difficulty with Randomized Clinical Trials Involving Cancer Patients, B. Freedman. The Equipoise and the Ethics of Clinical Research, B. Freedman. The Ethics of Clinical Research in the Third World, M. Angell. Placebos and HIV: Lessons Learned, C. Levine. For and Against: Is Sham Surgery Ethically Acceptable in Clinical Research?, R. Macklin/T. Freedman. The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research, C. Cohen. The Responsible Use of Animals in Biomedical Research, E.C. Hettinger.
10. Allocation of Medical Resources and Justice Issues in Health Care Systems.
The Allocation of Exotic Medical Lifesaving Therapy,N. Rescher. The Prostitute, the Playboy, and the Poet: Rationing Schemes for Organ Transplantation, G. Annas. Alcoholics and Liver Transplantation,M. Benjamin, C. Cohen, et.al. Just Caring: Managed Care and Protease Inhibitors,L. Fleck. Aging and the Ends of Medicine,D. Callahan. Spare the Old, Save the Young,A. Etzioni. Why Saying No to Patients in the United States is So Hard, N. Daniels. The Doctor as Double Agent,M. Angell. To Err is Human, Institute of Medicine,M. Donaldson, J. Corrigan and L. Kohn. Institutional Responses to Medical Mistakes: Ethical and Legal Perspectives,A. Thurman. Honestly, Do We Need a Policy of Truth?, M. DeVita. Guidelines for Disclosure and Discussion of Conditions and Events with Patients, Families, and Guardians, UPMC. Risk Management: Extreme Honesty May Be the Best Policy, G. Hamm and S. Kraman.