Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications / Edition 5

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Dynamic author team provides comprehensive overview with focus on critical-thinking The fifth edition continues a heavy focus on applying critical thinking framework in examining, analyzing, and evaluating psychological data. With significant rewriting and additional new topics, updated references on new research, and MySearchLab with an interactive eText, Cross-Cultural Psychology keeps pace with the rapidly changing conditions of modern times. The dynamic team from two different worlds bring a unique set of experiences and perceptions in writing this book. Eric Shiraev was raised in the city of Leningrad in the former Soviet Union and David Levy is from Southern California,. Between the diverse backgrounds and having each author spent an extended period teaching in the other's home country, the authors provide a comprehensive review of theories and research in cross-cultural psychology. Learning Goals Upon completing this book, readers should be able to: Better understand the field of cross-cultural psychology Understand contemporary theories and research in cross-cultural psychology Use critical thinking to examine, analyze, and evaluate the field of cross-cultural psychology Assist current and future practitioners from a wide variety of fields and services

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

“The strongest feature of the textbook is the integration of critical thinking and analysis throughout the text. The authors do a great job of weaving this element into every chapter. This is an extremely important skill to emphasize for students of cross-cultural psychology and this textbook would definitely help students to develop this mode of thinking. “

- Jessica Dennis, California State University, Los Angeles

“Many texts have critical thinking boxes which simply give lip service to that aspect of learning, but the authors have set aside an entire chapter for this topic. Well done! The concept of the exercises also set this text apart from others I have seen and used”

- Jed Griswold, Dean College

Great combination of theoretical coverage and realistic examples. Love all the quotes, Critical thinking and A Case in Point sections!”

- Maria Coy, Colby-Sawyer College

“The text does a superb job overall of delineating the cross cultural similarities and differences of most facets of psychology throughout the world.”

- L. Kevin Chapman, University of Louisville

“The authors provide both the essence and substance of cross-cultural psychology in this text. It is by far one of the more insightful and well researched texts on cross-cultural psychology. The authors' writing style tends to engage and keep students interested in the topic. The authors' emphasis on critical thinking is also important in laying a foundation for the study of cross-cultural psychology and research. It is therefore not only a great text for students, but also a trustworthy resource for instructors”

- Corrinne Lim-Kessler, Monmouth College

The text blends explanations of the theoretical with the ‘applied’ and challenges students to think about the way life (e.g., literature, politics, religion, etc.) creates our science.”

- Belinda Ramos, Chandler Gilbert Community College

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205253234
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/19/2012
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 400
  • Sales rank: 96,063
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Eric Shiraev is a professor, researcher, and author. He took his academic degrees at St. Petersburg University in Russia and completed a post-doctoral program in the United States at UCLA. He served at various positions at St. Petersburg University, NVCC, Oregon State University, George Washington University, and George Mason University. His research interests are diverse. He is an author, co-author, and co-editor of twelve books and numerous publications in the fields of global studies, history of science, cross-cultural studies, and political psychology. In his publications, he develops a distinct multi-disciplinary approach to analyze human behavior. Besides teaching and scholarly work, Eric Shiraev writes opinion essays for the media around the world. He resides near Washington DC. Visit his site:

Dr. David A. Levy has extensive experience as a teacher, therapist, writer, and researcher. He is Professor of Psychology at Pepperdine University's Graduate School of Education and Psychology, where he has been teaching graduate courses since 1986. He received his B.A. degree in theater arts from UCLA, a M.A. degree in psychology from Pepperdine University, a second M.A. degree in psychology from UCLA, and his Ph.D. in psychology from UCLA, where he specialized in social psychology, with minors in psychological assessment and personality psychology. He served as Visiting Professor of Psychology in the Soviet Union, where he delivered lectures and workshops in psychology and psychotherapy at Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) State University, the Leningrad Academy of Science, and the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Institute. He was honored as a Harriet and Charles Luckman Distinguished Teaching Fellow at Pepperdine, and was a recipient of the Shepard Ivory Franz Distinguished Teaching Award and Charles F. Scott Fellowship at UCLA. Dr. Levy holds professional licenses both in psychology and in marriage and family therapy. He has worked in a wide range of private practice and inpatient psychiatric settings, he has supervised clinical interns, and he has utilized his expertise in psychological testing (particularly the MMPI) in forensic cases.

His numerous theoretical and empirical research studies have been published in scientific journals and presented at professional conferences. His book, "Tools of Critical Thinking: Metathoughts for Psychology," garnered widespread acclaim in both academic and clinical settings for its innovative approaches to improving thinking skills. Levy co-authored (with Eric Shiraev) "Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications," which became an internationally best-selling textbook. Levy is the author of "Family Therapy: History, Theory, and Practice," which was the first textbook on the topic available to Russian readers. His Levy Optimism-Pessimism Scale (LOPS) has been utilized internationally in a variety of research contexts, and he is a member of the Board of Editors for the Journal of Humanistic Psychology.

Levy is also the author of numerous satirical articles, including "The Emperor's Postmodern Clothes: A Brief Guide to Deconstructing Academically Fashionable Phrases for the Uninitiated," "How to Be a Good Psychotherapy Patient," "Psychometric Infallibility Realized: The One-Size-Fits-All Psychological Profile," "Stinks and Instincts: An Empirical Investigation of Freud's Excreta Theory," and "A Proposed Category for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): Pervasive Labeling Disorder."

As a media consultant, Levy has appeared on dozens television and radio broadcasts (including CNN, CBS, NBC, PBS, A&E, and E!), providing psychological perspectives on current events, and examining issues and trends in the mental health fields. He has also worked as a professional director, producer, writer and actor in motion pictures, television and stage. He received an Emmy nomination for Outstanding Performance in a Network Television Series, and he was a guest star on the television series "Cheers," where he portrayed the leader of Frasier's low self-esteem group.

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Table of Contents

Found in this Section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychology

Chapter 2 Methodology of Cross-Cultural Research

Chapter 3 Critical Thinking in Cross-Cultural Psychology

Chapter 4 Cognition: Sensation, Perception, and States of Consciousness

Chapter 5 Intelligence

Chapter 6 Emotion

Chapter 7 Motivation and Behavior

Chapter 8 Human Development and Socialization

Chapter 9 Psychological Disorders

Chapter 10 Social Perception and Social Cognition

Chapter 11 Social Interaction

Chapter 12 Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology: Some Highlights


Chapter 1: Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychology

What Is Cross-Cultural Psychology?

Basic Definitions

Cultural Traditionalism

Empirical Examination of Culture

Collectivism and Individualism: Further Research

Cultural Syndromes

Evolutionary Approach

Sociological Approach

Ecocultural Approach

The Cultural Mixtures Approach

The Integrative Approach: A Summary

Indigenous Psychology



A Brief History of the Field

Chapter 2: Methodology of Cross-Cultural Research

Goals of Cross-Cultural Research

Quantitative Research in Cross-Cultural Psychology

Quantitative Approach: Measurement Scales

Quantitative Approach: Looking for Links and Differences

Qualitative Approach in Cross-Cultural Psychology

Major Steps for Preparation of a Cross-Cultural Study

Sample Selection

Observation in Cross-Cultural Psychology

Survey Methods

Experimental Studies


Focus-Group Methodology

Meta-Analysis: Research of Research

A Hidden Obstacle of Cross-Cultural Studies: Test Translation

Comparing Two Phenomena: Some Important Principles

On Similarities and Differences: Some Critical Thinking Applications

Cultural Dichotomies

Avoiding Bias of Generalizations

Know More about Cultures You Examine

Chapter 3: Critical Thinking in Cross-Cultural Psychology

The Evaluative Bias of Language: To Describe Is to Prescribe

Differentiating Dichotomous Variables and Continuous Variables: Black and White, or Shades of Gray?

The Similarity–Uniqueness Paradox: All Phenomena Are Both Similar and Different

The Barnum Effect: "One-Size-Fits-All" Descriptions

The Assimilation Bias: Viewing the World through Schema-Colored Glasses

The Representativeness Bias: Fits and Misfits of Categorization

The Availability Bias: The Persuasive Power of Vivid Events

The Fundamental Attribution Error: Underestimating the Impact of External Influences

The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: When Expectations Create Reality

Correlation Does Not Prove Causation: Confusing "What" with "Why"

Bidirectional Causation and Multiple Causation: Causal Loops and Compound Pathways

The Naturalistic Fallacy: Blurring the Line between "Is" and "Should"

The Belief Perseverance Effect: "Don’t Confuse Me with the Facts!"

Conclusions: "To Metathink or Not to Metathink?"

Chapter 4: Cognition: Sensation, Perception, and States of Consciousness

Sensation and Perception: Basic Principles

How Culture Influences What We Perceive 106

How People Perceive Pictures

Perception of Depth

Are People Equally Misled by Visual Illusions?

Some Cultural Patterns of Drawing

Perception of Color

Other Senses

Perception of Time

Perception of the Beautiful

Perception of Music

Consciousness and Culture

Sleep and Cultural Significance of Dreams

Beyond Altered States of Consciousness

Chapter 5: Intelligence

Defining Intelligence

Ethnic Differences in IQ Scores

Explaining Group Differences in Test Scores: Intelligence and Intelligent Behavior

Do Biological Factors Contribute to Intelligence?

Incompatibility of Tests: Cultural Biases

A Word about "Cultural Literacy"

Environment and Intelligence

Socioeconomic Factors

The Family Factor

"Natural Selection" and IQ Scores

Cultural Values of Cognition

General Cognition: What Is "Underneath" Intelligence?

Cognitive Skills, School Grades, and Educational Systems

Culture, Tests, and Motivation

IQ, Culture, and Social Justice

And in the End, Moral Values

Chapter 6: Emotion

When We Laugh We Are Happy: Similarities of Emotional Experience

You Cannot Explain Pain if You Have Never Been Hurt: Differences in Emotional Experience

Emotions: Different or Universal?

Physiological Arousal

The Meaning of Preceding Events

Emotion as an Evaluation

We Are Expected to Feel in a Particular Way

How People Assess Emotional Experience 1

When Emotions Signal a Challenge: Cross-Cultural Research on Stress and Anxiety

Expression of Emotion

When Emotion Hurts: Cross-Cultural Studies of Anger

Emotion and Inclination to Act

Emotion and Judgment

Chapter 7: Motivation and Behavior

A Glance into Evolution

Social Science: See the Society First

Drive and Arousal: Two Universal Mechanisms of Motivation

The Power of the Unconscious: Psychoanalysis

Humanistic Theories

Learning and Motivation

A Carrot and a Beef Tongue: Hunger and Food Preference

When Hunger Causes Distress: Eating Disorders

Victory and Harmony: Achievement Motivation

Aggressive Motivation and Violence

Culture and Sexuality

Sex and Sexuality: Some Cross-Cultural Similarities

Chapter 8: Human Development and Socialization

Development and Socialization

Quality of Life and the Child’s Development

Norms, Customs, and Child Care

Parental Values and Expectations

Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

Stages of Moral Development According to Kohlberg

Developmental Stages

Life before Birth: Prenatal Period

First Steps: Infancy

Discovering the World: Childhood

Major Rehearsal: Adolescence


Late Adulthood

Chapter 9: Psychological Disorders

American Background: DSM-IV

Two Views on Culture and Psychopathology

Culture-Bound Syndromes

Anxiety Disorders

Depressive Disorders


Culture and Suicide

Personality Disorders

Is Substance Abuse Culturally Bound?

Psychodiagnostic Biases


Culture Match?

Chapter 10: Social Perception and Social Cognition


Western and Non-Western Values

Striving for Consistency: The Cognitive Balance Theory

Avoiding Inconsistency: Cognitive Dissonance

Psychological Dogmatism

Social Attribution

Attribution as Locus of Control

Attribution of Success and Failure


Do Social Norms Affect the Way We See Our Own Body?

Duty and Fairness in Individualist and Collectivist Cultures

Stereotypes and the Power of Generalizations

On "National Character"

Chapter 11: Social Interaction

Universal Interaction

Direct Contacts and Body Language


Is Conformity Universal across Cultures?

Following Orders

Social Influence

Feeling Good about Some Views

Is Social Loafing Universal?

Cooperation and Competition


Chapter 12: Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology: Some Highlights


Spirituality, Science, and Health

Business Decisions

Working with Immigrants


Culture, Behavior, and the Law

Human Rights

Working and Serving Abroad

Religion: A Campus Context


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