Crossroads and Cultures, Combined Volume: A History of the World's Peoples / Edition 1by Bonnie G. Smith, Marc Van De Mieroop, Richard von Glahn, Kris Lane
Crossroads and Cultures: A History of the World’s Peoples incorporates the best current cultural history into a fresh and original narrative that connects global patterns of development with life on the ground. As the title, “Crossroads,” suggests, this new synthesis highlights the places and times where people exchanged goods and/i>… See more details below
Crossroads and Cultures: A History of the World’s Peoples incorporates the best current cultural history into a fresh and original narrative that connects global patterns of development with life on the ground. As the title, “Crossroads,” suggests, this new synthesis highlights the places and times where people exchanged goods and commodities, shared innovations and ideas, waged war and spread disease, and in doing so joined their lives to the broad sweep of global history. Students benefit from a strong pedagogical design, abundant maps and images, and special features that heighten the narrative’s attention to the lives and voices of the world’s peoples.
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- Bedford/St. Martin's
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Table of Contents
Note: All chapters close with a Conclusion, Resources for Research, and a full-page Review section.
PART 1: The Ancient World, from Human Origins to 500 C.E.
1. Peopling the World, to 4000 B.C.E.
Major Global Development: The adaptation of early humans to their environment and their eventual domestication of plants and animals.
Paleolithic Food Gatherers, 2,000,000–9000 B.C.E.
The First Neolithic Farmers, 9000–4000 B.C.E.
COUNTERPOINT: Gatherer-Hunters By Choice: Aborigines of Australia
READING THE PAST: Fossil Hunting
SEEING THE PAST: Paleolithic Statuettes of Women
SEEING THE PAST: Saharan Rock Art
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: The People of Çatal Höyük
2. Temples and Palaces: Birth of the City, 5000–1200 B.C.E.
Major Global Development: The rise of urban society and the creation of states in Southwest Asia.
Origins of Urban Society: Mesopotamia, 5000–3200 B.C.E.
The First Cities, 3200–1600 B.C.E.
City Life and Learning
The First International Order, 1600–1200 B.C.E.
COUNTERPOINT: Egypt’s Distinct Path to Statehood
SEEING THE PAST: The Uruk Vase
READING THE PAST: Royal Inscriptions from Early Mesopotamia
SEEING THE PAST: The Palette of Narmer
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: The Pyramid Builders of the Pharaohs
3. Settlers and Migrants: The Creation of States in Asia, 5000–500 B.C.E.
Major Global Development: The rise of large urban states in Asia and the interactions between nomadic and settled peoples that shaped them.
Early Agricultural Societies of South and East Asia, 5000–1000 B.C.E.
The Indus Valley Culture, 2600–1900 B.C.E.
Indo-European Migrations, 3000–1000 B.C.E.
India’s Vedic Age, 1500–500 B.C.E.
The Early Chinese Dynasties, 2000–771 B.C.E.
COUNTERPOINT: The Oxus People: A Short-Lived Culture in Central Asia, 2100–1700 B.C.E.
SEEING THE PAST: Inscribed Seals from the Indus Valley
READING THE PAST: The Upanishads
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Chinese Diviners
READING THE PAST: The Chinese Book of Songs
4. Creation of Empire: North Africa and Southwest Asia, 1550–330 B.C.E.
Major Global Development: The rise of empires and the variety and consequences of imperial rule.
Imperial Egypt and Nubia, 1550 B.C.E.–330 C.E.
Rise and Fall of the Assyrian Empire, 900–612 B.C.E.
The Persian Empire, 550–330 B.C.E.
COUNTERPOINT: Assimilation and Resistance: The Peoples of Israel and Judah
READING THE PAST: Akhenaten Praises His God, Aten
SEEING THE PAST: The Queen of Meroe in Battle
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Mesopotamian Astronomers
READING THE PAST: The God Yahweh and the People of Israel Form a Covenant
5. The Greeks and the Wider World, 1200–30 B.C.E.
Major Global Development: The cultural and political innovations of the ancient Greeks and the expansion of Greek ideals and institutions.
The Development of Ancient Greek Culture, 1200–500 B.C.E.
The Persian Wars, Classical Greece, and the Concept of Cultural Difference 500–338 B.C.E.
Hellenism: The Expansion of Greek Ideals and Institutions, 323–30 B.C.E.
COUNTERPOINT: The Celtic Peoples of the Atlantic Zone
READING THE PAST: Pericles Praises the Democratic Ideal
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Philosophers of Athens’s Golden Age
READING THE PAST: Semonides Catalogs the Evils of Women
SEEING THE PAST: The Vix Crater: A Greek Vessel in Northern France
6. Peoples and World Empires: Classical India, the Kushan Empire, and China, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E.
Major Global Development: The revolutionary religious and cultural developments in India and China that took place between 500 B.C.E. and 500 C.E. and remained fundamental to the history of Asia.
India: Thinkers, Traders, and Courtly Cultures, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E.
The Kushan Peoples of Central Asia, 100 B.C.E.–233 C.E.
China’s First Empires: The Qin and Han Dynasties, 500 B.C.E.–200 C.E.
COUNTERPOINT: Tamil Kingdoms of South India
READING THE PAST: A Family of Chinese Historians Trace Early Kushan History
SEEING THE PAST: Kushan Coins
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Papermakers
READING THE PAST: Women in Han China
7. The Unification of Western Eurasia, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E.
Major Global Development: The unification of western Eurasia under the Roman Empire.
Rome: A Republican Center of Power, 500–27 B.C.E.
Rome: The Empire, 27 B.C.E.–212 C.E.
Christianity: From Jewish Sect to Imperial Religion
Transformation of the Roman Empire, 200–500 C.E.
COUNTERPOINT: Rome’s Iranian Rivals in the Middle East
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Roman Engineers
SEEING THE PAST: The Augustan Cameo Gem
READING THE PAST: A Young Woman Laments Her Premature Death
READING THE PAST: A Sasanid Account of the Wars with Rome
8. Reading the Unwritten Record: Peoples of Africa, the Americas, and the Pacific Islands, 3000 B.C.E.–500 C.E.
Major Global Development: The evolution of ancient cultures without writing and their fundamental role in world history.
Peoples of Sub-Saharan Africa
Peoples of the Americas
Peoples of the Pacific Islands
COUNTERPOINT: The Voiced and Voiceless in Ancient Literate Societies
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Potters of Antiquity
READING THE PAST: The La Mojarra Stele
SEEING THE PAST: Early Maya Frescoes
SEEING THE PAST: The Archaeological Site of Talepakemalai
PART 2: The Formation of Regional Societies, 500–1450 C.E.
9. The Worlds of Christianity and Islam, c. 400–100
Major Global Development: The spread of Christianity and Islam and the profound impact of these world religions on the societies of Western Eurasia and North Africa.
Multiple Christianities, 400–850
Social and Political Renewal in the Post-Roman World, 400–850
The Rise and Spread of Islam, 610–750
From Unified Caliphate to Islamic Commonwealth, 750–1000
COUNTERPOINT: The Norse Vikings: The New Barbarians
SEEING THE PAST: Mary as Mother of God
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Constantinople’s Silk Producers
READING THE PAST: Women and Property in Islam
READING THE PAST: The Pact of Umar
10. Religion and Cross-Cultural Exchange in Asia, 400–1000
Major Global Development: The cultural and commercial exchanges during the heyday of the Silk Road that transformed Asian peoples, cultures, and states.
Steppe Peoples and Settled Societies of Central Asia
The Shaping of East Asia
Consolidation of Hindu Society in India
The Diffusion of Indian Traditions to Southeast Asia
COUNTERPOINT: Sogdian Traders in Central Asia and China
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Tea Drinkers in Tang China
READING THE PAST: A Copper-Plate Land Grant Inscription
SEEING THE PAST: Borobudur: The World’s Largest Buddhist Monument
READING THE PAST: Letters from a Sogdian Castaway
11. Societies and Networks in the Americas and the Pacific, 300–1200
Major Global Development: The formation of distinctive regional cultures in the Americas and the Pacific Islands between 300 and 1200.
The Classical Age of Mesoamerica and Its Aftermath
City and State Building in the Andean Region
Agrarian Societies in North America
Habitat and Adaptation in the Pacific Islands
COUNTERPOINT: Social Complexity in Bougainville
READING THE PAST: The Maya Hero Twins Vanquish the Lords of the Underworld
SEEING THE PAST: Images of Power in Tiwanaku Art
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: The North American Mound-Builders
SEEING THE PAST: Symbols of Fertility in Cahokian Sculpture
12. The Rise of Commerce in Afro-Eurasia, 900–1300
Major Global Development: The sustained economic expansion that spread across Eurasia and Africa between the tenth and fourteenth centuries.
Agricultural Innovation and Diffusion
Industrial Growth and the Money Economy
Merchants and Trade Networks in Eurasia and Africa
COUNTERPOINT: Production, Tribute, and Trade in the Hawaiian Islands, 800–1650
SEEING THE PAST: Imitation and Innovation in Islamic Coinage
READING THE PAST: The Commenda Partnership Among Venetian Merchants
READING THE PAST: A Chinese Official’s Reflections on Managing Family Property
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS : The Mande Blacksmiths
13. Centers of Learning and the Transmission of Culture, 900–1300
Major Global Development: The expansion of learning and education across Eurasia in the period from 900 to 1300 and its relationship with the rise of regional and national identities.
Church and Universities in Latin Christendom
Students and Scholars in Islamic Societies
The Cosmopolitan and Vernacular Realms in India and Southeast Asia
Learning, Schools, and Print Culture in East Asia
COUNTERPOINT: Writing and Political Power in Mesoamerica
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Medical Professionals of Latin Christendom
READING THE PAST: Ibn Khaldun on Study and Learning
SEEING THE PAST: A Revolution in Islamic Calligraphy
READING THE PAST: Lady Murasaki on Her Peers Among Women Writers
14. Crusaders, Mongols, and Eurasian Integration, 1050–1350
Major Global Development: The Eurasian integration fostered by the clashes of culture known as the Crusades and the Mongol conquests.
The Crusades and the Imperial Papacy, 1050–1350
The Making of Christian Europe, 1100–1350
The Mongol World-Empire, 1100–1368
The Mongol Khanates and the Islamic World, 1240–1350
COUNTERPOINT: The “New Knighthood” of the Christian Military Orders
READING THE PAST: A Muslim Courtier’s Encounters with the Franks
SEEING THE PAST: The Mappaemundi of Latin Christendom
READING THE PAST: Bernard of Clairvaux’s Summons to the Wendish Crusade
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Mongol Women in the Household Economy and Public Life
15. Collapse and Revival in Afro-Eurasia, 1300–1450
Major Global Development: Crisis and recovery in fourteenth- and fifteenth-century Afro-Eurasia.
Fourteenth-Century Crisis and Renewal in Eurasia
Islam’s New Frontiers
The Global Bazaar
COUNTERPOINT: Age of the Samurai in Japan, 1185–1450
READING THE PAST: A French Theologian’s View of the Black Death
READING THE PAST: A Spanish Ambassador’s Description of Samarqand
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Urban Weavers in India
SEEING THE PAST: Leonardo da Vinci's Madonna of the Rocks
PART 3: The Early Modern World, 1450–1750
16. Empires and Alternatives in the Americas, 1430–1530
Major Global Development: The diversity of societies and states in the Americas prior to European invasion.
Many Native Americas
Tributes of Blood: The Aztec Empire, 1325–1521
Tributes of Sweat: The Inca Empire, 1430–1532
COUNTERPOINT: The Peoples of North America's Eastern Woodlands, 1450–1530
SEEING THE PAST: An Aztec Map of Tenochtitlán
SEEING THE PAST: The Coyolxauhqui Stone
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: The Aztec Midwife
READING THE PAST: An Andean Creation Story
17. The Fall of Native American Empires and the Rise of an Atlantic World, 1450–1600
Major Global Development: European expansion across the Atlantic and its profound consequences for societies and cultures worldwide.
Guns, Sails, and Compasses: Europeans Venture Abroad
New Crossroads, First Encounters: The European Voyages of Discovery, 1492–1521
Spanish Conquests in the Americas, 1519–1600
A New Empire in the Americas: New Spain and Peru, 1535–1600
Brazil by Accident: The Portuguese in the Americas, 1500–1600
COUNTERPOINT: The Mapuche of Chile: Native America’s Indomitable State
READING THE PAST: Tlatelolcan Elders Recall the Conquest of Mexico
SEEING THE PAST: Malintzin and the Meeting between Moctezuma and Cortés
READING THE PAST: First Encounter in Brazil: Cabral’s Report to King Manoel of Portugal
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Atlantic Sugar Producers
18. Western Africa in the Era of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1450-1800
Major Global Development: The rise o the Atlantic slave trade and its impact on early modern African peoples and cultures.
Many Western Africas
Landlords and Strangers: Peoples and States in West Africa
Land of the Blacksmith Kings: West Central Africa
Strangers in Ships: Gold, Slavery, and the Portuguese
Northern Europeans and the Expansion of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600–1800
COUNTERPOINT: The Pygmies of Central Africa
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: West Africa’s Gold Miners
READING THE PAST: Al-Sa’di, “Jenne and Its History”
SEEING THE PAST: Art of the Slave Trade: A Benin Bronze Plaque
READING THE PAST: Alonso de Sandoval, “General Points Relating to Slavery”
19. Trade and Empire in the Indian Ocean and South Asia, 1450–1750
Major Global Development: The Indian Ocean trading network and the impact of European intrusion on maritime and mainland South Asia.
Trading Cities and Inland Networks: East Africa
Trade and Empire in South Asia
COUNTERPOINT: Aceh: Fighting Back in Southeast Asia
READING THE PAST: Portuguese Report of a Vijayanagara Festival
SEEING THE PAST: Reflections of the Divine in a Mughal Emerald
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Cinnamon Harvesters in Ceylon
READING THE PAST: Dutch Merchants Learn How to Act in Aceh
20. Consolidation and Conflict in Europe and the Greater Mediterranean, 1450–1750
Major Global Development: Early modern Europe’s increasing competition and division in the face of Ottoman expansion.
The Power of the Ottoman Empire, 1453–1750
Europe Divided, 1500–1650
European Innovations in Science and Government, 1550–1750
COUNTERPOINT: The Barbary Pirates
READING THE PAST: Weapons of Mass Destruction: Ottomans vs. Persians in Baghdad
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Ottoman Coffeehouse Owners and Patrons
SEEING THE PAST: Gift Clocks for the Emperors of China
READING THE PAST: An Exiled European Muslim Visits the Netherlands
21. Expansion and Isolation in Asia, 1450–1750
Major Global Development: The general trend toward political and cultural consolidation in early modern Asia.
Straddling Eurasia: Rise of the Russian Empire, 1462–1725
China from Ming to Qing Rule, 1500–1800
Japan in Transition, 1540–1750
Korea, a Land in Between, 1392–1750
Consolidation in Mainland Southeast Asia, 1500–1750
COUNTERPOINT: “Spiritual Conquest” in the Philippines
SEEING THE PAST: Blue-on-White: Ming Export Porcelain
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Silk Weavers in China
READING THE PAST: Selections from the Hidden Christians’ Sacred Book
READING THE PAST: Scenes from the Daily Life of a Korean Queen
22. Transforming New Worlds: The American Colonies Mature, 1600–1750
Major Global Development: The profound social, cultural, and environmental changes in the Americas under colonial rule.
The World that Silver Made: Spanish America, 1570–1750
Gold, Diamonds, and the Transformation of Brazil, 1695–1800
Bitter Sugar, Part Two: Slavery and Colonialism in the Caribbean, 1625–1750
Growth and Change in British and French North America, 1607–1750
COUNTERPOINT: The Maroons of Suriname
READING THE PAST: An Iraqi Traveler’s Impressions of Potosí
SEEING THE PAST: The Gentlemen from Esmeraldas
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Caribbean Buccaneers
READING THE PAST: A Swedish Traveler’s Description of Quebec
PART 4: The World from 1750 to the Present
23. Atlantic Revolutions and the World, 1750–1830
Major Global Development: The Atlantic revolutions and their short- and long-term significance.
The Promise of Enlightenment
Revolution in North America
The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire
Revolution Continued in the Western Hemisphere
COUNTERPOINT: Religious Revival in a Secular Age
SEEING THE PAST: Portrait of Catherine the Great
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Arrival of the Cowboy
READING THE PAST: Simon Bolivar on Latin American Independence
READING THE PAST: Phillis Wheatley, “On Being Brought from Africa to America”
24. Industry and Everyday Life, 1750–1900
Major Global Development: The Industrial Revolution and its impact on societies and cultures throughout the world.
The Industrial Revolution Begins, 1750–1830
Industrialization After 1830
The Industrial Revolution and the World
Industry and Society
The Culture of Industry
COUNTERPOINT: African Women and Slave Agriculture
READING THE PAST: Industry Comes to the British Countryside
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Builders of the Trans-Siberian Railroad
SEEING THE PAST: Japan’s Industrious Society
READING THE PAST: Mexican Women on Strike
25. The Rise of Modern Nation-States, 1850–1900
Major Global Development: The causes and consequences of nation building in the nineteenth century.
Emerging Powers: The United States and Japan
The Culture of Nations
COUNTERPOINT: Outsiders Inside the Nation-State
READING THE PAST: The Russian People Under Serfdom
SEEING THE PAST: The Korean Flag
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Historians of the Nation-State
READING THE PAST: Good Wives, Wise Mothers Build Japan
26. Imperial Order and Disorder, 1850–1914
Major Global Development: The accelerated competition among nineteenth-century nation-states for empire.
Culture in an Imperial Age
Imperial Contests at the Dawn of the Twentieth Century
COUNTERPOINT: The West Copies from the World
READING THE PAST: Rubber Workers in Congo
SEEING THE PAST: Colonial Architecture in Saigon
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Indentured Laborers
READING THE PAST: The United States Overthrows the Hawaiian Queen
27. Wars, Revolutions, and the Birth of Mass Society, 1910–1929
Major Global Development: The wars of the decade 1910 to 1920 and their role in the creation of mass culture and society.
Revolutions, Local Wars, and World War
Revolution in Russia and the End of World War I
Postwar Global Politics
An Age of the Masses
COUNTERPOINT A Golden Age for Argentinians
SEEING THE PAST: Wartime Propaganda
READING THE PAST: Communism Spreads in China
READING THE PAST: Léopold Sédar Senghor, “To the Senegalese Sharpshooters Dead for France”
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: The Film Industry
28. Global Catastrophe: The Great Depression and World War II 1929–1945
Major Global Development: The causes and outcomes of the Great Depression and World War II.
1929: The Great Depression Begins
Militarizing the Masses in the 1930s
Global War, 1937–1945
From Allied Victory to the Cold War, 1943–1945
COUNTERPOINT Nonviolence and Pacifism in an Age of War
READING THE PAST: Promoting Business in the Great Depression
READING THE PAST: “Comfort Women” in World War II
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Soldiers and Soldiering
SEEING THE PAST: Technological Warfare: Civilization or Barbarism?
29. The Emergence of New Nations in a Cold War World, 1945–1970
Major Global Development: The political transformations of the postwar world and their social and cultural consequences.
World Politics and the Cold War
Decolonization and the Birth of Nations
World Recovery in the 1950s and 1960s
Cultural Dynamism Amid Cold War
COUNTERPOINT The Bandung Conference, 1955
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Cosmonauts and Astronauts
READING THE PAST: Singing Against Imperialism
SEEING THE PAST: African Liberation on Cloth
READING THE PAST: The Great Leap Forward in China
30. Technological Transformation and the End of the Cold War, 1960–1992
Major Global Development. The technological revolution of the late twentieth century and its impact on societies and political developments around the world.
Advances in Technology and Science
Changes in the World Economy
Politics and Protest in an Age of Cold War
The End of the Cold War Order
COUNTERPOINT: Agrarian Peoples in a Technological Age
READING THE PAST: Japan Transforms Business Practices
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Global Tourism
READING THE PAST: Terror and Resistance in El Salvador
SEEING THE PAST: The Iranian Revolution as Visual News
31. A New Global Age, 1989 to the Present
Major Global Development: The causes and consequences of intensified globalization.
The Impact of Global Events on Regions and Nations
Global Livelihoods and Institutions
The Promises and Perils of Globalization
Cultures without Borders
COUNTERPOINT: Who Am I? Local Identity in a Globalizing World
READING THE PAST: Testimony to South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission
READING THE PAST: Assessing Livelihoods for Women in a Global Economy
SEEING THE PAST: The Globalization of Urban Space
LIVES AND LIVELIHOODS: Readers of the Qur’an
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