Crossroads: The Muliticultural Roots of America's Popular Music / Edition 2

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Primarily for courses in American music, popular music, or rock music; and also appropriate for courses in ethnic studies. Through a blended historical, ethnic, and musical approach, with a strong contemporary focus and the inclusion of a wide variety of musical styles from American society's broad ethnic groups, this text meets the needs of the new generation of faculty and students by more accurately reflecting the diverse musical traditions of the United States. Elizabeth Barkley wrote this book to meet the needs of today's more diverse student population. Returning to the classroom after nine years as an academic Dean, she was aware of the student demographic changes, but unprepared for the pedagogical implications of those changes. As she struggled to engage her students in a traditional music survey course, they looked bored and apathetic and it was then that she knew she had to find a better way. As a result, she created a new course called The Musics of Multicultural America, based on her analysis that an important characteristic that seemed to unify her students was "Americanness." Working with UC Berkeley's Center for the Study of American Cultures, she developed a course that traced a variety of contemporary musics such as rock 'n' roll, salsa, gospel, blues, jazz, Cajun, zydeco, and Tejano from their roots in the music traditions of immigrant groups to their hybridization and development into uniquely new American musics. Soon her classes were filled with enthusiastic students who had enrolled on the recommendation of former students, friends and counselors. The traditional survey course had averaged anywhere from 40 to 60 students per year; in 2005-06, the capped annual enrollment was at 1,250. This textbook is the result of her work developing materials for that course.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131930735
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 3/15/2006
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 304
  • Sales rank: 749,642
  • Product dimensions: 8.00 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Elizabeth Barkley holds a BA and MA from the University of California at Riverside and a Ph.D. from UC Berkeley. She has worked at Foothill College since 1977, including nine years as Dean of Fine Arts and Communications. As a faculty member at Foothill she has taught piano, music history and literature, and music theory and composition. Her books include Collaborative Learning Techniques: A Handbook for College Faculty (co-authored with K. Patricia Cross and Claire Howell Major, Jossey-Bass, 2004), the earlier edition of Crossroads: Popular Music in America (Prentice Hall, 2003), and a three-volume series, Great Composers and Music Masterpieces of Western Civilization (co-authored with Robert Hartwell, Pearson Custom Publishing, 2001 and 2002).

She has been the recipient of several honors, including the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching’s California's Higher Education Professor of the Year, the Chair Academy’s Outstanding Leadership Award for work with Learning Outcomes Assessment, Innovator of the Year in conjunction with the National League for Innovation, the Gerald Hayward Award for Educational Excellence, the Center for Diversity in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education’s Faculty Award, the Foothill College President's Special Achievement Award, and the California Community College League’s Out-of-the-Box Thinker Award. She has also served as a Leadership Fellow through the American Council on Education and has been named a Carnegie Scholar in the discipline of music by the Pew Charitable Trusts in conjunction with the Carnegie Foundation. Additionally, the California Virtual Campus selected her course Music of Multicultural America as the Best Online Course.

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Table of Contents


Part I: The Journeys Begin

Chapter 1: Music in Multicultural America

The Components of American Multiculturalism


Ethnicity and Culture

Race and Culture

Acculturation and Assimilation into American Society

The United States Today

American Multiculturalism and American Music

The Building Blocks of Music



Boxed Features

Insight: The “United States” or “America?”

In-Depth Focus: America as the “New World”

Chapter 2: The Music of Native Americans

Native American Origins

Overview of Pre-Conquest Music Traditions

Challenges to Studying Pre-Conquest Native American Music

Commonalities among Native Music Traditions

Structural Characteristics

Native American Music Within A Historical and Social Context: The Fifteenth —

Nineteenth Centuries

Native American Cultural Diversity

Contact with Europeans in the Colonial Period

Native Americans and the United States of America

Impact of Europeans on Native Culture and Music Traditions

Native Americans in the Twentieth Century

Pan-Indian Music

Native Americans Today



Boxed Features

Profile: Douglas Spotted Eagle

Insight: Native American or Indian?

Listening Guide: “Rabbit Dance”

Chapter 3: The Roots of European/Anglo-American Music

Overview of European-American Music Traditions

Commonalities of European-American Music

Early Anglo-American Music Traditions

The Structural Characteristics of Anglo-American Folk Music

Anglo-American Music within a Social and Historical Context

Religious Music of the Colonial Period

Folk Music of the Early Settlers

The Americanization of British Folk Songs

Instrumental Music of the Early Settlers

Conflict and the Road to Revolution

The Founding of a New Nation

Boxed Features

Insight: Understanding the Term “Anglo-American”

Listening Guide: “Barbara Allen”

In-Depth Focus: Famous Patriotic Songs

Insight: The American Tradition of Square Dance Calling

Profile: The Carter Family

Chapter 4: The Roots of African-American Music

African-American Origins

Challenges to Retaining African Culture

Overview of African Music Traditions

African Diversity

African Commonalities

African-American Music within a Historical and Social Context

Colonial America

Structural Characteristics of Early African-American Music

The American Revolution and Striving for Freedom

The Civil War, Reconstruction, and the Late Nineteenth Century



Boxed Features

Insight: “African-Americans” or “Blacks?”

Listening Guide: “Drum Rhythms”

Insight: The Double Language of Spirituals

Profile: Huddie Ledbetter “Leadbelly”

Chapter 5: The Roots of Latin American Music

The First Mexican Americans

Pre-Conquest and Arrival of the Europeans

Overview of the Music of the Aztecs and Other Indigenous Peoples

Challenges and Changes in Studying Indigenous Music of Mexico

Commonalities of Aztec and Other Indigenous Music

Structural Characteristics of Aztec and Other Indigenous Music

Mexican-American Music in a Historical and Social Context

The Spanish Colonial Period

Influence of Colonial System on Mexican Music

Mexican Independence

Mexican Northern Provinces become Part of the United States

Mestizo Music Traditions

Structural Characteristics

Popular Mestizo Music Styles



Boxed Features

Insight: What’s In a Name? The Challenge of Categories

In-Depth Focus: Friars Toribo de Motolinia and Pedro de Gante

Listening Guide: La Llorona

Profile: Linda Ronstadt

Part II: Encounters at the Crossroads

Chapter 6: The Blues

Overview of the Music Tradition of the Blues

Origin of the Term “The Blues”

Stylistic Categories

The Structural Characteristics of the Blues

The Blues in a Historical and Social Context

Origin of the Blues to 1900

Spread of the Blues from 1900 to 1920

The 1920s and the Initial Expansion of Blues Styles

The 1930s and the Development of Urban Blues

The 1940s and Three Important Bluesmen

Important Developments in the 1950s

The 1960s and British Blues

The 1970s to the Present



Boxed Features

Listening Guide: “Cross Road Blues”

Insight: The Blues as the Devil’s Music

In-Depth Focus: Dockery Farms and Charlie Patton

Portrait: B.B. King

Portrait: Susan Tedeschi

Chapter 7: Jazz

Jazz: Primarily African-American or European-American?

Overview of the Music Tradition of Jazz

Stylistic Categories

Structural Characteristics

Jazz in A Historical and Social Context

Precursors to Jazz: Ragging and Ragtime

The “Birth of Jazz” in New Orleans: 1865-1917

The 1920s: The Migration of Jazz Out of New Orleans

The 1930s and 1940s: The Swing Era

Vocal Jazz

The 1940s and 1950s: Bebop

The 1950s and 1960s: Cool Jazz and Hard Bop

The 1960s and 1970s: The Avant-Garde, Free Jazz, and Fusion

The 1980s and 1990s: Classicism, Smooth or Contemporary Jazz, and

Acid Jazz



Boxed Features

Listening Guide: “Take the A Train”

Insight: The New Orleans Creoles of Color

Profile: Miles Davis

Chapter 8: Gospel

Overview of Gospel Music

Distinguishing Gospel from Spirituals

Structural Characteristics

Gospel Music in a Historical and Social Context

The Foundation for the Development of Gospel Music

The Work of Thomas Dorsey in the 1920s

The “Birth” of Gospel in Chicago and the 1930s and 1940s

The Recording and Popularizing of Gospel in the 1950s

Gospel in the Last Half of the Twentieth Century



Boxed Features

In-Depth Focus: Camp Meetings, Bush Meetings and “Shouts”

Listening Guide: “How I Got Over”

Insight: White Gospel

Profile: Kirk Franklin

Chapter 9: Cajun and Zydeco

Overview of Cajun and Zydeco Music Traditions

Structural Characteristics

Cajun and Zydeco Music in a Social and Historical Context

The Roots of Cajun Music

Cajun and Creole Music Early in the Twentieth Century

Cajun Music in the Middle of the Twentieth Century




Boxed Features

Profile: Michael Doucet

Listening Guide: Zydeco

Chapter 10: Country Music

Overview of Country Music

Stylistic Categories

Structural Characteristics

Country Music in a Historical and Social Context

The 1920s and the Beginnings of “Country” Music

The 1930s and the Emergence of “Country Western”

The 1940s with Honky-Tonk and Blue Grass

The 1950s and the Creation of “The Nashville Sound”

The 1960s and 1970s

The 1980s to the Present



Boxed Features

Listening Guide: “Rocky Top’

Insight: Country Music’s Inherent Traditionalism

Profile: Shania Twain

Chapter 11: The Urban Folk Revival

Overview of the Music of the Urban Folk Revival

Renewed Interest in Traditional Music

Dissemination and Popularization of Traditional Music

Trends in Folk Music in the Mid-Twentieth Century

Structural Characteristics

The Urban Folk Revival in a Social and Historical Context


The 1940s

The 1950s

The 1960s



Boxed Features

Insight: Joe Hill

In-Depth Focus: Folksong Collecting and John and Alan Lomax

Profile: Pete Seeger

Listening Guide: “Barbara Allen”

Profile: Bob Dylan

Part III: Excursions in New Directions

Chapter 12: Rock ‘n’ Roll

Overview of Rock ‘n’ roll’s Music Characteristics

Rock ‘n’ Roll in a Historical and Social Context

Changes in the 1940s and 1950s

The Birth of Rock ‘n’ Roll

The Primary Musical Influences on Early Rock ‘n’ roll

Two Examples of the Fusion of Styles

Rock ‘n’ Roll’s First Stars

Conflicting Reactions to Rock ‘n’ Roll

Later Developments of Rock



Boxed Features

Listening Guide: “Whole Lotta Shakin Going On”

In-Depth Focus: John Mayer and The Search for Superstars

Chapter 13: Soul, Motown, and Funk

Overview of the Musical Characteristics of Soul, Motown and Funk




Soul, Motown, and Funk in a Historical and Social Context

Geographical Centers for Soul Music





Boxed Features

Listening Guide “Say It Loud: I’m Black and I’m Proud”

Profile: Aretha Franklin

Profile: Brian McKnight

Chapter 14: Salsa, Reggae, and Caribbean Latino Music

Defining “The Caribbean”

Overview of Caribbean Music Traditions

Structural Characteristics Unifying Caribbean Music

Specific Music Traditions of Particular Importance to Puerto Rico

Other Caribbean Music Traditions

Caribbean Music Traditions within a Historical and Social Context

Pre-Conquest and Establishment of Spanish Colonies

Puerto Rico as an American Territory

The Development of Salsa

The Birth of “Salsa”

African and European Influences on Salsa

Salsa’s Increasing Popularity



Boxed Features

In-Depth Focus: Reggae to Ragga

Profile: Puerto Rican Roots: Ricky Martin, Jennifer Lopez, Marc Anthony

Profiles: From Cuba: Tito Puente and Gloria Estefan

Listening Guide: “Menea La Cintura”

Chapter 15: Tejano, Banda, and Contemporary Mexican-American Music

Overview of Twentieth Century Mexican-American Music Traditions

Stylistic Categories

Structural Characteristics

Twentieth Century Mexican-American Music within a Social and Historical Context

The First Half of the Twentieth Century

The Second Half of the Twentieth Century

The Late Twentieth Century



Boxed Features

Listening Guide: “El Tamal”

Profile: Carlos Santana

Chapter 16: Asian American Music

Challenges and Issues in Discussing Asian Americans and Asian-American Music

The Three Periods of Asian Immigration

Current Asian Communities in the United States

Asian-American Music within a Social and Historical Context

Chinese Americans

Filipino Americans

Indian and Pakistani Americans

Vietnamese Americans

Korean Americans

Japanese Americans

Asian-American Music in the Last Half of the Twentieth Century to the Present



Boxed Features

In-Depth Focus: The Chinese Lion Dance

Profile: Yo-Yo Ma

Listening Guide: “Hard Times (Come Again No More)”

Chapter 17: Hip-Hop and rap

Overview of Hip-Hop and Rap Music Traditions

Defining Hip-Hop and Rap

Stylistic Categories of Rap

Rap and Hip-Hop in a Social and Historical Context

Roots of Rap in African and African-American Oral Traditions

The Earliest Hip-Hop and Rap

The Context for the Rise in Popularity of Rap

Shift in Rap from Party Music to Social Commentary

Hip-Hop and Rap become More Mainstream

The Growth of Hardcore Rap

The 2001 Hip-Hop Summit



Boxed Features

Profile: Tupac Shakur

Listening Guide: “The Breaks”

Profile: Jay-Z


Photo Credits


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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 8, 2006

    Highly Recommended!

    This lively and accessible book explores the musical traditions of five broad groups - Native Americans, European Americans, African Americans, Latino Americans, and Asian Americans - with particular interest in how those multicultural roots have intermingled to create contemporary American music. Along the way, author Elizabeth Barkley achieves a near impossible feat: presenting concise and candid histories of each cultural group, in addition to equally concise and clear explanations of the stylistic elements of their music. These elements are reinforced by the companion CD, which provides 18 listening examples with commentary. My only criticism is the book suffers from inattentive editing. For example, the first citation in Chapter One is â¿¿Ibid.â¿ Several photo captions apparently include layout notations not intended for readers' eyes, sometimes to a mildly humorous effect. The content deserves better. Though designed for college students with no prior musical training, this book will be invaluable to high school and college music teachers wanting to infuse more diversity into their coursework, or for social studies teachers wanting to infuse more popular culture. I would also recommend it to those specifically interested in African American music since - not surprisingly - about half the chapters touch on it in one way or another. Highly recommended!

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