Crucible of Struggle: A History of Mexican Americans from the Colonial Period to the Present Era / Edition 1

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Latinos in the U.S. are a major political, economic, and cultural force which is changing the national identity of this country. In fact, statistics show that by the year 2100, half of the United States population may be Latino. And two of every three of America's Latinos are Mexican. Mexicans are the oldest settelers of the United States, and they are also the nation's largest group of recent immigrant arrivals. Their population is increasing faster than that of all other Latino groups combined. The growing importance of this minority group, which will be felt strongly in twenty-first century America, calls for a fresh assessment of Mexican American history.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"An excellent survey of Mexican American history from colonial times to the present. . . Focused mainly on the structural forces that have shaped socio-economic conditions of Mexicans in the U. S., Crucible of Struggle is sure to quickly replace the canonic texts now available for teaching Mexican American history."--Ramón A. Gutiérrez, University of Chicago

"An impressive achievement--in one grand sweep, Vargas covers Mexican American history from Spanish settlement to the present day, taking the first 300 years as seriously as the last one hundred."--Sarah Deutsch, Duke University

"Crucible of Struggle is an exciting new history of Mexican Americans from the Spanish colonial period to the Latino present. Based on the latest and best scholarly research, this prodigious work goes into greater depth than previous surveys on generally unknown subjects, such as Mexican American heroism in armed conflicts from the Civil War through World War II."--John Chávez, Southern Methodist University

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195158519
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 9/23/2010
  • Series: AAR Aids for the Study of Religion Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 432
  • Sales rank: 113,105
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Distinguished Professor of History, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

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Table of Contents


The Era of the Spanish Northern Frontier to 1821
Spanish Institutions and Mixed-Race Society of the Northern Frontier The Founding of New Mexico Resisting Spanish Colonization: The Pueblo Revolt of 1680
Duty to the Crown and Church Fulfilled: The Spanish Reconquest of New Mexico A Buffer Zone Against Expansion: Spanish Colonial Texas The Apache and Comanche Threat in Texas The Condition of the Spanish Texas Colony in the Early Nineteenth Century Guarding the Western Periphery: Spanish Colonial Alta California Mexican Independence Comes to the Northern Frontier Conclusion

Life and Society in Mexico's Northern Borderlands, 1821-1846
Indian Relations on the Northern Frontier After Mexican Independence Men of the Plains: New Mexican Ciboleros and Comancheros The Opening of Commercial Markets: The Taos Trade Fair and the Santa Fe Trail Conflict in New Mexico—the 1837 Revolt Tejano Life on the Texas Frontier Under Mexico The Never Ending Indian Menace: Comanche Raids in Texas The Growing Conflict in Texas with Mexico The Drive for Texas Independence Making California Mexican The California Missions: Making Indians Faithful and Industrious Christians The Golden Age of California Ranching The Californio Era Revolts Against Mexican Rule Conclusion

Mexican Americans in the Era of War and American Westward Expansion The Southwest on the Eve of the Mexican War The Outbreak of War The American Occupation of New Mexico The 1847 Taos Revolt Against American Occupation of New Mexico The American Occupation of California The Battles at Monterrey and Buena Vista The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: The Enduring Paradox Conclusion

Mexican Americans from the 1850s to the End of the Civil War Mexican Americans in the Post-Conquest Southwest The Californio Banditti Joaquín Murieta and Tiburcio Vasquez Juan Cortina: Champion and Hated Villain of the Texas Border Region Mexican Americans in the American Civil War Mexican Americans Fight in the Indian Wars Conclusion

Mexican Americans in the Southwest, 1870 to the Early Twentieth Century The Mexican Americans of California The Tejanos and Mexicans of Texas Disenfranchising Tejanos Voters as Political Strategy The Mexicans of Arizona and New Mexico The United States and the New Mexico Land Grants Question Las Gorras Blancas and El Centillo de Diablo (the Devil's Hatband)
Statehood for New Mexico and Arizona?
The New Southwest Economy and the First Modern Phase of Mexican Immigration to the United States Conclusion

Mexican Immigration, Work, Urbanization, and Americanization,
Mexican Labor Strife and Struggle Tejano Freedom Fighters: The Plan de San Diego The Killing Fields of South Texas Immigration from Mexico During the 1910-1920 Years Mexicans, World War I, and the 1920-1921 Depression Mexican Immigration from 1920 to 1929
Mexican Los Angeles Mexicans in the Rocky Mountain and Plains States Mexicans in the Urban Industrial Heartland Mexicans and Social and Cultural Change and Americanization Mexican Mutualism and Fraternalism Conclusion

The Mexican American Struggle for Labor Rights in the Era of the Great Depression The Plight of Mexicans in the Early Years of the Great Depression The Repatriation Campaign Unfolds Mexicans in the Era of the National Recovery Act Mexican Women Workers Battle for Equality Mexican Coal Miner's Wage War in Gallup Tejano Struggles for Unionism in South Texas Emma Tenayuca Brings Social Justice to San Antonio's Mexicans The 1938 Strike by San Antonio's Pecan Shellers The UCAPAWA Organizes Colorado's Mexican Farm Workers Mexican American CIO Unionists Organize Los Angeles and Southern California Conclusion

The Mexican American People in the World War II Era Mexican Americans on the Eve of the Second World War Justice Delayed: The Sleepy Lagoon Incident Mexican Americans and the Sinarquista Menace America's War at Home: The Los Angeles Zoot Suit Riots Mexican American GIs on the Pacific and European War Fronts Mexican Americans Fight Against Discrimination: The Case of Los Angeles Mexican American Women War Workers Braceros: The Mexican Contract Labor Program Begins American Race Relations and Mexican Americans Conclusion

Mexican Americans in the Postwar Years, 1946-1963
Forgotten: The Status of Mexican Americans in Postwar America Mexican Americans in the Early Post-War American Labor Movement The Radicalism of ANMA Mexican Americans and the Community Service Organization Mexican Americans Caught in the Web of the Red Scare Mexican Americans in the Dragnets of Operation Wetback and Operation Terror Civil Rights Litigation by Mexican Americans Don't Bow to the Powers that Be: Shifts in the Mexican American Rights Movement Mexican Americans and the Democratic Party Conclusion

Mexican Americans in the Protest Era, 1964-1974
Viva La Huelga!-Gaining Ground for Farm Workers The People's Choice: Reis López Tijerina and the New Mexico Land Grants Movement Cultural Nationalism and Community Control—The Crusade for Justice A Search for Identity: The Chicano Student Movement Righteous Discontent: The Chicana Women's Movement Raza Sí! Guerra No!-The National Chicano War Moratorium
"Pardon My English"—La Raza Unida Party Conclusion

Mexican Americans at the End of the 20th Century Mexican Americans and Reagan's "New Morning in America"
"Tú Voto Es Tú Voz" (Your Vote is Your Voice): Mexican Americans and the Political Process Mexican Americans and the Civil Wars in Central America Unemployment, Drugs, Gang Warfare, and the 1992 Rodney King Riots The 1986 Simpson-Mazzoli Act, the English-Only Movement, and Proposition
"Fight the Power": From the Bakke Decision to Proposition 209
Mexican American Workers Organize
"NAFTA's Gonna Shaft Ya": Mexican Americans and the North American Free Trade Agreement Latino—A New National Identity and Continued Immigration Conclusion

Epilogue—Mexican Americans in the New Millennium

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