Crystal Chemistry of High-Tc Superconducting Copper Oxides

Overview

This book presents a complete review of the solid-state chemistry of the materials behind the recent revolution in superconductivity research. Particular attention is paid to the main features that are necessary for the generation of high Tc superconductivity, for example, low dimensionality of the structure, a mixed valence of copper, hole delocalization and the role of lone-pair cations and alkaline earth elements. The relationships between the structures of the various oxide superconductors discovered so far ...
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Overview

This book presents a complete review of the solid-state chemistry of the materials behind the recent revolution in superconductivity research. Particular attention is paid to the main features that are necessary for the generation of high Tc superconductivity, for example, low dimensionality of the structure, a mixed valence of copper, hole delocalization and the role of lone-pair cations and alkaline earth elements. The relationships between the structures of the various oxide superconductors discovered so far are emphasized. Besides chemical and structural aspects, physical topics are included, such as electron transport properties in connection with oxygen nonstoichiometry and irradiation effects induced by neutrons, electrons and fast heavy ions. The numerous diagrams and photographs in this book simplify visualization of the structures and complement the clarity of the text.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642838941
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 12/8/2011
  • Series: Springer Series in Materials Science , #15
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 331
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.72 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Superconductivity in Oxides Before 1986.- 2. Phases of the Systems A-La-Ca-Cu-O and A-Y-Ca-Cu-O (A = Ca, Sr, Ba): Structural Aspects.- 2.1 Copper Chemistry in Oxides: Oxidation States and Coordination.- 2.2 The Ternary Systems La-Cu-O and A-Cu-O (A = Ca,Sr,Ba).- 2.3 The Pseudoternary Systems A-La-Cu-O (A = Ca,Sr,Ba).- 2.3.1 Phases with Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite Structures.- a) BaLa4Cu5O13+?.- b) La8?xSrxCu8O20.- c) La3Ba3Cu6O14 and LaBa2Cu3O7??.- 2.3.2 The Intergrowths Between Perovskite and Rock-Salt-Type Structures.- a) The Oxides La2?xAxCuO4?x/2+?.- b) The Oxides La2?xA1+xCu2O6?x/2+?.- c) La4?2xBa2+2xCu2?xO10?2x.- 2.4 The Pseudoternary System Y-Ba-Cu-O.- 2.4.1 The Orthorhombic 92K Superconductor YBa2Cu3O7??.- 2.4.2 The Tetragonal Phases YBa2Cu3O7??.- 2.4.3 Problems of Microtwinning in the Orthorhombic YBa2Cu3O7??.- 2.4.4 The “Green Phase” Y2BaCuO5.- 2.4.5 Other Phases of the System Y-Ba-Cu-O.- 2.5 The Systems Ln-Sr-Cu-O (Ln— La).- 3. Electron Transport Properties Connected with Oxygen Nonstoichiometry.- 3.1 Electron Transport Properties in Cuprates Related to the Perovskite: General Considerations.- 3.2 Oxides with the K2NiF4-Type Structure.- 3.2.1 La2CuO4.- a) “Normal” Properties.- b) Superconducting Properties.- 3.2.2 The Oxides La2?xAxCuO4?x/2+? (A = Ba, Ca, Sr).- a) Electron Transport Properties Above 77 K.- b) Superconducting Properties.- 3.2.3 Substitutions for Lanthanum in the Superconducting Oxide La1.8Sr0.2CuO4?y.- a) Rare-Earth Substitutions.- b) Bismuth Substitution.- 3.2.4 Other Cuprates with the K2NiF4 Structure.- 3.3 Oxides with the Oxygen-Deficient Sr3Ti2O7-Type Structure.- 3.3.1 The Oxides La2?xA1+xCu2O6?x/2+? (A = Sr, Ca).- 3.3.2 The Oxides Ln2?xSr1+xCu2O6?x/2.- a) Ln = Pr, Nd; x = 0.14.- b) Ln = Eu, Sm, Gd; x = 0.9.- 3.4 Oxides with the Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite Structure.- 3.4.1 Nonsuperconducting Oxides.- a) LaCuO3.- b) BaLa4Cu5O13+? and La8?xSrxCu8O20??.- c) Ba3La3Cu6O14+?.- 3.4.2 Superconducting Oxides: Properties of YBa2Cu3O7??.- a) The “Stoichiometric” Oxide.- b) Influence of the Oxygen Nonstoichiometry.- c) Substitution for Yttrium and Barium.- 4. Substitutions in La2CuO4-Type and YBa2Cu3O7-Type Superconductors.- 4.1 Substitution on the Rare-Earth Sites.- 4.1.1 La2CuO4-Type Oxides.- 4.1.2 YBa2Cu3O7-Type Oxides.- 4.2 Substitution on the Copper Sites.- 4.2.1 La2CuO4-Type Oxides.- 4.2.2 YBa2Cu3O7-Type Oxides.- a) Nickel Substitution.- b) Iron Substitution.- c) Other Transition Element Substitutions.- d) Other Substitutions.- 4.3 Substitutions on Other Sites.- 4.3.1 Substitution for Barium.- 4.3.2 Fluorination of YBa2Cu3O7??.- 5. Bismuth, Thallium and Lead Superconducting Cuprates.- 5.1 Bismuth Alkaline-Earth Superconducting Cuprates.- 5.2 Thallium Alkaline-Earth Superconducting Cuprates.- 5.3 Lead Alkaline-Earth Superconducting Cuprates.- 5.4 Layered Cuprates Involving Double Fluorite-Type Layers.- 5.5 Structural Relationships.- 6. Extended Defects in Superconducting Oxides: High-Resolution Electron Microscopy.- 6.1 YBa2Cu3O7-Type Superconductors: Ordering in the Perovskite Framework.- 6.1.1 YBa2Cu3O7??.- a) HREM Images.- b) 92 K Orthorhombic Superconductor (0???0.1).- c) Order-Disorder Phenomena: The 60 K Superconductor YBa2Cu3O7?? (0.37???0.45).- d) Nonsuperconducting Tetragonal Phases YBa2Cu3O7??.- e) Ordering of Oxygen Vacancies: Concluding Remarks.- 6.1.2 La Ba3?xCu3O14+y Phases.- a) LaBa2Cu3O7??.- b) La3Ba3Cu6O14+y.- 6.2 Nature and Ordering of the Stacked Layers: Intergrowth Mechanisms.- 6.2.1 Structural Considerations for HREM Studies.- 6.2.2 The Bismuth Family.- 6.2.3 Thallium Families: The Classical Defects.- a) Perovskite Layers.- b) Rock-Salt-Type Layers.- 6.2.4 The Nonsuperconducting TlBa2NdCu2O7: A New Mechanism.- a) Classical Deffects.- b) Variations in the Fluorite-Type Layers.- 6.2.5 Lead Oxides.- 6.2.6 The Rare Earth Oxides.- 6.3 Layer Interconnections.- 6.4 Extra Spots in ED Patterns: An Amazing Variety.- 6.4.1 Substituted Bismuth Oxides.- 6.4.2 Thallium Oxides.- 6.4.3 Lead Oxides.- 6.5 Domains and Boundaries.- 7. Irradiation Effects in the High-Tc Superconducting Oxides.- 7.1 Radiation Damage in Solids.- 7.1.1 Electronic and Nuclear Stopping Powers.- 7.1.2 Material Modifications.- a) Electronic Energy Loss Effects.- b) Nuclear Energy Loss Effects.- 7.2 Radiation Damage by Electrons and Fast Neutrons in Copper Oxide Superconductors.- 7.2.1 Defect Structures Produced by Electron Irradiation.- 7.2.2 Changes Induced by Fast Neutron Irradiation.- 7.3 Phase Transformations Induced by Fast Heavy Ions in the High-Tc Copper Oxides.- 7.3.1 Improvement of Tc in the Grain Surface Superconductor La2CuO4.- 7.3.2 Heavy-Ion-Induced Changes of Superconducting and Normal Properties of Polycrystalline Ceramics YBa2Cu3O7?? and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8.- 7.3.3 Ion Implantation Effects in Thin Films of Copper Oxide Superconductors.- 7.4 Conclusions.- 8. Concluding Remarks.- 8.1 Low Dimensionality of the Structure.- 8.2 Mixed Valence of Copper and Hole Delocalization.- 8.3 The Model of Copper Disproportionation.- 8.4 Role of the Lone Pair Cations and of the Alkaline Earth Elements.- References.
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