Cuba Confidential: Love and Vengeance in Miami and Havana

Cuba Confidential: Love and Vengeance in Miami and Havana

3.2 8
by Ann Louise Bardach

View All Available Formats & Editions

From America’s number one Cuba reporter, PEN award–winning investigative journalist Ann Louise Bardach, comes the big book on Cuba we’ve all been waiting for. An incisive and spirited portrait of the twentieth century’s wiliest political survivor and his fiefdom, Cuba Confidential is the gripping story of the shattered families and


From America’s number one Cuba reporter, PEN award–winning investigative journalist Ann Louise Bardach, comes the big book on Cuba we’ve all been waiting for. An incisive and spirited portrait of the twentieth century’s wiliest political survivor and his fiefdom, Cuba Confidential is the gripping story of the shattered families and warring personalities that lie at the heart of the forty-three-year standoff between Miami and Havana.

Famous to many Americans for her cover stories and media appearances, Ann Louise Bardach has been covering Cuba for a decade. She’s talked to the crooks, spooks and politicians who have made history, and to their hired assassins and confidants. Based on exclusive interviews with Fidel Castro, his sister Juanita, his former brother-in-law Rafael Díaz-Balart, the family of Elián González, the friends and family of the legendary American fugitive Robert Vesco, the intrepid terrorist Luis Posada Carriles, and the inner circles of Jeb Bush and the late exile leader Jorge Mas Canosa, Cuba Confidential exposes the hardball take-no-prisoners tactics of the Cuban exile leadership, and its manipulation and exploitation by ten American presidents.

Bardach homes in on Fidel Castro and his cronies, taking us closer than we’ve ever been—and on the militant exiles who have devoted their lives, with CIA connivance, to trying to eliminate him. From Calle Ocho to Juan Miguel González’s kitchen table in Cárdenas, from Guantánamo Bay to Union City to Washington, D.C., Ann Louise Bardach serves up an unforgettable portrait of Cuba and its exiles.

Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“Bardach knows Miami and Cuba from the inside out . . . Her contacts are wide-ranging in both places, her research is thorough and meticulous..” —Los Angeles Times Book Review

“An extraordinary examination…. A well-researched book.” --The Miami Herald

“The old story of the battle between Castro and his foes is refreshingly retold…. An investigative journalist specializing in Cuba, Bardach has been examining the activities of exile leaders in South Florida for years…Bardach’s portrayal of Castro is as unappealing as any ever drawn.” –The Washington Post

“A long overdue examination of what lies behind the long-running feud between Fidel Castro’s Cuba and Miami’s Cuban-American exiles . . . Bardach is the first author who has tried to look at the rift from both sides.” —St. Petersburg Times

“Bardach brings together the fruits of her reporting on Cubans on both sides of the Florida straits . . . [and] generates some helpful insights. . . . She is particularly sharp-eyed about Cuban families.” —The Economist

“The old story of the battle between Castro and his foes is refreshingly retold. . . . Compelling. . . . A good book for those whose curiosity about Cubans has only recently been awakened.” –The Washington Post

“The work of a reporter at the top of her game. Bardach takes a fascinating new look at the case of Elián González and then spins it into a compelling reexamination of the tortured relationship between the United States and Castro’s Cuba. With Bardach’s fresh take on the young boy and the old man, you’ll never look at either one the same way again.” –Jeffrey Toobin

“Bardach brings together the fruits of her reporting on Cubans on both sides of the Florida Straits . . . and generates some helpful insights. [She] is particularly sharp-eyed about Cuban families.” –The Economist

“If our political establishment knew a tenth as much about Cuba, or cared half as much about it, as does Ann Louise Bardach, both the United States and Cuba would be more open societies.” –Christopher Hitchens

“Bardach long ago established herself as America’s most lucid, courageous, and well-informed observer of Cuban realities on both sides of the Florida Straits. This book is a tour de force, the definitive work on the still ongoing Cuban civil war.”–David Rieff, author of The Exile

“Whatever your views on Cuba, Cuba Confidential offers a valuable treasure of inside information and rich insights on an international controversy that has deep implications for American politics.”–Lou Cannon, author of President Reagan

“An illuminating portrait. . . . Bardach writes with an awareness of the Big Picture. . . . Powerful, evenhanded, thoroughly edifying.”–Kirkus Reviews (starred)

Publishers Weekly
The 2000 custody battle between little Eli n Gonz lez's father, acting, according to Bardach, as the surrogate for the Cuban government, and his exiled Miami relatives, the surrogate anti-Castro forces, became a relentless media event and international affair. The PEN award-winning investigative journalist uses the Elian story as a starting place to examine the larger issues that have roiled Cuba-U.S. politics for four decades. Relying on interviews with Castro, U.S. and Cuban government officials, relatives from both sides of Elian's family and members of the Cuban-exile community, she explores the sources of American enmity toward Cuba and the blood feuds (for example, the Florida congressman Lincoln Diaz-Balart is the nephew of Castro's former wife) that inform anti-Castro sentiments among Cuban exiles. Along the way Bardach finds craven political opportunism (hoping to secure Cuban-exile support, Bush and Gore both backed keeping Elian in the U.S. during the 2000 presidential campaign), political corruption facilitated by the power of the Cuban-exile community in the Miami area, and a shocking tolerance, by post-September 11 standards at least, within the exile community and U.S. government for terrorism directed toward Cuba. Bardach's credibility is sometimes undermined by her failure to critically assess her informants' accusations-innuendoes about Florida governor Jeb Bush's philandering fall into this category-and her tendency to hint at political conspiracies everywhere. All in all, though, Bardach's muckraker is entertaining and disturbing, as it reflects on the power of the dubiously motivated Cuban-exile community. 16 pages of photos not seen by PW. Agent, Tina Bennett. (On sale Oct. 1) Copyright 2002 Cahners Business Information.
Foreign Affairs
A marvelous and evocative deconstruction of the incestuous relationships and hardball tactics that have kept Cuba firmly under Fidel Castro and U.S. policy toward Cuba paralyzed under the influence of Miami's Cuban Americans. Bardach pulls no punches here, making her book the most accessible account of this sorry tangle yet. She has talked to everyone: crooks, spooks, politicos, hired assassins, the inner circle of Florida Governor Jeb Bush, and even the garrulous and manipulative Castro himself. This is a story of betrayal, suspicion, and conspiracies, with agents and counteragents immersed in an ongoing Caribbean Cold War where John Le Carre would feel very much at home. Bardach also documents the exile community as it shifted from favoring paramilitary strikes against Castro to launching a brilliantly successful lobbying effort within the American political system in the early 1980s, modeled on the American Israel Public Affairs Committee. As one former Washington official put it, "The Israeli lobby buys Democrats and rents Republicans, the Cubans buy Republicans and rent Democrats." As Bardach makes clear, the power of this lobby in Congress and beyond remains very much alive for now — as does Castro.
Library Journal
The quagmire of the shattered Cuban family is the background for PEN Award-winning journalist Bardach's investigation of the tragic parallel universes in the two Cubas: the largest island in the Caribbean and the diverse, multifaceted exile community in Miami. Since 1959, Cuban families have suffered, driven apart by politics, geography, conflicting convictions, secrets, and the anguish of separation. Four decades of seething betrayal, suspicion, and conspiracies culminated in world media attention during the Eli n Gonz lez affair, the single most transforming event of Cuba-U.S. relations since the Bay of Pigs. Drawing on ten years of reporting on Cuba and its exiles, Bardach transitions effectively between profiles of aging patriarch and leader Fidel Castro and Cuban exiles seeking freedom but shunted into silence by hard-liners committed to revenge, retribution, and power. Designed for a general audience, this compact volume offers clear explanations of events, individuals, and dynamics since the Cuban Revolution, telling the story of the Gonz lez family and many others. Bibliographic citations incorporate bilingual print, online resources, and interviews. Highly recommended for purchase by large public and academic libraries and specialized contemporary Latin American studies collections.-Sylvia D. Hall-Ellis, LIS Program, Coll. of Education, Univ. of Denver Copyright 2002 Cahners Business Information.
Kirkus Reviews
An illuminating portrait, by a first-class investigative journalist, of the half-century-long civil war that has divided Cuban against itself. Drawing on ten years of reporting among south Florida's exile communities and in Cuba, Bardach (ed., Cuba: A Traveler's Literary Companion, p. 453) offers an extraordinarily complete view of the personal and political gulf that separates Cubans. Here are all sorts of revelations, few of them comforting. Florida's Cubans, 95% of them white, disdain their mixed-blood and black island compatriots, in good part on racial grounds, so that, as one Miami talk-radio host remarked, had Elián González been black, "he would have been tossed back into the sea." Castro (who lobbied hard for the Soviets to launch a nuclear attack on the US), cursed with an elephant's memory and a deep well of vengeance, has devoted much of his energy to punishing former enemies, like the boyhood rival who served 20 years for having once punched him in the face. (Castro's friend Gabriel Garc'a Márquez was once moved to remark, "I can't think of a worse loser than Fidel.") At once pawns and generals in the superpower struggle, Cubans in the US have enjoyed unusual privileges, from the "wet foot/dry foot" policy that "grants any Cuban who makes it to land the right to stay" to perks such as free private-school tuition and special loans from the Small Business Administration. Bardach writes with an awareness of the Big Picture-two of her best moments come in deconstructing the Elián affair and in tracing the influence of Cuban exiles in all branches of the Bush family-but her focus tends to stay on individual actors, from exiled terrorists who dream of assassinating Castro tofamilies whose members, for political reasons, haven't spoken to each other for 40 or more years. Were Castro to die tomorrow, Bardach suggests, the Cuban civil war would flame up again unabated. Powerful, evenhanded, thoroughly edifying. Author tour

Product Details

Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group
Publication date:
Edition description:
Firt Vintage Books Edition
Sales rank:
Product dimensions:
5.20(w) x 8.00(h) x 1.00(d)

Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1


Dos patrias tengo yo—Cuba y la noche.
I have two countries—Cuba and the night.

On Saturday, November 20, 1999, fifteen Cubans ranging in age from five to sixty-five straggled through a cluster of mangrove trees to the marshy shoreline of Cárdenas, Cuba. There they huddled around a seventeen-foot aluminum handcrafted boat with a fifty-horsepower outboard motor, camouflaged by knee-high pangola grass. Swiftly and quietly they loaded the small craft with everything that they would be taking: cheese and crackers, hot dogs, water and some blankets. All the money they had in the world was stuffed in their pockets.

The group was made up of two extended families, friends of long standing. There was the Rodríguez clan with their two sons, a daughter-in-law, and a next-door neighbor. And there was the Munero family—Rafael, forty-nine, his wife, María Elena, forty-eight, and their two sons. One of their sons, twenty-four-year-old Lázaro Munero, called Rafa by his family, was the mastermind, boat builder and driving force behind the escape. Accompanying him was his girlfriend, Elizabet Brotón, a shy, sweet-faced woman with long, dark hair and bangs running along her broad forehead, who was known as Elisa. With her was her five-year-old son, Elián González.

Then there was another couple in their early twenties—two fleeing lovers and the young woman’s five-year-old daughter. The couple, unknown to most of the others, were the only ones who had paid Rafa for passage on the boat.

All of the fifteen aboard had their own reasons for leaving, their own expectations, their own dreams. Some were seeking more opportunity, some were fleeing a spouse or family in Cárdenas, some loathed Fidel Castro and communism, and some wanted better clothes and a better house. But the glue that bound the group together was love and family: the love of a spouse or a sibling waiting for them in America—the dream of family reunification.

More than half of the group could not swim and several had a dread of the sea. María Elena, Rafael Munero’s wife, was recovering from recent heart problems and, like many working-class women from the country’s provinces, had never learned to swim. For her, the splendid waters that enveloped Cuba’s crocodile-shaped form were to be admired from the shoreline but never entered. María Elena had not been feeling well and had had an ominous presentiment about the crossing. But family was the cornerstone of her existence, and if her husband and sons were leaving, so would she.

Earlier in the evening, Rafael Munero had gone out alone to inspect the boat. Suddenly, he heard footsteps coming from behind him and, alarmed, swung around. Seeing that it was his brother, Dagoberto, who had secretly followed him to the boat, Rafael sighed with nervous relief.

Five days before, Rafael had confided to his younger brother that he and his family planned to flee the country and asked him to come. Dagoberto refused. He had had other opportunities to defect—when two other brothers had done so—but leaving was not for him. He lacked the ambition and energy of his siblings, and Cuba’s socialism provided for his basic needs whether he worked or not. To prove his point, he boasted of having had laparoscopic surgery on his knee. “How much would that cost in the U.S.?” he asked knowingly. For days, the two argued and bickered. At times, Rafael would change his mind and say he wouldn’t go, but after a pep talk from his son, he would recommit to the trip. On and off it went, even through their farewell dinner of roast pork in their cramped apartment, with Juan Gabriel crooning on the tape deck. Dagoberto had swung by around 9:30 in the evening. “The group was all gathered there,” he would later recall. “I saw the couple there with her daughter. She was asking if the sea was rough. I asked her: ‘You’re going with that little girl?’ And she told me yes. I told her: ‘Here the waves are a meter high but out there they are four or five times more, up to ten meters high.’ ”

Dagoberto would not give up. He could not bear to lose Rafael, who had raised him like a son after their father had died when Dagoberto was still a teenager. “I was crying because when someone goes over there you always think the worst. My brother ate his dinner, then he left his place alone. I thought this was my last opportunity to talk to him again. I saw that he went for the brush that is all along the shore and I followed him. And when I got there I saw the boat.”

Circling the narrow homemade boat, Dagoberto could see that parts of it were rusty and that holes in its bottom had been patched with packing materials. “I can’t believe you’re leaving on this piece of shit,” Dagoberto bellowed to his brother. “This is not a boat. It’s garbage! You’re crazy.” But, Rafael had made up his mind and didn’t want to hear any more from him. “We’re leaving on it,” he said, his voice pitched with anger, “and if you’re not coming with us, get out of here and leave me alone!”

There was nothing more to say or do. Angry and wounded, Dagoberto shuffled back to the main road, then made his way home. “I didn’t say goodbye to him. I left him there alone maybe 10:30 that night,” Dagoberto mumbled. “I left and I never saw him again.”

around 6:00 a.m. on Thanksgiving day, Juan Ruiz and his friend Reniel Carmenate were coming ashore after an evening of fishing off Miami’s Key Biscayne. Ruiz said that as they docked they could make out the forms of two people huddling and shivering on the shore by the water’s edge. Nearby was an oversized Russian-made black truck tire. “They were in really bad, bad condition,” said Ruiz. “Their skin was a sickly purple color, all ripply with wrinkles and covered in blisters. I wanted to help them take their clothes off because the material was welded into their skin but I was afraid that their skin would tear. The man was in the worse shape, almost going in and out of consciousness. They kept asking for water but I knew from experience that water could really hurt them unless it was given to them through an IV drip. We called the police and I ran to my truck and got some dry clothes.”

The man was almost delirious; the woman’s bones had decalcified from days of ocean immersion. Their bodies were latticed with the bite marks of fish. “The lady was the one who spoke and told us what had happened,” said Ruiz. “She said they left Cuba with twelve others but that everyone had drowned—including a little boy.” The young couple were the fleeing lovers—thirty-three-year-old Nivaldo Fernández and his twenty-two-year-old girlfriend, Arianne Horta.

Thirty miles farther north off of Fort Lauderdale, Sam Ciancio was out in his cabin cruiser. With him was his cousin Donato Dalrymple, a housecleaner, out for the first time on his cousin’s boat. Ciancio spied a large black inner tube bobbing in the Atlantic and thought he saw the outlines of a large doll inside the tire. But as they steered closer to the tire, they saw it was not a doll but rather a small child tied to the inner tube. Ciancio dove into the water and brought the boy aboard. The trembling child was five-year-old Elián González, who, in a matter of hours, would become the poster boy for both sides of America’s forty-year-old Cold War with Cuba.

The three were the sole survivors of the group that had left Cárdenas in the wee hours of November 22. Elián’s mother, Elisa, and her boyfriend, Rafa Munero, were among the eleven who had drowned—along with his brother, mother, and father. Not far from Elián’s inner tube, the body of sixty-one-year-old Mérida Loreto Barrios, the matriarch of the Rodríguez clan, tethered to the end of a long rope, was found floating over the surface of the waves like bait. Stuffed in her undergarments was $210 in twenty- and ten-dollar bills. She had been the last of her family to die—after witnessing the drowning of her two sons, her husband and her daughter-in-law. Some of the bodies were found a hundred miles away from each other—swept by the driving currents of the Gulf Stream to Key West and as far north as Fort Pierce.

But the bodies of Elisa and her lover, his younger brother and Mérida’s husband were never found. They would join the thousands of others, failed seekers of a better life, in that immense aquatic graveyard—the Florida Straits.

Seeking to put faces on those who died, I went to Cárdenas, Havana and Miami several times over the next two years. There were scores of pieces to find, identify and jiggle into the puzzle. There were two extended families, eleven dead, two adult survivors and two five-year-old children who would become estranged from their grieving parents. But clinging to the bare facts were conflicting stories to reconcile, and personal ambitions and political agendas to sort out amidst a surfeit of grief, rage and shame.

In Key Biscayne’s Crandon Park Marina, the shipwreck survivors Nivaldo and Arianne, wrapped and shivering in blankets, told police detectives the saga of their deadly journey. Then they were whisked away to Jackson Memorial Hospital and later to Arianne’s aunt in Hialeah—where they shut themselves in, rarely speaking about their ordeal. I first met Arianne and Nivaldo in early February 2000 at her aunt’s small home on a torn up and potholed street in Hialeah, the working-class Cuban community that borders Miami. The strains of their ordeal and their new lives were painfully evident. At the time, they had no money, no jobs, no clothes and did not speak English.

Arianne is a small, dark-haired beauty with a sultry beauty mark on her chin. Outwardly, she seemed to have emerged from her ordeal entirely unscathed, her gaze riveted on the present and the future. Phoenix-like, she promptly enrolled in an English school in a Hialeah shopping mall, attending class every night from six to nine and charting out her new life. Soon after her miraculous rescue, she made an appointment at the local peluquería in Hialeah and had dagger-length acrylic nails applied to her fingertips.

At our first meeting, Nivaldo seemed particularly stressed—his legs bobbing nervously, his face drawn and wounded. A light-skinned black man with translucent hazel eyes, he was still unable to sleep. Every evening, he said, he awoke over and over again—revisiting the shipwreck and the days they spent drifting in the water. “When we remember everything that happened, we feel it deeply,” he said softly, “having seen so many people drown.”

Nivaldo was besotted with Arianne, his eyes rarely leaving her. Although he too would like to learn English, he said that one of them had to sacrifice and he was willing to do so. And for the love of Arianne, he was willing to make many sacrifices. It was Nivaldo who had paid the entire fee for the two. He had left behind a wife, a good job and a new house in Cárdenas. He rattled off the fine appliances he had in his home on Calle San José. “I lived a lot better in Cuba,” he told me, “than I’m living here now.” And while he thinks he would like Chicago, where his mother and other relatives live, he has contented himself in Miami because Arianne loves it so.

After surviving a perilous shipwreck and excruciating ordeal in the raging Atlantic, Nivaldo found himself in a home feeling unwelcome. Indeed, when I spoke with her weeks later, Arianne’s aunt couldn’t have been more candid about her feelings. Repeatedly tapping her forearm with two fingers—Cuban for signifying that someone is black—she found my eyes and sighed. Racial prejudice is not uncommon in Miami’s exile community, which is roughly 95 percent white. Local talk radio speculated that had Elián González been black—as are 65 to 70 percent of Cubans on the island—“he would have been tossed back into the sea.” A close friend of the couple said that Arianne’s aunt was uncomfortable with Nivaldo in her home. “Supposedly one room is for them but the aunt doesn’t want Nivaldo sleeping with Arianne. So he has to sleep in the living room.” Pushing back her red-blond hair, the aunt told me that Nivaldo’s arrival had been difficult for her. “For us, it is a very big thing. He is the first black person in our family. We grew up in a time when parents brought us up right. We accept him,” she said with another, deeper sigh, “because he is a good, hardworking man. What can we do?”

Sitting in a Hialeah coffee shop where he was unable to eat or drink anything, Nivaldo said that talking about his ordeal only seemed to make it worse. The voyage was ill fated from the beginning, he said. “The most difficult thing was the trip. It was four days long but we were in the water for three days.” By the time the group left shore it was almost 2:30 in the morning of November 21. Under the shield of darkness on a moonless night, they hoped to evade detection from the Cuban Coast Guard. There were two five-year-olds in tow when they left: Arianne’s beautiful, curly-haired daughter, Estefany, named after Princess Stephanie of Monaco, and Elián, Elisa’s son. While Estefany cried and cowered fearfully from the huge, dark waves, Elián delighted in the adventure. He teased passengers who he said were eating too many of their crackers. Everyone giggled at his precocity; his mother glowed.

The mood on the boat darkened abruptly less than two hours after they took off, when the motor clacked and sputtered, then died. “We could still see land,” recalled Nivaldo. Using oars, they paddled back to the nearest key off Cárdenas. There they hid out for fourteen hours until sunset, then paddled back to Cárdenas at 6:00 p.m.

Although it was clearly a poor omen, Nivaldo said no one was deterred from going except Arianne, who was having second thoughts about bringing Estefany, who was crying and fretting. Elisa had unwavering confidence in Rafa—after all, he had made the trip twice before, with even less of a boat than they had. And she could not bear to be parted from Elián.

While the men repaired the engine, Arianne walked her daughter back to her mother’s home on Calle Vives and returned to the boat alone. It was a fateful, prescient decision that she is certain saved their lives. Had they struggled to save or calm her daughter as the others had done for each other, they too would have drowned.

Rafa repaired the boat by inserting “a piece of scrap metal in the engine from another part of the boat,” according to Nivaldo. “They fixed the engine, it was fine, we left, everything was perfect.” Having lost a full day, they finally motored off at 3:00 a.m. on November 22, a Monday. Arianne said she would never forget the date, because it happened to be her twenty-second birthday “and I spent it in the water.” In lieu of life jackets, they took along three gomas—the large black inner tubes used on Russian-made trucks. The plan was to have seven, but Rafa decided that they could make do with three.

Meet the Author

Ann Louise Bardach is a PEN award-winning investigative journalist who has covered Cuba for more than a decade for the New York TimesVanity Fair, where she was a Contributing Editor for many years, and many other national publications. She currently writes the Global Buzz column for Newsweek International and has appeared on 60 Minutes, Today, Dateline, CNN, The O’Reilly Factor, Hardball, Charlie Rose, and NPR, among others. She is also the editor of Cuba: A Travelers Literary Companion and is a Visiting Professor of International Journalism at the University of California at Santa Barbara.

Customer Reviews

Average Review:

Write a Review

and post it to your social network


Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See all customer reviews >

Cuba Confidential: Love and Vengeance in Miami and Havana 3.6 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 7 reviews.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Well balanced, shows that there are good and bad people on both sides of the struggle. Extremely well researched and to the point.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
I fhdg vngk tytuxbgjtughtu
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
This book describes what many Cuban exiles are ignorant about or want to be left ignorant about in the US.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Guest More than 1 year ago
A long overdue and accurate depiction of the fascist element in the Cuban exile community which has come to dominate South Florida and has created its own banana republic.
Guest More than 1 year ago
This book is slander! This digusting woman has tailored the truth to her own liking, Ms.Bardach makes many false allegations in this book and I implore people to boycott it.