Cult as the Catalyst for Division: Cult Disputes as the Motive for Schism in the Pre-70 Pluralistic Environment

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The study asserts that conflicting sacrificial rules were the motive of the schism in Judean society, in the last period of the Second Temple. The study substantiates the thesis by a meticulous examination and comparison of the rabbinic and Qumran exegetical methods, and an exhaustive scrutiny of biblical sacrificial rules, demonstrating their deficiencies, the cause of the exegetical dissensions among the different groups. A short record of historical struggles, due to cult issues, and a scrutiny of Qumran literature, corroborating the utmost significance of the Temple cult in that group, complement the study. The study is useful for a comprehension of Qumran literature and particularly of the system of thought of its authors and their approach to the biblical writings.
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Paul Heger, extensive Talmudic studies in traditional Yeshivot, Ph.D. (1996) in Judaic Studies, University of Toronto, published books and articles on the Development of Ancient Israelite Cult, Dead Sea Scrolls, and Post-biblical literature.
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Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments     xi
Introduction     1
Defining 'Cult'     2
Premises     4
Object of this Study: The Focus on Cult Issues     6
Detailed Outline     9
Conclusion     15
Presentation and Sources     15
Cult Dissension in Ancient Israel     17
Introduction     17
The Pre-Exilic Period     18
The Post-Exilic Period     19
The Effect of the Exile     19
Ideological Dissension among the Returnees     21
Priestly Power and Hellenization     25
Changes in the Practice of Law in the Maccabean Period and its Aftermath     25
The Impact of Scripture on Judean Society     26
The Significance of Exegesis in the Period of Ezra and Nehemiah     26
Exegetical Disputes     29
Sabbath Law and the Development of Relativity in the Law     32
Contention Concerning Sacrifice     35
Conclusion     38
Qumran Exegesis     41
Introduction     41
Example: The Grain Minhah-the Limited Time for Consumption     45
Example: 'New' Laws     54
Consecration of Priests     54
Qumran's Additional Festivals     61
Rabbinic Exegesis: The High Priest's Minhah     62
Qumran Exegesis: The New Festivals     70
Conclusion     86
Scholarly Studies     89
Fishbane's Analysis     89
Nitzan's Analysis     103
Comparing the Styles     104
The General Laissez-faire Attitude and the Fluidity of the Text     105
Minor and Major Variations; Versions     108
The Qumran Variations     114
The Innovative Structure of Qumran's Non-Biblical Writings: Amalgamations of Texts from Different Sources, Interlacing of Text with Exegesis and New Rules     117
Revelation     121
Rabbinic View of Interpretative Authority     123
Qumran's View of Interpretative Authority: Revelation     125
Impact of Revelation on Qumran's Literary Style     129
Impact of Revelation on Qumran Halakhah: Differences and Similarities between Qumran and Rabbinic Halakhah     135
Revelation versus Exegesis-Complementary or Incompatible?     143
The Significance of the Temple and its Sacrificial Celebrations-Qumran and Rabbinic Perspectives     145
Conclusion     147
The Minhah Offering     151
Scope of the Chapter      151
Methodology     153
The Biblical Commands for the Regular Voluntary Minhah     154
The Ingredients of the Offering     156
Quantities of Flour and Oil     156
Type of Flour     162
The Type of Oil     164
Frankincense     166
The Sequence of Development of the Minhah Rules     168
Baked Minhah versus Flour Minhah     168
Shift of Privilege from Altar to Priests     174
Rules Regarding the Minhah's Distribution Among the Priests     190
The Preparation Site     192
The Quantity of Frankincense for the Flour Minhah     202
The Development of Standard Quantities     205
The Components of the "Handful"     207
Further Issues Regarding Frankincense     211
Sectarian Versus Rabbinic Rules: the Addition of Frankincense     211
Sectarian Versus Rabbinic Rules: the Frankincense of the Showbread     214
Frankincense as a Separate Offering     216
Preparatory Steps of the Minhah     219
Mixing the Flour and Oil of the Flour Minhah     219
Mixing the Oil of the Oven-Baked Minhah     221
Three Applications of Oil for Baked Menahot: The Interpretation of the Rabbinic Concept of "the Menahot Baked in a Form"     222
Types of Oven     230
Oven-Baked Menahot-One or Two Types?     230
How Many Cakes or Wafers Must be Baked?     231
Preparing the Baked Menahot for the Taking of the Memorial Portion     233
The Offering Stage     238
Bringing the Minhah Near the Altar     238
Placing the Portion on the Altar     242
Time Limit for Eating the Minhah     244
The Relationship between Rabbinic Rules and Actual Second Temple Practice     248
Conclusion     255
Cult as a Catalyst for Division     257
Introduction     257
Rabbinic References to 'Dissidents'     258
Pharisaic-Sadducean and Pharisaic-Boethusian Disputes     263
Calendar Issues-A Schism with the Boethusians?     264
Disputes with Boethusians on Non-Calendar Issues: A More Reliable Proposition     271
Calendar Issue Relating to the Essenes     273
Conclusion     273
Pharisaic-Sadducean Debates: Fiction or Reality?     274
The Motive Behind the Alleged Debates     274
Different Interpretations of Biblical Commands     275
Disputes Instigated by Contrasting Logical or Legal Considerations: Nitzoq and the Responsibility of the Slave's Owner     277
Disputes That May Have Resulted from Slightly Different Biblical MSS     278
Were the Rabbinic Sacrificial Rules Theoretical or Founded Upon Realities?     281
Interim Conclusion     284
The Relationship Between the Sadducees and the Essenes/Qumranites     285
Interim Conclusion     302
Halakhic Disputes as the Motive for Division     313
The Creation of a Separate Codex     313
All Halakhot or Particular Ones? The Bet Shammai-Bet Hillel Disputes as a Paradigm     318
The Different Character of the Bet Shammai-Bet Hillel Disputes and Pharisee-Dissident Disputes     325
Significance of the Temple Cult in Israelite Society     334
The Utter Significance of the Temple Cult in Qumran     338
Interim Conclusions     347
The Relationship Between Qumran and the Temple Celebrations     349
Did the Qumran Group Participate in the Temple Cult?     349
No Individual Obligation to Bring or Perform Offerings     354
What was Josephus' [Characters not reproducible], the "Votive Offering" Sent to the Temple by the Essenes?     358
How did Qumran Resolve the Obligation of Pilgrimage and the Related Offerings?     360
Why did Judah ben Dorotai and his Son Go to the "South"?      362
Conclusion     367
Conclusion     369
Bibliography     379
Citations Index     397
Subject Index     416
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