Cultural Anthropology / Edition 11

Paperback (Print)
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $1.99
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 98%)
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (53) from $1.99   
  • New (5) from $52.22   
  • Used (48) from $1.99   
Close
Sort by
Page 1 of 1
Showing All
Note: Marketplace items are not eligible for any BN.com coupons and promotions
$52.22
Seller since 2005

Feedback rating:

(365)

Condition:

New — never opened or used in original packaging.

Like New — packaging may have been opened. A "Like New" item is suitable to give as a gift.

Very Good — may have minor signs of wear on packaging but item works perfectly and has no damage.

Good — item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Acceptable — item is in working order but may show signs of wear such as scratches or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Used — An item that has been opened and may show signs of wear. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Refurbished — A used item that has been renewed or updated and verified to be in proper working condition. Not necessarily completed by the original manufacturer.

New
Upper Saddle River, NJ 2004 Softcover 11th Edition New Condition Book is Brand New, Includes Sealed CD. Multiple copies available this title. Quantity Available: 4. ISBN: ... 0131116363. ISBN/EAN: 9780131116368. Inventory No: 1560760132. Read more Show Less

Ships from: Burgin, KY

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$54.22
Seller since 2010

Feedback rating:

(4)

Condition: New
Multiple copies available this title. In Shrinkwrap, Includes CD. Quantity Available: 6. ISBN: 0131116363. ISBN/EAN: 9780131116368. Inventory No: 1560801907. 11th Edition.

Ships from: Burgin, KY

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$54.22
Seller since 2005

Feedback rating:

(365)

Condition: New
Upper Saddle River, NJ 2004 Softcover 11th Edition New Book In Shrinkwrap, Includes CD. Multiple copies available this title. Quantity Available: 6. ISBN: 0131116363. ISBN/EAN: ... 9780131116368. Inventory No: 1560801907. Read more Show Less

Ships from: Burgin, KY

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$60.00
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(113)

Condition: New
Brand new.

Ships from: acton, MA

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
$277.40
Seller since 2006

Feedback rating:

(612)

Condition: New
PAPERBACK New 0131116363 New sealed CD included.

Ships from: Greer, SC

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
Page 1 of 1
Showing All
Close
Sort by

Overview

This comprehensive volume reflects recent anthropological research and controversial developments, while integrating features in each chapter to spark and maintain reader interest. A focus on applied anthropology discusses the history and types in the Unites States, and shows how the work of applied anthropologists is playing more of a role in the planning of possible solutions to various global social problems—including AIDS, disasters, homelessness, crime, family violence, and war.The volume offers an introduction to anthropology, cultural variation and using applied anthropology and medical anthropology to address global social problems.For individuals interested in exploring the far-reaching aspects of anthropology.
Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A new edition of the textbook first published in 1973. Presents an overview of the field, with chapters examining the concept of culture, communication and language, and religion and magic, among other topics. Chapters include information on current issues, new perspectives on gender, research frontiers, and applied anthropology, in addition to the general information. Includes an interactive CD- ROM and Internet exercises. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131116368
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/24/2003
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 11
  • Pages: 415
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Pt. 1 Introduction to Anthropology
1 What Is Anthropology? 1
Pt. 2 Cultural Variation
2 The Concept of Culture 13
3 Schools of Thought in Cultural Anthropology 29
4 Explanation and Evidence 46
5 Language and Culture 59
6 Food-Getting 84
7 Economic Systems 103
8 Social Stratification 130
9 Sex and Culture 144
10 Marriage and the Family 165
11 Marital Residence and Kinship 187
12 Associations and Interest Groups 210
13 Political Life: Social Order and Disorder 225
14 Psychology and Culture 248
15 Religion and Magic 269
16 The Arts 289
Pt. 3 Culture and Anthropology in the Modern World
17 Culture Change 304
18 Explaining and Solving Social Problems 326
Epilogue 347
Glossary 351
Bibliography 359
Photo Acknowledgments 385
Index 387
Read More Show Less

Preface

This edition is new in several ways. Given the importance of the field of medical anthropology, we have added a new chapter on the subject. We have also added new materials on ethnicity and racism. There are new sections on ethnicity and inequality, racism and inequality, ethnogenesis (the emergence of new ethnic groups and cultures), and two new boxes—one on ethnic conflict and the other on African American/European American disparities in death. Mainly, we want this new edition to reflect the fact that one out of two anthropologists is now employed outside the academic world, working on and attempting to solve practical problems. And so we now have three chapters grouped under the heading of "Using Anthropology." Introducing this expanded coverage is a chapter on applied and practicing anthropology, which includes new sections on cultural resource management and forensic anthropology. Then there is the new chapter on medical anthropology. Finally, there is a chapter on global social problems and how they might be solved on the basis of anthropological and other social science research. Ten boxes on applied and practicing anthropology appear throughout the book.

In updating the book, we try to go beyond descriptions, as always. We are interested not only in what humans are and were like; we are also interested in why they got to be that way, in all their variety. When there are alternative explanations, we try to communicate the necessity to evaluate them both logically and on the basis of the available evidence. Throughout the book, we try to communicate that no idea, including ideas put forward in textbooks, should be accepted even tentativelywithout supporting tests that could have gone the other way.

Part I: Introduction to Anthropology CHAPTER I : WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY

Chapter 1 introduces the student to anthropology. We discuss what we think is special and distinctive about anthropology in general, and about each of its subfields in particular. We outline how each of the subfields is related to other disciplines such as biology, psychology, and sociology. We direct attention to the increasing importance of applied anthropology. There are three boxes, each focusing on an individual anthropologist and her or his work.

CHAPTER 2: THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE

This chapter introduces the concept of culture. We first try to convey a feeling for what culture is before dealing more explicitly with the concept and some assumptions about it. A section on cultural relativism puts the concept in its historical context and discusses recent thinking on the subject. We discuss the fact that individual behavior varies in all societies and how such variation may be the beginning of new cultural patterns. The first box, which asks whether Western countries are ethnocentric in their ideas about human rights, incorporates the debate within anthropology about cultural relativism. The second box discusses an applied anthropologist's view of why, the Bedouin are reluctant to settle down.

CHAPTER 3: THEORY AND EVIDENCE IN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

In this chapter we focus first on those theoretical orientations that remain popular in cultural anthropology. Then we discuss what it means to explain and what kinds of evidence are needed to evaluate an explanation. We end with a discussion of the major types of study in cultural anthropology—ethnography, ethnohistory, within—culture comparisons, regional comparisons, and worldwide cross-cultural comparisons. The first box uses a research question about the Abelam of New Guinea to illustrate how different theoretical orientations suggest different types of answers. The second box explores the differences between scientific and humanistic understanding and points out that the different approaches are not really incompatible. In the third box, we have two purposes. One is to give a feeling for the experience of fieldwork; the second is to use the Mead-Freeman controversy to explore the issue of how we can know that an ethnographer is accurate.

Part II: Cultural Variation

In most of the chapters in this part, we try to convey the range of cultural variation with ethnographic examples from all over the world. Wherever we can, we discuss possible explanations of why societies may be similar or different in some aspect of culture. If anthropologists have no explanation for the variation, we say so. But if we have some idea of the conditions that may be related to a particular kind of variation, even if we do not know why they are related, we discuss that too. If we are to train students to go beyond what we know now, we have to tell them what we do not know, as well as what we think we know.

CHAPTER 4: COMMUNICATION AND LANGUAGE

We begin by discussing communication in humans and other animals. After a consideration of human nonverbal communication, we discuss the origins of language and how Creoles and children's language acquisition may help us understand the origins. Then we move on to descriptive linguistics and the processes of linguistic divergence. After focusing on the interrelationships between .language and other aspects of culture, we end with the ethnography of speaking, including differences in speech by status, gender, and ethnicity. The first box deals with the problem of language extinction and what some anthropologists are doing about it. To stimulate thinking about the possible impact of language on thought, we ask in the second box whether the English language promotes sexist thinking, referring to recent research on the subject.

CHAPTER 5: GETTING FOOD

Chapter 5 discusses how societies vary in getting their food, how they have changed over time, and how such variation seems to affect other kinds of cultural variation—including variation in economic systems, social stratification, and political life. We include a discussion of "market foragers" to emphasize that most people in a modern market economy are not in fact producers of food. The first box deals with the change from "Man the Hunter" to "Woman the Gatherer," and we raise the question of whether either view is accurate. Although it is commonly thought that industrialization is mainly to blame for negative developments in the environment, our second box deals with the negative effects in preindustrial times of irrigation, animal grazing, and overhunting.

CHAPTER 6: ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

Chapter 6 discusses how societies vary in the ways they allocate resources (what is "property" and what ownership may mean), convert or transform resources through labor into usable goods, and distribute and perhaps exchange goods and services. We consider the effects of political systems (including colonialism) on land ownership and use, and we distinguish between gift and commodity exchanges. There is a discussion of why children in some foraging societies do more work than in others. The first box addresses the controversy over whether communal ownership leads to economic disaster. After the discussion of commercialization, the second box illustrates the impact of the world system on local economies, with special reference to the deforestation of the Amazon.

CHAPTER 7: SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: CLASS, ETHNICITY, AND RACISM

This chapter is considerably revised. There is now a major section on racism and inequality, including a discussion of how the concept of "race" is not scientifically useful as applied to humans. There is also a new major section on ethnicity and inequality. A new box compares the death rates of African Americans and European Americans. The second box discusses social stratification on the global level—how the gap between rich and poor countries has been widening, and what may account for that trend. In general, we deal with variation in degree of social stratification and how the various forms of social inequality may develop.

CHAPTER 8: SEX, GENDER, AND CULTURE

In the first part of Chapter 8 we discuss how and why sex and gender differences vary cross-culturally; in the second part we discuss variation in sexual attitudes and practices. We explain how the concepts of gender do not always involve just two genders. We emphasize all the ways women contribute to work, and how conclusions about contributions by gender depend on how you measure "work:" In the first box, we review research on why women's political participation maybe increasing in some Coast Salish communities of western Washington State and British Columbia, now that they have elected councils. A second box examines cross-cultural research about why some societies allow women to participate in combat.

CHAPTER 9: MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY

After discussing various theories about why marriage might be universal, we move on to discuss variation in how one marries, restrictions on marriage, whom one should marry, and how many one should marry. We close with a discussion of variation in family form. To introduce topics regarding the husband-wife relationship that are only beginning to be investigated, there is a box on variation in love, intimacy, and sexual jealousy. The box in the section on family organization considers why one-parent families are on the increase in countries like ours.

CHAPTER 10: MARITAL RESIDENCE AND KINSHIP

In addition to explaining the variation that exists in marital residence, kinship structure, and kinship terminology, this chapter emphasizes how understanding residence is important for understanding social life. One of the boxes discusses the possible relationship between neolocality and adolescent rebellion. The second box is on how variation in residence and kinship affects the lives of women.

CHAPTER 11: ASSOCIATIONS AND INTEREST GROUPS

We discuss the importance of associations in many parts of the world, particularly the increasing importance of voluntary associations. The section on rotating-credit associations discusses how they work to provide lump sums of money to individuals, how they are especially important to women, and how they become even more important when people move to new places. The first box addresses the question of whether separate women's associations increase women's status and power; the second box discusses why street gangs develop and why they often become violent.

CHAPTER 12: POLITICAL LIFE: SOCIAL ORDER AND DISORDER

We look at how societies have varied in their levels of political organization, the various ways people become leaders, the degree to which they participate in the political process, and the peaceful and violent methods of resolving conflict. We discuss how colonialization has transformed legal systems and ways of making decisions, how conflicts may be resolved peacefully, and how cross-cultural research casts doubt on the notion that wars in the nonwestern world are fought over women. The first box deals with how new local courts among the Abelam of New Guinea are allowing women to address sexual grievances. The second box deals with the cross-national and cross-cultural relationship between economic development and democracy.

CHAPTER 13: PSYCHOLOGY AND CULTURE

Chapter 13 discusses some of the universals of psychological development, some psychological differences between societies and what might account for them, how people in different societies conceive of personality differently (e.g., the concept of self), and how knowledge of psychological processes may help us understand cultural variation. We describe recent research indicating that even the concept of love, as mysterious and as culturally variable as it seems, may be similar in different cultures. We also discuss research showing that schizophrenic individuals in different cultures seem to have the same patterns of distinctive eye movements. The first box in this chapter explores the idea that women have a different sense of themselves than men have, and therefore a different sense of morality. The second box, in a comparison of preschools in Japan, China, and the United States, discusses how schools may consciously and unconsciously teach values.

CHAPTER 14: RELIGION AND MAGIC

After discussing why religion may be culturally universal, we consider variation in religious belief and practice with extensive examples. We discuss revitalization movements and how humans tend to anthropomorphize in the face of unpredictable events. The first box reviews research on New England fishermen that suggests how their taboos, or "rituals of avoidance," may be anxiety reducing. The second box discusses the emergence of new religions or cults and points out that nearly all the major religions in the world began as minority sects or cults.

CHAPTER 15: THE ARTS

After considering how art might be defined, we discuss variation in the visual arts, music, and folklore, and review how some of those variations might be explained. In regard to how the arts change over time, we discuss the myth that the art of "simpler" peoples is timeless and how arts have changed as a result of European contact. We address the role of ethnocentrism in studies of art with a section on how Western museums and art critics look at the visual art of less complex cultures. One box discusses how art varies with different kinds of political systems. The second box, dealing with universal symbolism in art, reviews research on the emotions displayed in masks.

CHAPTER 16: CULTURE CHANGE

After discussing the ultimate sources of culture change—discovery and innovation—we discuss some of what is known about the conditions under which people are likely to accept innovations. We discuss the costs and benefits of innovations, external and internal pressures for culture change, and the likelihood of cultural diversity in the fixture. One of the boxes examines culture change in Communist China—what has changed because of government intervention and what has persisted nevertheless. To convey that culture change often has biological consequences, there is a box on obesity, hypertension, and diabetes as health consequences of modernization.

Part III: Using Anthropology CHAPTER 17: APPLIED AND PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY

This chapter discusses the types of jobs outside of academia, the history and types of applied anthropology in the United States, the ethical issues involved in trying to improve people's lives, the difficulties in evaluating whether a program is beneficial, and ways of implementing planned changes. We point out how applied anthropologists are playing more of a role in planning change rather than just advising programs already in place. The two boxes show how anthropologists have been able to help in business and in reforestation.

CHAPTER 18: MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

This new chapter discusses cultural understandings of health and illness, the treatment of illness (particularly from a biocultural rather than just a biomedical point of view), political and economic influences on health, and the contributions of medical anthropologists to the study of various health conditions and diseases. Those conditions and diseases include AIDS, mental and emotional disorders, the folk illness susto, depression, and undernutrition. The first box deals with why an applied medical project didn't work; the second box considers eating disorders and the cultural construction of "beauty."

CHAPTER 19: GLOBAL SOCIAL PROBLEMS

In this chapter we discuss how research may suggest possible solutions to various global social problems, including natural disasters and famines, homelessness, crime, family violence, and war. There are two new boxes. One is on global warming and our dependence on oil. The second is on ethnic conflicts and whether or not they are inevitable.

Continuing Features BOXES IN EACH CHAPTER

Current Issues. These boxes deal with topics students may have heard about in the news (examples: the increase in single-parent families; the widening gap between rich and poor countries) or topics that are currently the subject of debate in the profession (examples: science versus humanism; human rights and cultural relativity).

Research Frontiers. These boxes look at researchers at work or take an in-depth look at new research or a research controversy (examples: love, intimacy, and sexual jealousy; the universality of emotions expressed in masks).

New Perspectives on Gender. These boxes involve issues pertaining to sex and gender, both in anthropology and everyday life (examples: sexism in language; separate women's associations and women's status and power; gender differences in morality).

Applied Anthropology. These boxes deal with some of the ways anthropologists have applied their knowledge to practical problems (examples: deforestation in the Amazon; preventing the extinction of languages).

READABILITY

We derive a lot of pleasure from trying to describe research findings, especially complicated ones, in ways that introductory students can understand. Thus, we try to minimize technical jargon, using only those terms students must know to appreciate the achievements of anthropology and to take advanced courses. We think readability is important, not only because it may enhance the reader's understanding of what we write, but also because it should make learning about anthropology more enjoyable! When new terms are introduced, which of course must happen sometimes, they are set off in boldface type and defined right away.

GLOSSARY TERMS

At the end of each chapter we list the new terms that have been introduced; these terms were identified by boldface type and defined in the text. We deliberately do not repeat the definitions at the end of the chapter to allow students to test themselves against the definitions provided in the Glossary at the end of the book.

CRITICAL QUESTIONS

We also provide three or four questions at the end of each chapter that may stimulate thinking about the implications of the chapter. The questions do not ask for repetition of what is in the text. We want students to imagine, to go beyond what we know or think we know.

SUMMARIES AND SUGGESTED READING

In addition to the outline provided at the beginning of each chapter, there is a detailed summary at the end of each chapter that will help the student review the major concepts and findings discussed. Suggested Reading provides general or more extensive references on the subject matter of the chapter.

A COMPLETE GLOSSARY AT THE END OF THE BOOK

Important glossary terms for each chapter are listed (without definitions) at the end of each chapter, so students can readily check their understanding after they have read the chapter. A complete Glossary is provided at the back of the book to review all terms in the book and serve as a convenient reference for the student.

NOTES AT THE END OF THE BOOK

Because we believe firmly in the importance of documentation, we think it essential to tell our readers, both professional and student, what our conclusions are based on. Usually the basis is published research. References to the relevant studies are provided in complete notes by chapter 1 at the end of the book.

BIBLIOGRAPHY AT THE END OF THE BOOK

All of the references cited throughout the book are collected and listed at the end of the book.

Supplements The supplement package for this textbook has been carefully crafted to amplify and illuminate materials in the text itself. FOR THE PROFESSOR

Instructor's Resource Manual. This essential instructor's tool includes chapter outlines, resources for discussion, discussion questions, paper topics and research projects, web resources, and film resources. The instructor's manual is available in an electronic version on the faculty CDROM.

Test Item File. This carefully prepared manual includes over 1,600 questions in multiple-choice, true/false, and essay formats. All test questions are page-referenced to the text. The test questions are available in both Windows and Macintosh computerized formats. Contact your Prentice Hall representative for more details.

Interactive CD-ROM, Faculty Version. Available with every new copy of the text, this CD-ROM provides an exciting learning experience for students. Interactive simulations and exercises, a complete map atlas, and reference resources all help to illustrate the concepts described in the book. Included on the faculty version are the instructor's manual, PowerPoint' slides, and other materials designed to enhance the classroom learning environment.

Distance Learning Solutions. Prentice Hall is committed to providing our anthropology content to the growing number of courses being delivered over the Internet by developing relationships with the leading vendors. Please see your Prentice Hall sales representative for more information.

Transparency Acetates. Taken from graphs, diagrams, and tables in this text and other sources, these full-color transparencies offer an effective means of amplifying lecture topics.

Videos. Prentice Hall is pleased to offer two new video series: The Changing American Indian in a Changing America: Videocases of American Indian Peoples, and Rites of Passage: Videocases of Traditional African Peoples. In addition, a selection of high quality, award-winning videos from the Filmmakers Library collection is available upon adoption. Please see your Prentice Hall sales representative for more information.

FOR THE STUDENT

Study Guide. Designed to reinforce information in the text, the study guide includes chapter outlines and summaries, glossary term definition exercises, and self-test questions keyed to the text.

Companion Website™. In tandem with the text, students can now take full advantage of the World Wide Web to enrich their study of anthropology through the Ember Website. This resource correlates the text with related material available on the Internet. Features of the Website include chapter objectives, study questions, and links to interesting material and information from other sites on the Web that can reinforce and enhance the content of each chapter. Address:

Interactive CD-ROM. Available with every new copy of the text, this CD-ROM provides an exciting learning experience for students. Interactive simulations and exercises, a complete map atlas, and reference resources all help to illustrate the concepts described in the book.

Anthropology on the Internet: Evaluating Online Resources, 2001. This guide focuses on developing the critical thinking skills necessary to evaluate and use online sources effectively. The guide also provides a brief introduction to navigating the Internet, along with complete references related specifically to the anthropology discipline and how to use the Companion Websites™ available for many Prentice Hall textbooks. This brief supplementary book is free to students when shrinkwrapped as a package with any anthropology title.

The New York Times/Prentice Hall Themes of the Times. The New York Times and Prentice Hall are sponsoring Themes of the Times, a program designed to enhance student access to current information relevant to the classroom. Through this program, the core subject matter provided in the text is supplemented by a collection of timely articles from one of the world's most distinguished newspapers, The New York Times. These articles demonstrate the vital, ongoing connection between what is learned in the classroom and what is happening in the world around us. To enjoy a wealth of information provided by The New York Times daily, a reduced subscription rate is available. For information, call toll-free: 1-800-631-1222.

Prentice Hall and The New York Times are proud to cosponsor Themes of the Times. We hope it will make the reading of both textbooks and newspapers a more dynamic, involving process.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Ethnographic fieldwork is the basis of most theory and research on human culture. To emphasize its importance, we have added "Portraits of Culture" as a box feature in this edition. We introduce the new set of boxes in the first chapter, and every other chapter has an extract from a "portrait" of a different culture. These extracts come from a series of original ethnographic articles that we specially commissioned for supplementary reading. The entire series, with other specially commissioned series (on "Research Frontiers in Anthropology" and "Cross-Cultural Research for Social Science"), is now available from Prentice Hall on a CD-ROM (see Supplements). Other major changes in this edition include expanded coverage of globalization and its consequences (see the revised chapter, now called "Culture Change and Globalization") and a new section on terrorism in the chapter on global social problems. Other changes are outlined below in the description of each chapter. In updating the book, we try to go beyond descriptions, as always. We are interested not only in what humans are and were like; we are also interested in why they got to be that way, in all their variety. When there are alternative explanations, we try to communicate the necessity to evaluate them logically as well as on the basis of the available evidence. Throughout the book, we try to communicate that no idea, including ideas put forward in textbooks, should be accepted even tentatively without supporting tests that could have gone the other way.

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE CHAPTERS

PART I: INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY

CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY?

Chapter 1 introduces thestudent to anthropology. We discuss what we think is special and distinctive about anthropology in general, and about each of its subfields in particular. We outline how each of the subfields is related to other disciplines such as biology, psychology, and sociology. We direct attention to the increasing importance of applied anthropology. There are four boxes. The first three focus on an individual anthropologist and her or his work. The fourth box highlights an entirely new series of boxes that are found in all subsequent chapters. Called "Portraits of Culture," these new boxes include extracts from original ethnographic portraits that we commissioned for a series titled with the same name. Although we cannot here include all of the portraits in the series, the entire series is on a CD-ROM that can be obtained from Prentice Hall (see Supplements).

CHAPTER 2: THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE

This chapter introduces the concept of culture. We first try to convey a feeling for what culture is before dealing more explicitly with the concept and some assumptions about it. A section on cultural relativism puts the concept in its historical context and discusses recent thinking on the subject. We discuss the fact that individual behavior varies in all societies and how such variation may be the beginning of new cultural patterns. The first box, which is new, describes an ethnographer's initial shock at finding out that same-sex public affection in her place of fieldwork has completely different meanings from what it has in North America. The second box, which asks whether Western countries are ethnocentric in their ideas about human rights, incorporates the debate within anthropology about cultural relativism. The third box discusses an applied anthropologist's view of why Bedouin are reluctant to settle down.

CHAPTER 3: THEORY AND EVIDENCE IN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

In this chapter we focus first on those theoretical orientations that remain popular in cultural anthropology. Then we discuss what it means to explain and what kinds of evidence are needed to evaluate an explanation. We end with a discussion of the major types of study in cultural anthropology--ethnography, ethnohistory, within-culture comparisons, regional comparisons, and worldwide cross-cultural comparisons. We have expanded the discussion of fieldwork by showing how an ethnographer can select knowledgeable informants to help understand a culture. The first box explores the differences between scientific and humanistic understanding and points out that the different approaches are not really incompatible. The second box uses a research question about the Abelam of New Guinea to illustrate how different theoretical orientations suggest different types of answers. In the third bob, we have two purposes. One is to give a feeling for the experience of fieldwork; the second is to use the Mead-Freeman controversy to explore the issue of how we can know that an ethnographer is accurate. The last box, which is new, discusses how an ethnographer did historical research on the Miskito of Nicaragua.

PART II: CULTURAL VARIATION

In most of the chapters that follow, we try to convey the range of cultural variation with ethnographic examples from all over the world. Wherever we can, we discuss possible explanations of why societies may be similar or different in regard to some aspect of culture. If anthropologists have no explanation as yet for the variation, we say so. But if we have some idea of the conditions that may be related to a particular kind of variation, even if we do not know yet why they are related, we discuss that too. If we are to train students to go beyond what we know now, we have to tell them what we do not know, as well as what we think we know.

CHAPTER 4: COMMUNICATION AND LANGUAGE

We begin by discussing communication in humans and other animals. After an updated discussion of human nonverbal communication we describe the debate about the degree of difference between human and nonhuman primate language abilities. We discuss the origins of language and how creoles and children's language acquisition may help us understand the origins. Then we move on to descriptive linguistics and the processes of linguistic divergence. After discussing the interrelationships between language and other aspects of culture, we end with the ethnography of speaking and the differences in speech by status, gender, and ethnicity. We have expanded the discussion of interethnic or intercultural communication, indicating how linguists can play a role in helping people improve their cross-cultural communication. The first box, which is new, deals with Haitian Creole. The second discusses the problem of language extinction and what some anthropologists are doing about it. To stimulate thinking about the possible impact of language on thought, we ask in the third box whether the English language promotes sexist thinking.

CHAPTER 5: GETTING FOOD

Chapter 5 discusses how societies vary in getting their food, how they have changed over time, and how such variation seems to affect other kinds of cultural variation--including variation in economic systems, social stratification, and political life. We include a discussion of "market foragers" to emphasize that most people in a modern market economy are not in fact producers of food. The first box deals with the change from "Man the Hunter" to "Woman the Gatherer," and we raise the question of whether either view is accurate. Although it is commonly thought that industrialization is mainly to blame for negative developments in the environment, our second box deals with the negative effects in preindustrial times of irrigation, animal grazing, and overhunting. Our third box, which is new, explores how the agricultural Han Chinese adapted to moving into drier land more suited to pastoralism.

CHAPTER 6: ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

Chapter 6 discusses how societies vary in the ways they allocate resources (what is "property" and what ownership may mean), convert or transform resources through labor into usable goods, and distribute and perhaps exchange goods and services. We have expanded and updated the discussions of land use amongst pastoralists, we discuss the effects of political systems (including colonialism) on land ownership and use, and we have expanded the discussion of food sharing. There is a discussion of why children in some foraging societies do more work than in others. The first box addresses the controversy over whether communal ownership leads to economic disaster. The second box, which is new, discusses the distribution of work among the Yanomamo. After the discussion of commercialization, the third box illustrates the impact of the world-system on local economies, with special reference to the deforestation of the Amazon.

CHAPTER 7: SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: CLASS, ETHNICITY, AND RACISM

This chapter explores the variation in degree of social stratification and how the various forms of social inequality may develop. We discuss "race," racism, and ethnicity and how they often relate to the inequitable distribution of resources. We have added new material on how egalitarian societies work hard to prevent dominance, and on the controversy about whether pastoral societies with individual ownership of animals are egalitarian. We have extensively revised the boxes and text to provide up-to-date information on the degree of inequality in the world as well as in the United States. The first box, which is new, discusses social stratification in a foraging society--the Tlingit of southern Alaska. The second box discusses social stratification on the global level--how the gap between rich and poor countries has been widening, and what may account for that trend. The third box discusses possible reasons for disparities in death by disease between African Americans and European Americans.

CHAPTER 8: SEX, GENDER, AND CULTURE

In the first part of Chapter 8 we discuss how and why sex and gender differences vary cross-culturally; in the second part we discuss variation in sexual attitudes and practices. We explain how the concepts of gender do not always involve just two genders. We emphasize all the ways women contribute to work, and how conclusions about contributions by gender depend on how you measure "work." We include new material on female hunting and what impact it has on theories about division of labor. In the first box, we discuss research on why women's political participation may be increasing in some Coast Salish communities of western Washington State and British Columbia, now that they have elected councils. A second box examines cross-cultural research about why some societies allow women to participate in combat. The new box discusses the Andean Mestizo belief that a long period of breastfeeding is detrimental to girls.

CHAPTER 9: MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY

After discussing various theories about why marriage might be universal, we move on to discuss variation in how one marries, restrictions on marriage, whom one should marry, and how many one should marry. We close with a discussion of variation in family form. We have added new research on why bride price varies, the relationship between population density and marriage distance, and we have expanded our coverage of polygyny from women's perspectives. The new box on the Yapese of Micronesia conveys the unimportance of marriage ceremonies in some societies. To introduce topics regarding the husband-wife relationship that are only beginning to be investigated, the second updated box discusses variation in love, intimacy, and sexual jealousy. The third box, in the section on family organization, discusses why one-parent families are on the increase in countries like ours.

CHAPTER 10: MARITAL RESIDENCE AND KINSHIP

In addition to explaining the variation that exists in marital residence, kinship structure, and kinship terminology, this chapter emphasizes how understanding residence is important for understanding social life. One of the boxes discusses the possible relationship between neolocality and adolescent rebellion. The new second box is on the importance of the mother's brother among the Cherokee of the southeastern United States. The last box is on how variation in residence and kinship affects the lives of women.

CHAPTER 11: ASSOCIATIONS AND INTEREST GROUPS

We discuss the importance of associations in many parts of the world, particularly the increasing importance of voluntary associations. There is a section on rotating-credit associations. We discuss how they work to provide lump sums of money to individuals, how they are especially important to women, and how they become even more important when people move to new places. The first box addresses the question of whether separate women's associations increase women's status and power; the second box discusses why street gangs develop and why they often become violent. The new last box discusses the role ethnic associations play in Chinatowns in the United States.

CHAPTER 12: POLITICAL LIFE: SOCIAL ORDER AND DISORDER

We look at how societies have varied in their levels of political organization, the various ways people become leaders, the degree to which they participate in the political process, and the peaceful and violent methods of resolving conflict. We discuss how colonialization has transformed legal systems and ways of making decisions, how conflicts may be resolved peacefully, and how cross-cultural research casts doubt on the notion that wars in the non-Western world are fought over women. We have added new material on the causes of widespread political participation. The new box discusses the Iroquois confederacy. The second box deals with how new local courts among the Abelam of New Guinea are allowing women to address sexual grievances. The third box deals with the cross-national and cross-cultural relationship between economic development and democracy.

CHAPTER 13: PSYCHOLOGY AND CULTURE

Chapter 13 discusses some of the universals of psychological development, some psychological differences between societies and what might account for them, how people in different societies conceive of personality differently (e.g., the concept of self), and how knowledge of psychological processes may help us understand cultural variation. We have added two new sections that identify some larger processes that may influence personality. One is on the importance of the settings that children are placed in. The second is on how native theories ("ethnotheories") about parenting vary by culture. The first box, which is new, discusses whether adolescence is a meaningful concept in Morocco. The second box discusses the idea that women have a different sense of themselves than men have, and therefore a different sense of morality. The third box, referring to a comparison of preschools in Japan, China, and the United States, discusses how schools may consciously and unconsciously teach values.

CHAPTER 14: RELIGION AND MAGIC

After discussing why religion may be culturally universal, we discuss variation in religious belief and practice with extensive examples. We discuss revitalization movements and how humans tend to anthropomorphize in the face of unpredictable events. We have added a discussion of why women may predominate in possession trances. The first box discusses research on New England fishermen that suggests how their taboos, or "rituals of avoidance," may be anxiety reducing. The second box, which is new, discusses shamanism among the Sierra Otomi of Mexico. The last box discusses the emergence of new religions and points out that nearly all the major churches or religions in the world began as minority sects or cults.

CHAPTER 15: THE ARTS

After discussing how art might be defined, we discuss variation in the visual arts, music, and folklore, and review how some of those variations might be explained. In regard to how the arts change over time, we discuss the myth that the art of "simpler" peoples is timeless and how arts have changed as a result of European contact. We address the role of ethnocentrism in studies of art with a section on how Western museums and art critics look at the visual art of less complex cultures. One box discusses how art varies with different kinds of political systems. The second box, dealing with universal symbolism in art, reviews recent research on the emotions displayed in masks. The last box, which is new, portrays dance performance among the Nimpkish of North America's northwest coast.

CHAPTER 16: CULTURE CHANGE AND GLOBALIZATION

This chapter is considerably revised and has an entirely new section on globalization. We have added new research on societies that have increased innovation over time, on societies that have deliberately introduced culture changes, on what may predict the acculturation of immigrant groups in North America, and on what may predict ethnogenesis. After discussing the ultimate sources of culture change--discovery and innovation--we discuss some of what is known about the conditions under which people are likely to accept innovations. We discuss the costs and benefits of innovations, external and internal pressures for culture change, globalization, ethnogenesis, and the likelihood of cultural diversity in the future. The first box, which is new, describes how culture change has been selective among the North Alaskan Eskimo. The second box examines culture change in Communist China--what has changed because of government intervention and what has persisted nevertheless. To convey that culture change often has biological consequences, the last box discusses obesity, hypertension, and diabetes as health consequences of modernization.

PART III: USING ANTHROPOLOGY

CHAPTER 17: APPLIED AND PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY

This chapter discusses the types of jobs outside of academia, the history and types of applied anthropology in the United States, the ethical issues involved in trying to improve people's lives, the difficulties in evaluating whether a program is beneficial, and ways of implementing planned changes. We point out how applied anthropologists are playing more of a role in planning, rather than as peripheral advisers to change programs already in place. We have expanded the forensic anthropology section to include how cultural anthropologists can be involved. The first two boxes show how anthropologists have been able to help in business and in reforestation. The last box, which is new, discusses the ways that the Taos of New Mexico have resisted some kinds of change.

CHAPTER 18: MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

This chapter discusses cultural understandings of health and illness, the treatment of illness (particularly from a biocultural rather than just a biomedical point of view), political and economic influences on health, and the contributions of medical anthropologists to the study of various health conditions and diseases. Those conditions and diseases include AIDS, mental and emotional disorders, the folk illness susto, depression, and undernutrition. The first box, which is new, discusses the Saraguros' (of Ecuador) belief that experience and emotion have an equal footing with infection and contagion as risk factors for illness. The second box deals with why an applied medical project didn't work; the third box deals with eating disorders and the cultural construction of "beauty."

CHAPTER 19: GLOBAL SOCIAL PROBLEMS

In this chapter we discuss the relationship between basic and applied research, and how research may suggest possible solutions to various global social problems, including natural disasters and famines, homelessness, crime, family violence, and war. A new section discusses terrorism. The sections on family violence and war have been updated. There are three boxes; the last one is new. One is on global warming and our dependence on oil. The second is on ethnic conflicts and whether or not they are inevitable. The last one touches on how war has endangered the Abkhazian culture of the Northwest Caucasus.

CONTINUING FEATURES

BOXES IN EACH CHAPTER

Research Frontiers and Current Issues. These boxes deal with research or research controversies in depth or examine topics students may have heard about in the news. Research examples include variation in love, intimacy, and sexual jealousy in the husband-wife relationship, the increase in single-parent families, and the universality of emotions expressed in masks. Examples of current issues in the news are whether inequality between countries is increasing and whether ethnic conflicts are ancient hatreds. Examples of topics that are currently the subject of debate in the profession are science versus humanism and human rights versus cultural relativity.

New Perspectives on Gender. These boxes involve issues pertaining to sex and gender, both in anthropology and everyday life. Examples include sexism in language, separate women's associations and women's status and power, and morality in women versus men.

Applied Anthropology. These boxes deal with some of the ways anthropologists have studied or applied their knowledge to health and other practical problems. Examples are deforestation in the Amazon, preventing the extinction of languages, and eating disorders.

READABILITY

We derive a lot of pleasure from trying to describe research findings, especially complicated ones, in ways that introductory students can understand. Thus, we try to minimize technical jargon, using only those terms students must know to appreciate the achievements of anthropology and to take advanced courses. We think readability is important, not only because it may enhance the reader's understanding of what we write, but also because it should make learning about anthropology more enjoyable! When new terms are introduced, which of course must happen sometimes, they are set off in boldface type and defined.

GLOSSARY TERMS

At the end of each chapter we list the new terms that have been introduced; these terms were identified by boldface type and defined in the text. We deliberately do not repeat the definitions at the end of the chapter to allow students to test themselves against the definitions provided in the Glossary at the end of the book.

CRITICAL QUESTIONS

We also provide three or four questions at the end of each chapter that may stimulate thinking about the implications of the chapter. The questions do not ask for repetition of what is in the text. We want students to imagine, to go beyond what we know or think we know.

SUMMARIES AND SUGGESTED READING

In addition to the outline provided at the beginning of each chapter, there is a detailed summary at the end of each chapter that will help the student review the major concepts and findings discussed. Suggested reading provides general or more extensive references on the subject matter of the chapter.

A COMPLETE GLOSSARY AT THE END OF THE BOOK

As noted above, important glossary terms for each chapter are listed (without definitions) at the end of each chapter, so students can readily check their understanding after they have read the chapter. A complete Glossary is provided at the back of the book to review all terms in the book and serve as a convenient reference for the student.

NOTES AT THE END OF THE BOOK

Because we believe firmly in the importance of documentation, we think it essential to tell our readers, both professional and student, what our conclusions are based on. Usually the basis is published research. References to the relevant studies are provided in complete notes by chapter at the end of the book.

BIBLIOGRAPHY AT THE END OF THE BOOK

All of the references cited throughout the book are collected and listed at the end of the book.

SUPPLEMENTS

FOR THE INSTRUCTOR:

Instructor's Resource and Testing Manual. This essential instructor's tool includes chapter outlines, resources and discussion questions, paper topics and research projects, web resources, and film resources and over 1,600 questions in multiple-choice, true/false and essay formats. All test questions are page-referenced to the text.

Prentice Hall Custom Test. Prentice Hall's testing software program permits instructors to edit any or all item in the Test Item File and add their own questions. Other special features of this program, which is available for Windows and Macintosh, include random generation of an item set, creation of alternative versions of the same test, scrambling question sequence, and test preview before printing.

Anthropology Transparencies, Series IV. Taken from graphs, diagrams, and tables in this text and other sources, over 50 full-color transparencies offer an effective means of amplifying lecture topics.

Videos. Prentice Hall is pleased to offer two new video series. The Changing American Indian in a Changing America: Videocases of American Indian Peoples, and Rites of Passage: Videocases of Traditional African Peoples. In addition, a selection of high quality, award-winning videos from the Filmmakers Library collection is available upon adoption. Please see your Prentice Hall sales representative for more information.

Anthropology Central. Available exclusively to adopters of Cultural Anthropology, 11/E,Strategies in Teaching Anthropology, first edition. See your Prentice Hall sales representative for more information.

FOR THE STUDENT:

Study Guide. Designed to reinforce information in the text, the study guide includes chapter outlines and summaries, glossary term definition exercises, and self-test questions keyed to the text.

Interactive Anthropology CD-ROM. In the back of every new copy of Cultural Anthropology, 11/E, you will find a CD-ROM that provides an exciting learning experience. Ethnographies, interactive simulations and exercises, a complete map atlas and reference resources, all help to illustrate the concepts described in the book.

Companion Website. In tandem with the text, students can now take full advantage of the World Wide Web to enrich their study of anthropology through the Ember Companion Website. This resource correlates the text with related material available on the Internet. Features of the Website include chapter objectives, study questions, as well as links to interesting material and information from other sites on the Web that can reinforce and enhance the content of each chapter.

The New York Times/Prentice Hall Themes of the Times. The New York Times and Prentice Hall are sponsoring Themes of the Times, a program designed to enhance student access to current information relevant to the classroom. Through this program core subject matter provided in the text is supplemented by a collection of timely articles from one of the world's most distinguished newspapers, The New York Times. These articles demonstrate the vital, ongoing connection between what is learned in the classroom and what is happening in the world around us. To enjoy a wealth of information provided by The New York Times daily, a reduced subscription rate is available. For information, call toll-free: 1-800-631-1222.

Prentice Hall and The New York Times are proud to cosponsor Themes of the Times. We hope it will make the reading of both textbooks and newspapers a more dynamic, involving process.

Anthropology: Evaluating Online Resources. This guide provides a brief introduction to navigating the Internet and teaches students how to be critical consumers of online resources. It includes references related specifically to the discipline of anthropology as well as access to the Research Navigator website.

Research Navigator. The easiest way for students to start research assignments or research papers, Research Navigator comes complete with extensive online help on the research process as well as three exclusive databases:

  • The New York Times Search by Subject Archive
  • ContentSelect Academic Journal Database powered by EBSCO
  • "Best of the Web" Link Library

Access to Research Navigator is available via an access code that is found on the inside front cover of The Evaluating Online Resources guide. If you do not have a copy of this guide, an access code for Research Navigator can be purchased from the Prentice Hall online catalog.

New Directions in Anthropology. This new CD-ROM is available from Prentice Hall and includes all the articles in the three original series Portraits of Culture: Ethnographic Originals; Research Frontiers in Anthropology (edited with Peter N. Peregrine; and Cross-Cultural Research for Social Science. Altogether these articles and ethnographies give students an in-depth look at fieldwork, the research process, research controversies, social problems, and comparative and cross-cultural perspectives. The articles are in pdf format so that students can readily download any assigned articles on their own computers. The CD-ROM is optionally available from Prentice Hall shrink-wrapped with this text. It is also available as a stand-along publication.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)