Brief Table of Contents for Cultural Anthropology in a Globalizing World, 2/e
I. INTRODUCTION TO CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
1. Anthropology and the Study of Culture
2. Researching Culture
II. CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS
3. Economic Systems
4. Reproduction and Human Development
5. Health, Illness and Healing
III. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
6. Kinship and Domestic Life
7. Social Groups and Social Stratification
8. Political and Legal Systems
IV. SYMBOLIC SYSTEMS
11. Expressive Culture
V. CONTEMPORARY CULTURAL CHANGE
12. People on the Move
13. People Defining Development
Table of Contents
PART I INTRODUCTION TO CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Chapter 1 Anthropology and the Study of Culture
Introducing Anthropology Biological or Physical Anthropology Archaeology Linguistic Anthropology Cultural Anthropology Applied Anthropology: Separate Field or Cross-Cutting Focus?
Lessons Applied: Orangutan Research Leads To Orangutan Advocacy Introducing Cultural Anthropology A Brief History of Cultural Anthropology The Concept of Culture Definitions of Culture Characteristics of Culture Culture Is Not the Same as Nature Eating Everyday Anthropology: Latina Power in the Kitchen Drinking Sleeping Eliminating Culture Is Learned Cultures Are Integrated Cultures Interact and Change Multiple Cultural Worlds Class
“Race,” Ethnicity, and Indigenous Peoples Culturama: San Peoples of Southern Africa Gender Age Institutions Distinctive Features of Cultural Anthropology Cultural Relativism Valuing and Sustaining Diversity Three Theoretical Debates in Cultural Anthropology Biological Determinism versus Cultural Constructionism Interpretive Anthropology versus Cultural Materialism Individual Agency versus Structurism Cultural Anthropology and Careers Majoring in Anthropology Graduate Study in Anthropology Living an Anthropological Life
Chapter 2 Researching Culture
Changing Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology From The Armchair to the Field Participant Observation Doing Fieldwork in Cultural Anthropology Beginning the Fieldwork Process Project Selection Critical Thinking: Shells and Skirts in the Trobriand Islands Culturama: The Trobriand Islanders of Papua New Guinea Preparing for the Field Working in the Field Site Selection Gaining Rapport Gift Giving and Exchange Microcultures and Fieldwork Class
“Race”/Ethnicity Gender Age Culture Shock Fieldwork Techniques Deductive and Inductive Research Participant Observation Talking with People Combining Observation and Talking Specialized Methods Life History Time Allocation Study Texts Archival and Historical Sources Multiple Research Methods and Team Projects Eye on the Environment: Researching Inuit Place Names and Landscape Knowledge Recording Culture Field Notes Tape Recording, Photography, and Videos Data Analysis Analyzing Qualitative Data Analyzing Quantitative Data Representing Culture Urgent Issues in Cultural Anthropology Research Ethics and Collaborative Research Collaborative Research Safety in the Field
PART II CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS
Chapter 3 Economic Systems
Modes of Livelihood Foraging Everyday Anthropology: The Importance of Dogs Division of Labor Property Relations Foraging As a Sustainable System Horticulture Division of Labor Property Relations Horticulture as a Sustainable System Pastoralism Division of Labor Property Relations Pastoralism as a Sustainable System Agriculture Division of Labor Property Relations Industrial Agriculture The Sustainability of Agriculture Critical Thinking: Was the Invention of Agriculture a Terrible Mistake?
Industrialism and the Information Age Modes of Consumption and Exchange Modes of Consumption and Exchange Consumption Microcultures Class and the Game of Distinction in Israeli Birthday Parties Women’s Deadly Diet in Papua New Guinea
“Race” and Children’s Shopping in New Haven Modes of Exchange Balanced Exchange Unbalanced Exchange Other Forms of Unbalanced Exchange Gambling Lessons Applied: Assessing the Social Impact of Indian Casinos in California Theft Exploitation Globalization and Changing Economies Sugar, Salt, and Steel Tools in the Amazon Global Networks and Ecstasy in the United States Alternative Food Movements in Europe and North America Continuities and Resistance: The Enduring Potlatch Culturama: The Kwakwaka´wakw of Canada
Chapter 4: Reproduction and Human Development
Modes of Reproduction The Foraging Mode of Reproduction The Agricultural Mode of Reproduction Culturama: The Old Order Amish of the United States and Canada The Industrial/Informatics Mode of Reproduction Culture and Fertility Sexual Intercourse When to Begin Having Intercourse?
Intercourse Frequency and Fertility Fertility Decision Making At the Family Level At the State Level At the Global Level Fertility Control Indigenous Methods Induced Abortion The New Reproductive Technologies Infanticide Personality and the Life Cycle Birth, Infancy, and Childhood The Birth Context Lessons Applied: Mediating Cultural Conflict about the Treatment of a Newborn Baby in a U.S. Hospital Nursery Bonding Gender in Infancy Socialization during Childhood Adolescence and Identity Is Adolescence a Universal Life-Cycle Stage?
Coming of Age and Gender Identity Critical Thinking: Cultural Relativism and Female Genital Cutting Sexual Identity and Gender Pluralism Adulthood Becoming a Parent Middle Age The Senior Years The Final Passage: Death and Dying
Chapter 5 Health, Illness, and Healing
Ethnomedicine Defining and Classifying Health Problems Ethno-etiologies Healing Ways Community Healing Healers Healing Substances Eye on the Environment: Local Botanical Knowledge and Child Health in the Bolivian Amazon Three Theoretical Approaches The Ecological/Epidemiological Approach The Interpretivist Approach Critical Medical Anthropology Social Inequality and Poverty Cultural Critique of Western Biomedical Training Globalization and Change New Infectious Diseases Diseases of Development Medical Pluralism Selective Pluralism: The Case of the Sherpa Culturama: The Sherpa of Nepal Conflicting Explanatory Models Applied Medical Anthropology Reducing Lead Poisoning among Mexican American Children Public Health Communication Lessons Applied: Promoting Vaccination Programs in Developing Countries Working Together: Western Biomedicine and Nonbiomedical Systems
PART III SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
Chapter 6: Kinship and Domestic Life
How Cultures Create Kinship Studying Kinship: From Formal Analysis to Kinship in Action Descent Unilineal Descent Culturama: Minangkabau of Indonesia Bilineal Descent Sharing Kinship through Food Sharing Adoption And Fostering Ritually Established Kinship Marriage Toward a Definition Selecting a Spouse Marriage Gifts Forms of Marriage Households and Domestic Life The Household: Variations on a Theme Intrahousehold Dynamics Spouse/Partner Relationships Sibling Relationships Domestic Violence Between Partners Lessons Applied: Ethnography for Preventing Wife Abuse In Rural Kentucky Changing Kinship and Household Dynamics Change in Descent Change in Marriage Changing Households
Chapter 7: Social Groups and Social Stratification
Social Groups Friendship Social Characteristics of Friendship Friendship among the Urban Poor Clubs and Fraternities Countercultural Groups Youth Gangs Body Modification Groups Cooperatives Self-Help Groups Social Stratification Achieved Status: Class Ascribed Status: “Race,” Ethnicity, Gender, and Caste Eye on the Environment: Industrial Pollution and Activism in an African American Community in Georgia, the United States Culturama: The Roma of Eastern Europe Gender and Sexism Caste and Casteism Civil Society Civil Society for the State: The Chinese Women’s Movement Activist Groups: Co-Madres New Social Movements and Cyberpower
Chapter 8: Political and Legal Systems
Politics, Political Organization, and Leadership Bands Tribes Big-Man and Big-Woman Leadership Chiefdoms States State Powers and Roles Eye on the Environment: Water, Pollution, and International Politics Symbols of State Power Gender and Leadership in States Social Order and Social Conflict Norms and Laws Systems of Social Control Social Control in Small-Scale Societies Social Control in States Specialization Trials and Courts Prisons and the Death Penalty Social Inequality and the Law Social Conflict and Violence Ethnic Conflict Warfare Critical Thinking: Yanomami: The “Fierce People”?
Change in Political and Legal Systems Emerging Nations and Transnational Nations Culturama: The Kurds of the Middle East Democratization The United Nations and International Peacekeeping
PART IV SYMBOLIC SYSTEMS
Chapter 9 Communication
The Varieties of Human Communication Language and Verbal Communication Two Features of Human Language Formal Properties of Verbal Language Nonverbal Language and Embodied Communication Sign Language Lessons Applies: Anthropology and Public Understanding of the Language and Culture of People Who Are Deaf Silence Body Language Communicating with Media and Information Technology The Politics of Journalism Advertising for Latinos in the United States Crossing the Digital Divide in Rural Hungary Communication and Cultural Diversity and Inequality Language and Culture: Two Theories Critical Discourse Analysis: Class, Gender, Indigeneity, and “Race”
Gender in Euro-American Conversations Gender and Politeness in Japanese, and Those Naughty Teenage Girls Gay Language and Belonging in Indonesia African American English: Prejudice and Pride Language Change The Origins and History of Language Historical Linguistics Writing Systems Colonialism, Nationalism, and Globalization European Colonialism and Contact Languages Nationalism and Linguistic Assimilation Culturama: The Saami of Sapmi, or Lapland Global Languages Endangered Languages and Language Revitalization Critical Thinking: Should Dying Languages Be Revived?
Chapter 10 Religion
Religion in Comparative Perspective What is Religion?
Magic Versus Religion Varieties of Religious Beliefs How Beliefs Are Expressed Beliefs About Supernatural Forces And Beings Eye on The Environment: Eagle Protection, National Parks, And The Preservation Of Hopi Indian Culture Beliefs about Sacred Space Ritual Practices Life-Cycle Rituals Pilgrimage Rituals of Inversion Sacrifice Religious Specialists Shamans and Priests Other Specialists World Religions and Local Variations Hinduism A Nayar Fertility Ritual Hindu Women and Karma in Northern England Buddhism Local Spirits and Buddhism in Southeast Asia Everyday Anthropology: Tattoos and Sacred Power Judaism Who’s Who at the Kotel Christianity Protestantism among White Appalachians The Last Supper in Fiji Islam Culturama: Hui Muslims of Xi’an, China African Religions Features of African Religions Ras Tafari Directions of Religious Change Revitalization Movements Contested Sacred Sites Religious Freedom as a Human Right
Chapter 11 Expressive Culture
Art and Culture What Is Art?
Critical Thinking: Probing the Categories of Art
Studying Art in Society Focus on the Artist Microcultures, Art, and Power Performance Arts Music and Gender among the Temiar of Malaysia Country Music and Globalization in Brazil Theater and Myth in South India Architecture and Decorative Arts Architecture and Interior Design Gardens and Flowers Play, Leisure, and Culture Games and Sports as a Cultural Microcosm Sports and Spirituality: Male Wrestling in India Play, Pleasure, and Pain Leisure Travel Culturama: The Gullah of South Carolina Change in Expressive Culture Colonialism and Syncretism Tourism’s Complex Effects Lessons Applied: A Strategy on Cultural Heritage for the World Bank
PART V CONTEMPORARY CULTURAL CHANGE
Chapter 12: People on the Move
Categories of Migration Categories Based on Spatial Boundaries Internal Migration International Migration Critical Thinking: Haitian Cane Cutters in the Dominican Republic: A Case of Structure or Human Agency?
Transnational Migration Categories Based on Reason for Moving Labor Migrants Displaced Persons Culturama: The Maya of Guatemala Institutional Migrants The New Immigrants to the United States and Canada The New Immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean Chain Migration of Dominicans Salvadorans: Escaping War to Struggle with Poverty The New Immigrants from Asia Changing Patterns of Consumption among Hong Kong Chinese Three Patterns of Adaptation among the Vietnamese Hindus of New York City Maintain Their Culture The New Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Soviet Jews Flee Persecution Migration Politics, Policies, and Programs in a Globalizing World Protecting Migrants’ Health Lessons Applied: Studying African Pastoralists’ Movements for Risk Assessment and Service Delivery Inclusion and Exclusion Migration and Human Rights
Chapter 13: People Defining Development
Defining Development and Approaches to It Two Processes of Cultural Change Invention Diffusion Lessons Applied: The Saami, Snowmobiles, and the Need for Social Impact Analysis Theories and Models of Development Modernization Growth-Oriented Development Distributional Development Human Development Sustainable Development Institutional Approaches to Development Large-Scale Development Institutions Grassroots Approaches Culturama: The Peyizan yo of Haiti The Development Project Anthropologists and the Development Project Cycle Cultural Fit The Anthropological Critique of Development Projects Development, Indigenous People, and Women Indigenous People and Development Indigenous People as Victims of Colonialism and Development Like Indigenous People and Territorial Entitlements Latin America Canada Asia Africa Australia and New Zealand Organizing for Change Women and Development The Male Bias in Development Women’s Organizations for Change Urgent Issues in Development Life Projects and Human Rights Eye on the Environment: Oil, Environmental Degradation, and Human Rights in the Nigerian Delta Cultural Heritage and Development: Linking the Past and Present to the Future Cultural Anthropology and the Future