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Cultural Competency For The Health Professional

Cultural Competency For The Health Professional

by Patti R. Rose

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ISBN-10: 1449672124

ISBN-13: 9781449672126

Pub. Date: 05/24/2012

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Cultural Competency for the Health Professional reviews the importance of the implementation of cultural competency by allied health professionals, and the process of assessment, training and evaluation. This comprehensive text includes a clear and concise overview of the necessary tools to apply cultural competency processes as well as systematic and disciplined


Cultural Competency for the Health Professional reviews the importance of the implementation of cultural competency by allied health professionals, and the process of assessment, training and evaluation. This comprehensive text includes a clear and concise overview of the necessary tools to apply cultural competency processes as well as systematic and disciplined approaches to the process of achieving it. Attention is also given to some of the reservations that may exist in various health professions with interests in moving in the direction of cultural competency such as associated costs, limited time, and beyond. Cultural Competency for the Health Professional provides health professions students with key cultural competency information and practical insight into how to apply this knowledge in their day-to-day work environments as they deal with patients on a clinical basis.

Interview With Dr. Shalala
Chapter 10 includes an interview with Dr. Shalala conducted by the author of this text. Dr. Donna Shalala is currently the President of the University of Miami, in Florida. She has been in this position since 2001. Prior to her current role, she was appointed by President Clinton to serve as U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) and held this position for 8 years which amounted to the longest serving HHS Secretary in U.S. history to date. She was responsible for a budget of almost $600 billion, overseeing a number of programs such as Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, Child Care and Head Start, Welfare, the Public Health Service, the National Institute of Health (NIH), The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Shalala,2011).

Overview of the demographic changes in the United States
Accreditation requirements (programmatic, specialized and institutional)
Cultural nuances of specific groups
Comprehensive view of the Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) standards with an emphasis on the clinical aspect of various allied health professions
Attitudinal survey with established reliability and validity

• PowerPoint Slides
• Over 150 Test Questions
• Case Studies

Companion Site including:
o Additional Case Studies o Crossword Puzzles o Interactive Glossary o Flashcards o Matching Exercises o Web Links o Acronyms Glossary o Acronyms Flashcards

Product Details

Jones & Bartlett Learning
Publication date:
Edition description:
New Edition
Sales rank:
Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xvii

About the Author xix

Contributors xxi

Reviewers xxiii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Chapter Organization 5

Chapter 2 Overview and Specific Details of Various Racial, Cultural and Ethnic Groups 7

Introduction 7

Racial Groups 9

African American/Black 9

Native American/Alaska Native 10

Asian American and Pacific Islander 13

White 14

Ethnic Group 15

Hispanic/Latino 15

Conclusion 16

Chapter Summary 18

Chapter Problems 18

References 19

Suggested Readings 20

Chapter 3 Relevance of Cultural Competency to Various Health Professions 21

Introduction 22

Political Correctness as a Necessary Consideration for Cultural Competency 22

Considering Cultural Competency in All Healthcare Settings 24

Difference Between Interpretation and Translation 29

Visual Affirmation in the Healthcare Setting 32

Diversifying the Health Service Professional Workforce 33

Trust 34

Conclusion 37

Chapter Summary 38

Chapter Problems 9

References 39

Suggested Readings 41

Chapter 4 Health Professions and Understanding Cultural Concerns 43

Introduction 44

Cultural Views Regarding Modern Medical Practices 45

Recruiting Diverse Healthcare Professionals 46

Cultural Competence Continuum 47

Cultural Destructiveness 48

Cultural Incapacity 48

Cultural Blindness 49

Cultural Precompetence 49

Cultural Competence 50

Cultural Proficiency 50

Cultural Competence Framework 51

Parameters that Differentiate Cultures 51

Purnell Model for Cultural Competence 53

Learn Model 54

Assumption Exercise 54

Conclusion 56

Chapter Summary 57

Chapter Problems 58

References 58

Suggested Readings 59

Chapter 5 US Educational System and the Intersection of Cultural Competency and Health Literacy 61

Introduction 61

Educational Interventions in the United States 62

Teach for America 62

No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top 68

Health Literacy 69

Responsibility of Health Professionals 70

Conclusion 71

Chapter Summary 72

Chapter Problems 72

References 73

Suggested Readings 73

Chapter 6 Cultural Competency and the Need to Eliminate Health Disparities Anthony Munroe, MPH, MBA, EdD 75

Introduction 75

Health Disparities Defined 76

An Historical Overview of Health Disparities 77

Health Disparities and Minority Groups 80

Immigration and Cultural Competency 82

Cultural Competency as a Contributing Factor Toward Health Disparities 83

The Role of Culturally Competent Health Professionals in Closing the Gap 85

Conclusion 86

Chapter Summary! 87

Chapter Problems 87

References 88

Chapter 7 Cultural Competency and Assessment 91

Introduction 92

Attitudes 92

Assessment 92

Test-Retest Reliability 93

Alternative form Reliability 93

Internal Consistency Reliability 93

Validity 94

Cultural Competence Assessment Tool 95

Importance of Valid and Reliable Assessment Tools 95

Conclusion 96

Chapter Summary 96

Chapter Problems 97

References 97

Suggested Readings 97

Chapter 8 Cultural Competence Training 99

Introduction 99

Significance of Cultural Competence Training 100

Approaches to Training 100

Elements to Ensure Successful Training Programs 101

Cross-Cultural Education and Other Training Essentials 101

Importance of Providing Key Terms Relevant to Cultural Competence 102

Key Components of Cultural Competence Training 104

Evaluation of Cultural Competence Training 106

Conclusion 107

Chapter Summary 107

Chapter Problems 107

References 108

Suggested Readings 108

Chapter 9 Case Studies 109

Introduction 109

Dental Hygienists 110

Case Study 110

Comments 111

Physical Therapists 111

Case Study 111

Comments 112

Occupational Therapists 113

Case Study 113

Comments 113

Speech-Language Therapists 114

Case Study 114

Comments 115

Pharmacists 115

Case Study 115

Comments 116

Radiology Technicians 116

Case Study 116

Comments 117

Emergency Medical Technicians 117

Case Study 117

Comments 117

Medical Records Technicians 118

Case Study 118

Comments 118

Physician Assistants 119

Case Study 119

Comments 120

Medical Assistants 120

Case Study 120

Comments 121

Nurses 122

Case Study 122

Comments 123

Dentists 123

Case Study 123

Comments 124

Chapter Summary 124

References 125

Suggested Readings 125

Chapter 10 Healthcare Reform and Economic Concerns Regarding Cultural Competency 127

Introduction 127

Interview 129

Conclusion 135

References 135

Suggested Reading 135

Chapter 11 Psychosocial Impact of Culturally Incompetent Health Care Omari W. Keeles 137

Introduction 138

What Exactly is Culture? 138

Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism 140

Prejudice 140

Discrimination 140

Racism 142

Aversive Racism 143

Racial Microaggresions 144

Microassault 145

Microinsult 146

Microinvalidation 147

Psychosocial Outcomes of Culturally Incompetent Care 147

Clash of Racial Realities 148

Invisibility of Unintentional Expressions of Bias 149

Perceived Minimal Harm of Racial Microaggression 150

Catch-22 of Responding to Microaggressions 150

Conclusion 151

Chapter Summary 152

Chapter Problems 152

References 153

Suggested Readings 155

Chapter 12 Health Professionals and the Paradigm Shift 157

Introduction 157

Need for a Paradigm Shift 158

Expansion of Minority Markets 159

Investing in Cultural Competence 160

Business Aspect of Health Care 161

Decreasing Malpractice Claims 164

Enhanced Customer Service and Quality of Care 164

Conclusion 165

Chapter Summary 165

Chapter Problems 166

References 166

Suggested Readings 167

Chapter 13 Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services Standards: An Overview 169

Introduction 169

Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Standards 170

Need for CLAS Standards and Action Plans for Administrators 173

Qualitative Research 174

Conclusion 176

Chapter Summary 176

Chapter Problems 177

References 177

Suggested Readings 178

Chapter 14 Ultimate Challenge: Educational and Institutional Considerations for the Health Professions 179

Introduction 180

American Medical Association 180

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations 181

Institute of Medicine 182

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 182

Sullivan Commission 182

Necessary Educational Requirements 183

Challenging Health Professionals 184

Conclusion 186

Chapter Summary 186

Chapter Problems 186

References 187

Suggested Readings 187

Appendix I Cultural Competence Assessment Survey 189

Executive Team and Management 189

Appendix II Cultural Competence Assessment Survey 193

Staff 193

Appendix III Cultural Competence Assessment Survey 197

Health Professionals 197

Appendix IV Glossary of Important Terms 201

Appendix V Websites and Resources 207

Cultural Competence and Other Relevant Websites 207

Journal Articles and Books 208

Appendix VI Cultural Competence Plan 211

Appendix VII Cultural Competence Accreditation Information for Selected (Examples) Health Professions 213

Individual and Cultural Differences 216

Professional Practice Expectation: Communication 216

Professional Practice Expectation: Cultural Competence 216

Interaction and Personal Qualities 217

Appendix VIII Sample Focus Group Questions for Qualitative Cultural Competence Research 221

Questions 221

Appendix IX Acronyms 223

Index 225

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