Curiosity and Exploration


Exploration and play behaviour form the subject of this book, in which a wide range of research activities, both theoretical and practical, are presented from various fields. In particular, the emphasis on applications (for example, in the development of software) demonstrates the integrated approach to basic and applied research. The authors come from many different countries and represent various theoretical approaches, enabling the reader to acquire an up-to-date overview of the field and thus form an opinion ...

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Exploration and play behaviour form the subject of this book, in which a wide range of research activities, both theoretical and practical, are presented from various fields. In particular, the emphasis on applications (for example, in the development of software) demonstrates the integrated approach to basic and applied research. The authors come from many different countries and represent various theoretical approaches, enabling the reader to acquire an up-to-date overview of the field and thus form an opinion of his/her own regarding this field of research.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783540548676
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 6/28/1994
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1994
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 350

Table of Contents

I: Introduction.- I.0 Preface: The Study of Exploration.- Definitions and Distinctions.- The Functions of Exploration: A Psychobiological Perspective “Ultimate Causes”.- “Proximate Causes”.- The Contents of This Book.- 1. Functional and Motivational Mechanisms of Exploration.- 2. Development and Individual Differences.- 3. The Interconnections of Exploratory Behavior and other Behavioral Systems.- 4. Applied Perspectives.- Additional References.- I.1 Fairy Tales and Curiosity. Exploratory Behavior in Literature for Children or the Futile Attempt to Keep Girls from the Spindle.- Evidence of Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Fairy Tales.- Types of Exploratory Behavior in Fairy Tales.- Movement.- Handling and Sensual Experience.- Evaluation of Exploratory Behavior in Fairy Tales.- Curiosity as Subject of the Story.- Curiosity as a Part of Development.- The Right to be Curious.- Literary Culture and Children’s Development.- II: Function and Motivational Mechanics of Exploration.- II.2 An Ethological Conception of Exploratory Behavior.- The Sensoric Part.- The Motoric Part.- The Action Readiness System.- The Releasing of Exploration in this Model.- Appetitive Behavior in the Behavior System of Exploration.- References.- II.3 The Neurobiological Foundation of Exploration.- Components of the Exploratory Behavioral System.- Exploration.- Orienting Responses.- Habituation.- Novelty and Fear.- Situation-Specific Behavior.- Other Topics Related to Exploratory Behavior.- A Neurological Model of Exploration.- General Anatomy of Cognitive Information.- The Hippocampal Formation.- Orienting Response and Habituation.- Exploration and Novelty.- Spontaneous Alternation.- The Amygdaloid Complex.- Orienting Responses and Habituation.- Exploration and Amygdala Lesions: Sensory Changes or Emotional?.- Sensory Changes.- Emotional Changes.- Conclusion.- Specific Transmitter Systems.- Other Structures.- Conclusion.- References.- II.4 Two Characteristics of Surprise: Action Delay and Attentional Focus.- The Experimental Paradigm.- Effects of Schema Discrepancy.- Duration of the Surprise Reaction.- Generality of Effects.- Number of Trials.- General Discussion.- References.- II.5 Interest and Curiosity. The Role of Interest in a Theory of Exploratory Action.- The Neglect of Content in Curiosity and Exploration Research.- The Research Perspective of General Psychology.- The Research Perspective of Differential Psychology.- The Theory of Action Research Perspective.- Unsolved Problems in Curiosity and Exploration Research.- A Concept of Object-specific Interests.- Interest Object.- Structural Components of the Interest-Oriented Person-Object-Relationship.- Special Characteristics of an Interest-Oriented Person-Object Relationship.- Interest and Exploration.- Interests Determine the Content and Direction of Diversive Exploration.- Interests Influence the Goal Orientation of Specific Curiosity and Exploration.- Interests Influence the Design of an Exploratory Action.- Interests Serve as the Basis of Content Continuity in a Sequence of Exploratory Actions.- Interests Determine the Nature and Orientation of Cognitive Construction.- Summary and Conclusion.- References.- II.6 Interest and Exploration: Exploratory Action in the Context of Interest Genesis.- The Interests of Individuals.- The Characteristics of Beginning Interests.- Structural Aspects of Early Interests.- The Interest Genesis Project.- Empirical Findings Relating to the Interest Genesis Model.- Typical Structures of Interest-Oriented Person-Object-Relations.- Global Developmental Principles of Interest Development.- Specific Components of Development.- Hypothetical Models of Structural Change.- Discussion — Interest Genesis as both the Result and a Cond-i tional Factor of Exploratory Behavior.- Exploratory Behavior as a Factor in Interest Genesis.- The Importance of Interests in the Development of Exploratory Behavior.- Conclusions.- References.- III: Development and Interindividual Differences.- III.7 The Relationship Between Attachment, Temperament, and Exploration.- The Balance between Attachment and Exploration.- The Influence of Infant Irritability on Exploration.- Exploratory Behavior in the First Year.- Infant Exploration: Relations to Home Environment and Security of Attachment.- Method.- Subjects.- Design.- Variables and Data Collection Procedures.- Results.- Effect of the Intervention on Infant Exploratory Behavior.- Effect of Intervention on the Quality of Attachment.- Discussion.- Explanatory Models.- References.- III.8 Interindividual Differences in the Development of Exploratory Behavior: Methodological Considerations.- The Behavior Assessment Approach.- The Development of a Parents’ Questionnaire.- Analysis of the Dimensionality of the Parents’ Questionnaire.- The Incentive-Reactivity Assessment Approach.- Development of a Puppet-Show Instrument Assessment Procedure.- First Steps in Validating the Curiosity Motive-Scores.- Conclusions.- References.- III. 9 Preschoolers’ Exploratory Behavior: The Influence of the Social and Physical Context.- Children’s Exploration in Natural Contexts.- An Empirical Study.- Method.- Subjects.- Procedure.- Data Collection and Coding.- Results and Discussion.- Exploratory Behavior of the Children.- Control Behaviors of the Mothers.- Children’s Exploration and the Distance between Mother and Children.- References.- III. 10 A Developmental Analysis of Exploration Styles.- An Empirical Study.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- III.11 Individual Differences in Experience-Producing Tendencies.- Individual Differences in the Tendency to Explore.- The Category of Experience-Producing Tendencies.- EPTs and Intelligence.- A Recent Study of Curiosity/Exploration — Intelligence Relations.- The Need for Developmental Designs.- Moderating Influences on EPTs.- Implications and Conclusion.- References.- IV: The Interconnections of Exploratory Behavior and other Behavioral Systems.- IV. 12 The Active Exploratory Nature of Perceiving: Some Developmental Implications.- The Active Exploratory Nature of Perceiving.- Perceptual Search and Information for Action.- Developmental Implications.- The Task Specificity of Early Exploratory Activities.- Exploration and the Development of Action Skills.- References.- IV. 13 The Process and Consequences of Manipulative Exploration.- The Process of Exploration.- Different Models in the Exploration Literature.- A Comparison with Habituation.- Problems of Obversation: from Quantities of Behavior to Quantities of Information.- The Sequential Organization of Exploratory Behavior.- An Empirical Study.- Data Collection.- The Object.- The Sample.- The Coding Procedure.- Results.- Amount of Exploratory Behavior.- Amount of Information.- Interrelationships between Exploration and Information Acquisition.- The Regulation of Exploratory Action and Interindividuel Differences in Strategies of Exploration.- References.- IV. 14 Motivational and Cognitive Determants of Exploration.- The Nature of Exploration: The Five Factors of Exploration.- The Motivational Determinants of Exploration: The Cognitive Orientation of Curiosity.- Cognitive Determinants of Exploration: Patterns of Meaning Variables.- Cognitive Motivation and Cognitive Dynamics of Exploratory Modes.- Main Findings, Major Conclusions, and Some Afterthoughts.- References.- V: Applied Perspectives.- V. 15 Computer Systems as Exploratory Environments.- Simplicity in Human-Computer Interaction.- Exploratory Environments and Minimalist Design.- The “Simple is always Best” Hypothesis.- Complexity and Exploration Theory.- Definition of the Complexity of a Task Situation.- Design of Systems with adaptable Complexity.- The “Individual System”.- Empirical Research.- Research Perspectives: Exploratory Activities in Error Situations.- References.- V. 16 Urban Development for Children Reexploring a New Research Area.- Psychologists’ Curiosity about the City and its Children.- Special Features and Innovations.- On the Tradition of the Subject.- An Articulated Interest.- A City Discovers its Children. Herten as a Model.- Kinderfreunde “Children’s Friends”.- History.- Formal Organization.- The “Children’s Friends” Office.- Activities of “Children’s Friends”.- City Map for Children.- Child-friendly Living.- Basics of Planning and Herten’s Philosophy.- “Child-friendly Living”: The Project.- A University and a Town as Partners — Child-centered Planning as a Coooerative Task.- On the Cooperation between the Town of Herten and the Technical University of Berlin.- The Four Stages of the Herten Design.- Outlook on Researchers Curiosity and Forms of Action Appropriate to Children.- Postscript.- References.- VI: Epilogue.- VI. 17 Applause for Aurora: Sociobiological Considerations on Exploration and Play.- References.- Author Index.

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