The Curious Writer / Edition 4

The Curious Writer / Edition 4

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by Bruce Ballenger
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0205235778

ISBN-13: 9780205235773

Pub. Date: 01/04/2013

Publisher: Pearson

Ballenger's (Boise State University) places "inquiry" at the center of his learning strategy, encouraging students to choose topics they know little about, because they hold the most potential for learning. The model for inquiry used in the text borrows from the formal process used in the sciences by asking the student to continually look at "data" (sensory details,

Overview

Ballenger's (Boise State University) places "inquiry" at the center of his learning strategy, encouraging students to choose topics they know little about, because they hold the most potential for learning. The model for inquiry used in the text borrows from the formal process used in the sciences by asking the student to continually look at "data" (sensory details, facts, and evidence) in order to discover how to look at their writing subjects in new ways. The author uses this model to cover writing of personal essays, profiles, reviews, proposals, arguments, and critical, ethnographic, and research essays. The text offers up-to- date Internet research tips as well as a diverse group of 38 readings. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205235773
Publisher:
Pearson
Publication date:
01/04/2013
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
752
Sales rank:
310,241
Product dimensions:
7.40(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

I: THE SPIRIT OF INQUIRY

1. Writing as Inquiry
Motives for Writing
Beliefs About Writing and Writing Development
Exercise 1.1 This I Believe (and This I Don’t)
One Student’s Response Bernice’s Journal
Inquiring into the Details Journals

Unlearning Unhelpful Beliefs
The Beliefs of This Book
Allatonceness
Believing You Can Learn to Write Well
Habits of Mind
Starting with Questions, Not Answers
Making the Familiar Strange
Suspending Judgment
Being Willing to Write Badly
Searching for Surprise
Exercise 1.2 A Roomful of Details
One Student’s Response Bernice’s Journal
Writing Situations and Rhetorical Choices
A First Reflection on Your Writing Process
A Case Study
Thinking About Your Process
Exercise 1.3 Literacy Narrative Collage
Exercise 1.4 What Is Your Process?
Problem Solving in Your Writing Process
The Nature of the Writing Process
The Writing Process as Recursive and Flexible
A System for Using Writing to Think
Inquiring into the Details Invention Strategies
Exercise 1.5 Two Kinds of Thinking
A Writing Process That Harnesses Two Currents of Thought
The Sea and the Mountain
Answering the So What? Question
A Writing Process Driven by Questions
A Strategy of Inquiry: Questioning, Generating, and Judging
Exercise 1.6 A Mini Inquiry Project: Cell Phone Culture
Exercise 1.7 Scenes of Writing
Using What You Have Learned

2. Reading as Inquiry
Purposes for Academic Reading
Exercise 2.1 Using the Four Purposes for Academic Reading
Beliefs About Reading
Exercise 2.2 A Reader’s Memoir

One Common Belief That Is an Obstacle
Reading Situations and Rhetorical Choices
Four Frames for Reading
Reading Scenarios
Scenario #1
Scenario #2
Inquiring into the Details Reading Perspectives
Exercise 2.3 Reading a Life
A Process for Reading to Write
Questions for the Process of Reading to Write
What Do I Want to Know?
What Should I Read to Find Out?
What Do I Do with What I’ve Read?
Having a Dialogue with What You Read
Inquiring into the Details Reading the Visual
Exercise 2.4 Double-Entry Journaling with a Visual Text
Techniques for Keeping a Double-Entry Journal
Exercise 2.5 Reading Creatively, Reading Critically
READING Bruce Ballenger, “The Importance of Writing Badly”
Alternatives to the Double-Entry Journal
Wrestling with Academic Discourse: Reading from the Outside In
Features of Academic Discourse
Using What You Have Learned

II. INQUIRY PROJECTS

3. Writing a Personal Essay
Writing About Experience and Observations
Motives for Writing a Personal Essay
The Personal Essay and Academic Writing
Inquiring into the Details The Power of Narrative Thinking
Features of the Form
Readings
Personal Essay 1 Laura Zazulak, “Every Morning for Five Years”
Inquiring into the Essay
Personal Essay 2 Ginny Blanford, "The Dog That Made Us a Family"
Inquiring into the Essay
Seeing the Form Photo Essays
The Writing Process
Inquiry Project: Writing a Personal Essay
Writing Beyond the Classroom Essaying “This I Believe” What Are You Going to Write About?
Opening Up

Listing Prompts
Fastwriting Prompts
Visual Prompts
Research Prompts
Narrowing Down
Inquiring into the Details Clustering or Mapping
What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t?
Questions About Purpose and Audience
Trying Out
Questions for Reflection
Writing the Sketch
Student Sketch Amanda Stewart, “Earning a Sense of Place”
Moving from Sketch to Draft
Evaluating Your Own Sketch
Reflecting on What You Learned
Developing
Drafting
Methods of Development
Using Evidence
Inquiring into the Details More Than One Way to Tell a Story
Workshopping
Questions for Readers
Reflecting on the Workshop
Revising
Shaping
Polishing
Student Essay Seth Marlin,“Smoke of Empire”
Evaluating the Essay
Using What You Have Learned

4. Writing a Profile
Writing About People
Motives for Writing a Profile
The Profile and Academic Writing
Features of the Form
Readings
Profile 1 Bruce Ballenger, “Museum Missionary”
Inquiring into the Essay
Profile 2 Ian Frazier, “Passengers”
Inquiring into the Essay
Profile 3 Amelia Pang, “The Life of a Violin Prodigy from South Bronx”
Inquiring into the Essay
Seeing the Form “Sun Boy” by William Soule
Inquiry Project: Writing a Profile
Who Are You Going to Write About?
Opening Up

Listing Prompts
Fastwriting Prompts
Visual Prompts
Research Prompts
One Student’s Response Bruce’s Journal
Narrowing Down
What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t?
Questions About Audience and Purpose
Trying Out
Possible Frames
Questions for Reflection
Interviewing
Interview Approaches
Interview Techniques
Writing Beyond the Classroom Digital Profiles
Making Contact
Conducting the Interview
Inquiring into the Details Recording Interviews
Listening and Watching

Flash Profile: Veterans History Projects
From Bullets to Bottles: The Two Wars of Dan Akee
Writing the Sketch
Moving from Sketch to Draft
Evaluating Your Sketch
Reflecting on What You’ve Learned
Developing
Research, Interviews, and Reinterviews
Establishing the Frame
Drafting
Methods of Development
Using Evidence
Workshopping
Reflecting on the Workshop
Revising
Shaping
Polishing
Student Essay Micaela Fisher, “Number 6 Orchard”
Evaluating the Essay
Using What You Have Learned

5. Writing a Review
Writing That Evaluates
Motives for Writing a Review
The Review and Academic Writing
Seeing the Form Choosing the Best Picture
Features of the Form
Readings
Film Review Roger Ebert, “A Christmas Story”
Inquiring into the Essay
Reviewing Methods Carol E. Holstead, “The Benefits of No-Tech Note Taking”
Inquiring into the Essay
Video Game Review Seth Schiesel, “Grand Theft Auto Takes on New York”
Inquiring into the Essay
The Writing Process
Inquiry Project: Writing a Review Essay
What Are You Going to WriteAbout?
Opening Up

Listing Prompts
Fastwriting Prompts
Visual Prompts
Research Prompts
Narrowing Down
What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t?
Questions About Audience and Purpose
Trying Out
Focusing the Category
Fastwriting
Web Research
Interviews
Experiencing Your Subject
Thinking About Criteria
Refining Criteria for Better Evidence
Considering Criteria and Rhetorical Context
Inquiring into the Details Collaborating on Criteria
Writing the Sketch
Student Sketch Laura Burns, “Recipe for a Great Film: Unlikeable People, Poor Choices, and Little Redemption”
Moving from Sketch to Draft
Evaluating Your Sketch
Reflecting on What You’ve Learned
Developing
Talking It Through
Re-Experience
Interview
Read
Drafting
Finding an Opening
Methods of Development
Using Evidence
Workshopping
Reflecting on the Draft
Revising
Shaping
Polishing
Student Essay Laura Burns, “How to Not Feel Good and Feel Good About It”
Evaluating the Essay
Using What You Have Learned

6. Writing a Proposal
Writing About Problems and Solutions

Problems of Consequence
Problems of Manageable Scale
Motives for Writing a Proposal
The Proposal and Academic Writing
Inquiring into the Details Writing a Research Proposal
Features of the Form
Proposal 1 Buzz Bissinger, “Why College Football Should Be Banned”
Inquiring into the Essay
Proposal 2 Robert F. Saltz, Ph. D., “Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on College Campuses—Summary of the Final Report of the NIAAA Task Force on College Drinking”
Inquiring into the Essay
Seeing the Form A Problem in Pictures
Inquiry Project: Writing a Proposal
What Are You Going to Write About?
Opening Up
Listing Prompts
Fastwriting Prompts
Visual Prompts
Research Prompts
Narrowing Down
What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t?
Questions About Audience and Purpose
Trying Out
Researching to Answer the So What? Question
Giving Your Answer on a PowerPoint
Writing the Sketch
Student Sketch Jenna Appleman, “Loving and Hating Reality TV”
Moving from Sketch to Draft
Evaluating Your Own Sketch
Reflecting on What You Learned
Developing
Research
Focusing on the Justifications
Drafting
Methods of Development
Using Evidence
Inquiring into the Details Evidence—A Case Study
Workshopping
Reflecting on the Draft
Revising
Shaping
Polishing
Student Essay Jenna Appleman, “Avoidable Accidents: How to Make Reality TV Safer”
Evaluating the Essay
Using What You Have Learned

7. Writing an Argument
Writing to Persuade People
Motives for Writing an Argument
Writing Beyond the Classroom Public Argument in a Digital Age
The Argument and Academic Writing
Features of the Form
What Is Argument?

Argument Has More Than Two Sides
Inquiry Arguments Begin with Exploration
What Do We Mean by Claims, Reasons, and Evidence?
Claims: What You Want People to Believe
Reasons: The “Because. . .” Behind the Claim
Evidence: Testing the Claim
Seeing the Form The “Imagetext” as Argument
Analyzing What Makes a Good Argument
Classical Argument: Ethos, Pathos, Logos
Toulmin's Approach: What Do You need to Believe Is True?
Rogers: Accurately Restating and Refusing Opposing Claims
Exercise 7.1 Argument as Therapy
One Student’s Response Rebecca’s Journal
Avoiding Logical Fallacies
Exercise 7.2 Find the Fallacies
Factual Argument: Is it true that _____? David Leonhardt, “Is College Worth It?”
Inquiring into the Essay
Definition Argument: What should we call it? Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, “The Language of War Is Killing”
Inquiring into the Essay
Casual Argument: What’s the cause? Kevin Sabet, “Colorado Will Show Why Legalizing Marijauna is a Mistake?”
Inquiring into the Essay
Inquiry Project: Writing an Argument
What Are You Going to Write About?
Opening Up
Listing Prompts
One Student’s Response Rebecca’s Journal
Fastwriting Prompts
Visual Prompts
Research Prompts
Narrowing Down
What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t?
Questions About Audience and Purpose
Trying Out
Kitchen Knives of Thought
Research Considerations
Interviews
Writing the Sketch
Student Sketch Rebecca Thompson, “Twitter a Profound Thought?”
Moving from Sketch to Draft
Evaluating Your Own Sketch
Reflecting on What You’ve Learned
Developing
Writing for Your Readers
Researching the Argument
Drafting
Designing Your Argument Rhetorically
Methods of Development
Inquiring into the Details What Evidence Can Do
Using Evidence
Workshopping
Reflecting on the Draft
Revising
Shaping
Polishing
Student Essay Rebecca Thompson, “Social Networking Social Good?”
Evaluating the Essay
Using What You Have Learned

8. Writing an Analytical Essay
Writing to Interpret
Motives for Writing an Analytical Essay
The Analytical Essay and Academic Writing
Exercise 8.1 Find Interpeting an Image
Features of the Form
Literary Analysis Bart Brinkman, “On ‘The Shield That Came Back’”
Inquiring into the Poem
Analysis Alex Soojung-Kim Pang, “What Does Apple’s ‘Misunderstood’ Advertisement Mean?
Inquiring into the Ad
Inquiring into the Details Five Methods of Analysis
Film Analysis Bryan Bishop, “Why Won’t You Die?!” The Art of the Jump Scare”
Inquiring into the Essay
Seeing the Form Brand as Visual Interpretation
Inquiry Project: Writing an Analytical Essay
What Are You Going to Write About?
Opening Up

Listing Prompts
Fastwriting Prompts
Visual Prompts
Research Prompts
Inquiring into the Details Common Literary Devices
Narrowing Down
What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t?
Questions About Audience and Purpose
Writing the Sketch
Student Sketch Hailie Johnson-Waskow, “All About That Hate”
Moving from Sketch to Draft
Evaluating Your Own Sketch
Reflecting on What You’ve Learned
Developing
Analysis
Research
Drafting
Methods of Development
Using Evidence
Workshopping
Reflecting on the Draft
Revising
Shaping
Polishing
Student Essay Hailie Johnson-Waskow, “All About That Hate: A Critical Analysis of ‘All About That Bass’”
Evaluating the Essay
Using What You Have Learned

9. Writing an Ethnographic Essay
Writing About Culture
Motives for Writing Ethnography
Ethnography and Academic Writing
Features of the Form
Ethnographic Essay 1 Elisabeth Chiseri-Strater, “Anna as Reader: Intimacy and Response”
Inquiring into the Essay
Ethnographic Essay 2 Rebekah Nathan, “My Freshman Year: Worldliness and Worldview”
Inquiring into the Essay
Seeing the Form German Cowboys
Inquiry Project: Writing the Ethnographic Essay
What Are You Going to Write About?
Opening Up

Listing Prompts
Writing Beyond the Classroom Commercial Ethnography
Fastwriting Prompts
Visual Prompts
Research Prompts
Narrowing Down
Inquiring into the Details Researching Trends and Subcultures on the Web
What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t?
Questions About Audience and Purpose
Trying Out
Inquiring into the Details Questions Ethnographers Ask
Taking Notes
Inquiring into the Details Ethnography and Ethics
Field Notes Rita Guerra, “Field Notes on Friday Afternoon at Emerald Lanes”
Writing the Sketch
Moving from Sketch to Draft
Evaluating Your Own Sketch
Reflecting on What You’ve Learned
Developing
Sources of Data
Inquiring into the Details Useful Library Databases for Ethnography
Analyzing the Data
Drafting
Methods of Development
Using Evidence
Workshopping
Reflecting on the Draft
Revising
Shaping
Polishing
Student Essay Kersti Harter,“Beyond ‘Gaydar’”
Evaluating the Essay
Using What You Have Learned

III. INQUIRING DEEPER

10. Writing a Research Essay
Writing with Research
Research Essays, Research Papers, and Research Reports
Motives for Writing a Research Essay
The Research Essay and Academic Writing
Features of the Form
Exercise 10.1 Flash Research on Tattoos
Poll: The Tattoo Paradox
Excerpt 1: Journal Article  Derek J. Roberts, “Secret Ink: Tattoo’s places in Contemporary American Culture”
Excerpt 2: Journal Article Myrna L. Armstrong, Alden E. Roberts, Jerome R. Koch, Jana C. Saunders, Donna C. Owen, and R. Rox Anderson, “Motivation for Contemporary Tattoo Removal”
Excerpt 3: Book Miliann Kange and Katherine Jones, “Why Do People Get Tattoos”
Excerpt 4: Journal Article Jenn Home, David Knox, Jane Zusman, and Marty E. Zusman, “Tattoos and Piercings: Attitudes, Behaviors, and Interpretations of College Students”
Exercise 10.1 (Continued from p. 347 )
Inquiry Project: Writing a Research Essay
What Are You Going to Write About?
Opening Up

Listing Prompts
Fastwriting Prompts
Visual Prompts
One Student’s Response Julian’s Journal
Research Prompts
Narrowing Down
What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t?
Questions About Audience and Purpose
Trying Out
Refining the Question
Focus Like a Journalist
Writing a Proposal
Sample Research Proposal
Moving from Proposal to Draft
Evaluating Your Proposal
Reflecting on What You’ve Learned
Inquiring into the Details Scheduling Your Time
Developing
Tools for Developing the Research Essay Draft
Drafting
Methods of Development
Using Evidence
Workshopping
Reflecting on the Draft
Revising
Shaping
Polishing
Student Essay Laura Burns, “The ‘Unreal Dream’: True Crime in the Justice System”
Evaluating the Essay
Using What You Have Learned

11. Research Techniques
Methods of Collecting
Research in the Electronic Age

Research Routines
Power Searching Using Google
Inquiring into the Details Google Tips and Tricks
Google Scholar
Power Searching in the Library
Combing Terms Using Boolean Searching
Using Controlled Language Searches
Developing Working Knowledge
A Strategy for Developing Working Knowledge
Refine the Research Question
Developing Focused Knowledge
Library Research: A Strategy for Developing Focused Knowledge
Searching for Books
Searching for Periodicals and Newspapers
Web Research: A Strategy for Developing Focused Knowledge
Advanced Internet Research Techniques
Evaluating Library Sources
Inquiring into the Details The Working Bibliography
Evaluating Web Sources
An Evaluation Checklist for Web Sources
Research with Living Sources: Interviews, Surveys, and Fieldwork
Interviews
Arranging Interviews
Conducting the Interview
Using the Interview in Your Writing
The Online Interview
Finding People Online
Contacting Someone for an Online Interview
Surveys
Defining a Survey’s Goals and Audience
Two Types of Survey Questions
Crafting Survey Questions
Inquiring into the Details Types of Survey Questions
Conducting a Survey: Paper or Electronic?
Testing the Survey
Find the Target Audience
Using Survey Results in Your Writing
Fieldwork: Research on What You See and Hear
The Ethics of Fieldwork
Note-Taking Strategies
Using Field Research in Your Writing
Writing in the Middle: Note-Taking Techniques
Double-Entry Journal
Research Log
One Student’s Response Claude’s Research Log
Using What You Have Learned

12. Using and Citing Sources
Controlling Information
Using and Synthesizing Sources

The Research Writer as Narrator
The Narrator as Synthesizer
The Notetaker’s Triad: Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation
Summarizing
Paraphrasing
Quoting
Citing Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
Avoiding Plagiarism
Inquiring into the Details A Taxonomy of Copying
Exercise 12.1 The Accidental Plagiarist
MLA Documentation Guidelines
Inquiring into the Details The Common Knowledge Exception
Citing Sources
Where to Put Citations
Inquiring into the Details Citations That Go with the Flow
When You Mention the Author’s Name
When There Is No Author
Works by the Same Author
When One Source Quotes Another
Personal Interviews
Several Sources in a Single Citation
Sample Parenthetical References for Other Sources
Format
The Layout
Preparing the Works Cited Page
Format
Citing Books
Sample Book Citations
Citing Periodicals
Sample Periodical Citations
Citing Online and Other Sources
A Sample Paper in MLA Style
APA Documentation Guidelines
How the Essay Should Look
Page Format
Title Page
Abstract
Body of the Paper
References Page
Appendix
Notes
Tables and Figures
Language and Style
Citing Sources in Your Essay
When the Author Is Mentioned in the Text
When the Author Isn’t Mentioned in the Text
When to Cite Page Numbers
A Single Work by Two or More Authors
A Work with No Author
Two or More Works by the Same Author
An Institutional Author
Multiple Works in the Same Parentheses
Interviews, E-Mail, and Letters
New Editions of Old Works
A Website
Preparing the References List
Order of Sources
Order of Information
Sample References: Articles
Sample References: Books
Sample References: Other
A Sample Paper in APA Style
Using What You Have Learned

IV. RE-INQUIRING

13. Re-Genre: Repurposing Your Writing for Multimedia Genres
What Writers Can Learn from Re-Genre: Knowledge Transfer
Transfer from Blog Essay to Podcast: A Case Study
Beyond Words: Communicating in Other Modes

The Problem of Definition
Re-Genre is Deep Re-Vision
Genre as a Way of Knowing and Seeing
Genre and Its Conventions
Re-Genre: The Assignment
Planning the Re-Genre
Applying Rhetorical Goals
Exercise 13.1 Re-Genre Pitch
Eight Multimodal Genres
Slide Presentations
Infographic
Brochure
Conference Poster
Photographic Essay
Radio Essays or Podcasts
Web Page
Video PSA
Drafting Tools: Storyboards, Mock-ups, and Scripts
Scripts
Storyboards
Mock-ups
Exercise 13.2 Genre Analysis: Conventions and Best Practices
The Ethics of Borrowing
Creative Commons Licenses
Public Domain
Reflecting on Re-Genre
Using What You Have Learned

14. Revision Strategies
Why Revise?
Divorcing the Draft
Strategies for Divorcing the Draft
Five Categories of Revision
Problems with Purpose
Inquiring into the Details Explore or Argue?

Revision Strategy 14.1: Dialogue with Dave
Revision Strategy 14.2: What Do You Want to Know About What You Learned?
One Student’s Response Julia’s Draft
Revision Strategy 14.3: Finding the Focusing Question
Revision Strategy 14.4: What’s the Relationship?
Problems with Meaning
Where Does Meaning Come From?
Methods for Discovering Your Thesis
Revision Strategy 14.5: Harvest Meanings in the Draft
Revision Strategy 14.6: Looping Toward a Thesis
Revision Strategy 14.7: Reclaiming Your Topic
Revision Strategy 14.8: The Believing Game
Methods for Refining Your Thesis
Revision Strategy 14.9: Questions as Knives
Revision Strategy 14.10: Qualifying Your Claim
Problems with Information
Revision Strategy 14.11: Explode a Moment
Revision Strategy 14.12: Beyond Examples
Revision Strategy 14.13: Research the Conversation
Revision Strategy 14.14: Backing Up Your Assumptions
Problems with Structure
Formal Academic Structures
Revision Strategy 14.15: Beginnings, Middles, Ends, and the Work They Do
Revision Strategy 14.16: Reorganizing Around Thesis and Support
Revision Strategy 14.17: Multiple Leads
Inquiring into the Details Types of Leads
Revision Strategy 14.18: The Frankenstein Draft
Revision Strategy 14.19: Reverse Outline
Problems with Clarity and Style
Solving Problems of Clarity
Revision Strategy 14.20: The Three Most Important Sentences
The Very First Sentence
The Last Line of the First Paragraph
The Last Line of the Essay
Revision Strategy 14.21: Untangling Paragraphs
Revision Strategy 14.22: Cutting Clutter
Inquiring into the Details Transition Flags
Revision Strategy 14.23: The Actor and the Action Next Door
Improving Style
Revision Strategy 14.24: Actors and Actions
Revision Strategy 14.25: Smoothing the Choppiness
Revision Strategy 14.26: Fresh Ways to Say Things
Using What You Have Learned

Appendix A: The Writer’s Workshop
Making the Most of Peer Review

Being Read
Divorcing the Draft
Instructive Talk
Models for Writing Workshops
Group Workshops
One-on-One Peer Review
The Writer’s and Reader’s Responsibilities
Useful Responses
Response Formats
The No-Response Workshop
The Initial-Response Workshop
The Narrative-of-Thought Workshop
The Instructive-Lines Workshop
The Purpose Workshop
The Graphing-Reader-Interest Workshop
The Sum-of-the-Parts Workshop
The Thesis Workshop
The Editing Workshop
Reflecting on the Workshop

Appendix B: The Writing Portfolio
What Is a Portfolio?
Types of Portfolios

Unevaluated Portfolios
Evaluated Portfolios
Why Require a Portfolio?
Organizing Portfolios
Writing a Reflective Letter or Essay
Final Preparations

Appendix C: The Annotated Bibliography
What Is an Annotated Bibliography?
Writing an Annotated Bibliography
Sample Student Annotated Bibliography

HANDBOOK
1. Sentence Boundaries

1A Fragments
1B Comma Splices
1C Fused Sentences

2. Sentence Inconsistencies
2A Parallelism
2B Coordination and Subordination
2C Mixed Sentences
2D Shifts

3. Problems with Modification
3A Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers
3B Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Modifiers
3C Adjectives and Adverbs

4 .Verbs
4A Tense
4B Voice
4C Mood
4D Subject–Verb Agreement

5. Pronouns
5A Pronoun Case
5B Pronoun Reference
5C Pronoun Agreement
5D Relative Pronouns

6. Style
6A Conciseness
6B Appropriate Language

7. Punctuation
7A End Punctuation
7B Semicolon
7C Comma
7D Colon
7E Dash
7F Quotation Marks
7G Other Marks

8. Mechanics and Spelling
8A Capitalization
8B Abbreviation
8C Apostrophe
8D Hyphens
8E Italics (Underlining)
8F Numbers
8G Spelling

9. Review of Basic Grammar
9A Parts of Speech
9B Subjects and Predicates
9C Objects and Complements
9D Phrases
9E Clauses
9F Basic Sentence Patterns
9G Types of Sentences

10. Tips for ESL Writers
10A Articles
10B Verbs
10C Adjectives and Adverbs
10D Prepositions
10E Participles

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