Critical Thinking and Writing
1 Critical Thinking
Thinking about Drivers’ Licenses and Photographic Identification
Analyzing and Evaluating Multiple Perspectives
Critical Thinking at Work: From Jottings to a Short Essay
*A Student’s Essay, Developed from a Cluster
*Idea Prompt: Mapping Pros and Cons
*Play Ball: Why Home-Schoolers Should Be Allowed to Play on Public School Teams
*The Essay Analyzed
Writing as a Way of Thinking
Idea Prompt: Understanding Classical Topics
A Checklist for Critical Thinking
A Short Essay Illustrating Critical Thinking
Harlan Coben, The Undercover Parent
Letter of Response by Carol Weston
A Checklist for Evaluating Letters of Response
A Checklist for Examining Assumptions
*Jena McGregor, Military Women in Combat: Why Making It Official Matters
Five Exercises in Critical Thinking
*e-Pages Oxfam, The Truth about Women and Chocolate [advertisement]
*e-Pages The White House, 1 Is 2 Many [public service announcement]
2 Critical Reading: Getting Started
*Summarizing and Paraphrasing Contrasted with Patchwriting
*Paraphrase, Patchwriting, and Plagiarism
*A Checklist for a Paraphrase
Last Words (Almost) about Summarizing
Susan Jacoby, A First Amendment Junkie
Summarizing Jacoby, Paragraph by Paragraph
A Checklist for Getting Started
*Zachary M. Shemtab and J David Lat, "Executions Should Be Televised"
Gwen Wilde (student essay), Why the Pledge of Allegiance Should Be Revised
A Casebook for Critical Reading: Should Some Kinds of Speech be Censored?
Susan Brownmiller, Let’s Put Pornography Back in the Closet
Charles R. Lawrence III, On Racist Speech
Derek Bok, Protecting Freedom of Expression on the Campus
Thinking Further about Freedom of Expression and Facebook
3 Critical Reading: Getting Deeper into Arguments
Persuasion, Argument, Dispute
*Idea Prompt: Establishing Trustworthiness and Credibility
Reason versus Rationalization
Some Procedures in Argument
Idea Prompt: Ways to Give Definitions
A Checklist for Evaluation Statistical Evidence
Does All Writing Contain Arguments?
A Checklist for Analyzing an Argument
An Example: An Argument and a Look at the Writer’s Strategies
George F. Will, Being Green at Ben and Jerry’s
George F. Will’s Strategies
Arguments for Analysis
Stanley Fish, When "Identity" Politics is Rational
Gloria Jiménez (student essay), Against the Odds, and Against the Common Good
Anna Lisa Raya (student essay), It’s Hard Enough Being Me
Ronald Takaki, The Harmful Myth of Asian Superiority
James Q. Wilson, Just Take Away Their Guns
*Kayla Webley, Is Forgiving Student Loan Debt a Good Idea?
*Alfred Edmond Jr., Why Asking For a Job Applicant’s Facebook Password Is Fair Game
*Sherry Turkle, The Flight From Conversation
*e-Pages Aurora Meneghello and Serge Bakalian, Trailer for Default: The Student Loan Movie [film trailer]
4 Visual Rhetoric: Images as Arguments
Some Uses of Images
Appeals to the Eye (And Thus to the Emotions)
Are Some Images not Fit to be Shown?
Politics and Pictures
Exercises: Thinking about Images
A Checklist for Analyzing Images (Especially Advertisements)
Writing about a Political Cartoon
A Checklist for Analyzing Political Cartoons
Idea Prompt: Analysis of a Political Cartoon
Jackson Smith (student essay), Pledging Nothing?
Visuals as Aids to Clarity: Maps, Graphs, Tables, and Pie Charts
A Checklist for Charts and Graphs
A Note on Using Visuals in Your Own Paper
A Note on Formatting Your Paper: Document Design
Additional Images for Analysis
Nora Ephron, The Boston Photographs
*e-Pages Josh Harkinson/Mother Jones, How Industrial Pot Growers Ravage the Land: A Google Earth Tour [news article and video]
*e-Pages United States Agency for International Development, "How to Feed the Future" and "Mobile Phones Tackling Poverty" [infographics
5 Writing an Analysis of an Argument
Analyzing an Argument
Idea Prompt: Drawing Conclusions and Implying Proof
A Checklist for Analyzing an Author’s Audience
A Checklist for Analyzing a Tex
An Argument, Its Elements, and a Student’s Analysis of the Argument
Nicholas D. Kristof, For Environmental Balance, Pick Up a Rifle
Betsy Swinton (student essay), Tracking Kristof
An Analysis of the Student’s Analysis
A Checklist for Writing an Analysis of an Argument
Arguments for Analysis
Jeff Jacoby, Bring Back Flogging
Gerald Jones, Violent Media Is Good for Kids
*Justin Cronin, Confessions of a Liberal Gun Owner
Peter Singer, Animal Liberation
Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
*e-Pages Barack Obama, President Obama on the Death of Osama bin Laden [speech]
6 Developing an Argument of Your Own
Planning, Drafting, and Revising an Argument
A Checklist for a Thesis Statement
A Checklist for Imagining an Audience
Idea Prompt: Using Transitions in Argument
*A Last Word about Outlines
*A Checklist for Organizing an Argument
*Idea Prompt: Varying Tone
A Checklist for Attending to the Needs of the Audience
A Peer Review Checklist for a Draft of an Argument
A Student’s Essay, from Rough Notes to Final Version
Emily Andrews, Why I Don’t Spare "Spare Change"
The Essay Analyzed
*e-Pages: Casey Neistat, Calorie Detective [investigative video]
7 Using Sources
Why Use Sources?
Choosing a Topic
Finding Quality Information on the Web
A Word about Wikipedia
Finding Articles Using Library Databases
Interviewing Peers and Local Authorities
Evaluating Your Sources
A Checklist for Evaluating Print Sources
A Checklist for Evaluating Electronic Sources
A Note on Plagiarizing, Paraphrasing, and Using Common Knowledge
A Checklist for Avoiding Plagiarism
Compiling an Annotated Bibliography
Writing the Paper
Quoting from Sources
Incorporating Your Reading into Your Thinking: The Art and Science of Synthesis
The Use and Abuse of Quotations
How to Quote
A Checklist for Using Quotations Rather than Summaries
Idea Prompt: Signal Phrases
A Note on Footnotes (and Endnotes)
MLA Format: Citations within the Text
MLA Format: The List of Works Cited
APA Format: Citations within the Text
APA Format: The List of References
A Checklist for Papers Using Sources
An Annotated Student Research Paper in MLA Format
*Lesley Timmerman, An Argument for Corporate Responsibility
An Annotated Student Research Paper in APA Format
Laura Deveau, The Role of Spirituality and Religion in Mental Health
Further Views on Argument
8 A Philosopher’s View: The Toulmin Model
*Idea Prompt: Constructing a Toulmin Argument
Putting the Toulmin Method to Work: Responding to an Argument
*Responding to an Argument
*James E. McWilliams, The Locavore Myth: Why Buying from Nearby Farmers Won’t Save the
Thinking with Toulmin’s Method
A Checklist for Using the Toulmin Method
9 A Logician’s View: Deduction, Induction, Fallacies
Fallacies of Ambiguity
Fallacies of Presumption
Fallacies of Relevance
A Checklist for Evaluating an Argument from a Logical Point of View
Exercise: Fallacies--Or Not?
Max Shulman, Love Is a Fallacy
10 A Psychologist’s View: Rogerian Argument
Rogerian Argument: An Introduction
Carl R. Rogers, Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation
A Checklist for Analyzing Rogerian Argument
Edward O. Wilson, Letter to a Southern Baptist Minister
*11 A Rhetorician’s View: Rhetorical Analysis of Non-Traditional Texts
*How rhetoricians analyze arguments
*Production, Distribution, and Consumption: Performing a Rhetorical Analysis
*A Checklist for Rhetorical Analysis
*Michelle Dean, Here Comes the Hillbilly, Again
12 A Literary Critic’s View: Arguing about Literature
Judging (or Evaluating)
A Checklist for an Argument about Literature
Examples: Two Students Interpret Robert Frost’s "Mending Wall"
Robert Frost, Mending Wall
Jonathan Deutsch, The Deluded Speaker in Frost’s "Mending Wall"
Felicia Alonso, The Debate in Robert Frost’s "Mending Wall"
Exercises: Reading a Poem and a Story
Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress
Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour
Thinking about the Effects of Literature
Plato, "The Greater Part of the Stories Current Today We Shall Have to Reject"
Thinking about Government Funding for the Arts
13 A Debater’s View: Individual Oral Presentations and Debate
A Checklist for an Oral Presentation
Standard Debate Format
A Checklist for Preparing for a Debate
e-Pages A Moralist’s View: Ways of Thinking Ethically
Moral Reasoning: A Closer Look
Criteria for Moral Rules
A Checklist for Moral Reasoning
Peter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality
Garret Hardin, Lifeboat Ethics: The Case against Helping the Poor
Randy Cohen, Three Letters (to an Ethicist)
e-Pages A Lawyer’s View: Steps toward Civic Literacy
Civil and Criminal Cases
Trial and Appeal
Decision and Opinion
Majority, Concurring, and Dissenting Opinions
Facts and Law
A Word of Caution
A Checklist for Analyzing Legal Arguments
A Casebook on the Law and Society: What Rights do the Constitution and the Bill of Rights
Byron R. White and John Paul Stevens, New Jersey v. T.L.O.
Harry Blackmun and William H. Rehnquist, Roe v. Wade
Current Issues: Occasions for Debate
Debates as an Aid to Thinking
A Checklist for Analyzing a Debate
*14 Student Loans: Should Some Indebtedness Be Forgiven?
*Robert Applebaum, Debate on Student Loan Debt Doesn’t Go Far Enough
*Justin Wolfer, Forgive Student Loans? Worst Idea Ever
"If we are going to give money away, why on earth would we give it to college grads?"
*15 Are Integrated Devices Safer than Using Hand-Held Devices While Driving?
*Mitch Bainwol, Pro
*Pictorial Advertisement, OMG
*Rob Reynolds, Con
*16 The Local Food Movement: Does It Make Sense?
*Stephen Budiansky, Math Lessons For Locavores
*Kerry Trueman, The Myth of the Rabid Locavore
17 The Death Penalty: Is It Ever Justified?
Edward I. Koch, Death and Justice: How Capital Punishment Affirms Life
David Bruck, The Death Penalty
18 Genetic Modification of Human Beings: Is It Acceptable?
Ronald M. Green, Building Babies from the Genes Up
Richard Hayes, Genetically Modified Humans? No Thanks
Current Issues: Casebooks
19 College Education: What Is Its Purpose?
*Andrew Delbanco, 3 Reasons College Still Matter
Patrick Allitt, Should Undergraduates Specialize?
Letters of Response by Carol Geary Schneider and Ellis M. West
*Carlo Rotella, No, It Doesn’t Matter What You Majored In
*Alina Tugend, Vocation or Exploration? Pondering the Purpose of College
Mark Edmundson, Education’s Hungry Hearts
Marty Nemko, America’s Most Overrated Product: The Bachelor’s Degree
Charles Murray, Should the Obama Generation Drop Out?
Letters of Response by Charles Axilbund, Jacques Jimenez, Jeff Adler, Lillian Hoodes, Larry
Hoffner Sandra Sherman, and Michel Dedina,
Louis Menand, Re-imagining Liberal Education
*20 Hydraulic Fracturing: Is Fracking Worth the Environmental Cost?
*Don Carns Jr., Shale Drilling Is a Disaster Waiting to Happen"
*Scott Cline,Unfounded Fears about Shale Gas Obscure Facts
*Aubrey K. McClendon, Is Hydraulic Fracturing Good for the Economy? Pro
*Jane M. Barth, Is Hydraulic Fracturing Good for the Economy? Co
21 Drugs: Should Their Sale and Use Be Legalized?
William J. Bennett, Drug Policy and the Intellectuals
James Q. Wilson, Against the Legalization of Drugs
Milton Friedman, There’s No Justice in the War on Drugs
Elliot Currie, Toward a Policy on Drugs
*22 Junk Food: Should the Government Regulate Our Intake?
*Anonymous Editorial, A Ban Too Far
*Letters of Response by Gary Taustine and Brian Elbel
*Pictorial Advertisement, The Nanny
*Daniel E. Lieberman, Evolution’s Sweet Tooth
*Mark Bittman, Bad Food? Tax It, and Subsidize Vegetables
*Letters of Response by David Brown; Tony, Chicago; Sally, Greenwich Village
*23 Facebook: How Has Social Networking Changed How We Relate to Others?
*Lauren Tarshis, Is Facebook Making You Mean?
*Steven Levy, Facebook Reset
*Jenna Wortham, It’s Not About You, Facebook. It’s About Us
*Stephen Marche, Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?
*Josh Rose, How Social Media Is Having a Positive Impact On Our Culture
24 Immigration: What Is To Be Done? David Cole, Five Myths about Immigration
Barry R. Chiswick, The Worker Next Door
John Tierney, Angels in America
Victor David Hanson, Our Brave New World of Immigration
Cardinal Roger Mahony, Called by God to Help
25 Service: A Duty? A Benefit? Or Both, or Perhaps Neither?
Barack Obama, Commencement Address
Peter Levine, The Case for "Service"*Thomas E. Ricks
Dave Eggers, Serve or Fail
Enduring Questions: Essays, A Story, Poems, and a Play
26 What Is the Ideal Society?
Thomas More, From Utopia
Niccolo Machiavelli, From The Prince
Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Martin Luther King Jr., I Have a Dream
W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen
Langston Hughes, Let America Be America Again
Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas
Helen Prejean, Executions are Too Costly, Morally
27 How Free Is the Will of the Individual within Society?
Thoughts about Free Will
George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant
Walter T. Stace, Is Determinism Inconsistent with Free Will?
Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail
Stanley Milgram, The Perils of Obedience
Peter Cave, Man or Sheep?
Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed
T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
Susan Glaspell, Trifles
Mitsuye Yamada, To the Lady
28 What Is Happiness?
Thoughts about Happiness, Ancient and Modern
Daniel Gilbert, Does Fatherhood Make You Happy?
Henry David Thoreau, Selections from Walden
Darrin M. McMahon, In Pursuit of Unhappiness
Epictetus, from The Handbook
Bertrand Russell, The Happy Life
The Dalai Lama and Howard C. Cutler, Inner Contentment
C. S. Lewis, We have No "Right to Happiness"
Danielle Crittenden, About Love
Judy Brady, I Want a Wif
Index of Authors and Titles
Index of Terms
*new to this edition